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  1. Henry the Bearded - Wikipedia

    Two opposing groups emerged: 1) Mieszko IV Tanglefoot (Henry's uncle), and Duke Władysław III Spindleshanks of Greater Poland (Mieszko III's son and successor), and 2) Dukes Leszek the White of Sandomierz, Konrad I of Masovia (sons of late High Duke Casimir II the Just), and Władysław Odonic (Władysław III's nephew).

  2. Summary and Evaluation Europe 1400-1517 by Sanderson Beck

    Casimir IV became grand duke of Lithuania of 1440 and ruled Poland as king 1447-92. He ordered the Bible translated into Polish in 1455, and the University of Greifswald was founded in 1456. Poland fought the Teutonic Knights for thirteen years, and Casimir’s son Vladislaus became king of Bohemia and Hungary.

  3. 1377 - Find link - Edward Betts

    IV or Kaźko Słupski, German: Kasimir IV or Kasimir V ) (1351 – 2 January 1377) was a duke of Pomerania in Pomerania-Stolp since 1374. Casimir was the son Casimir was the son Těškovice (47 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

  4. Alternate History of Europe Timeline/1 | Novelas | Fandom
    • 1431
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    • 1434
    • 1436
    • 1437
    • 1440
    • 1441
    • 1442
    • 1443
    • 1445

    Cardinal Beaufort, shortly after convincing Humphrey, the Lord Protector, to end the War in France, dies. Humphrey begins a withdrawal of forces from France, but at the same time instigates plans to strengthen the English monarchy and to consolidate his own personal power. His plan consists of the following objectives: 1. Reducing the power of the Parliament by rigging the elections for the House of Commons, binding the House of Lords closer to the Crown, and making the position of Speaker of both Houses subject to the control of the Crown. Also, gaining complete control of the power of the purse was a primary goal. 1. Reducing the powers of the bishops and the nobles, by confiscating numerous private properties, placing restrictions on the noble's powers and influence, placing the Church within England under direct royal supervision and control, and subjecting Church doctrine to Royal influence; and 1. Accumulating a lot of personal wealth for himself, in order to make himself rich...

    In Denmark, a Danish botanist modifies the three-crop system, introducing a fourth crop into the rotation. He also introduces clover, which increases soil fertility. As a result, production of every acre of land in Denmark increases, and prosperity reigns throughout the Union of Kolmar. As a result, King Eric of Pomerania retains power and becomes more powerful then ever. With the English reducing their efforts in France, the French, although saddened by the burning of Joan of Arc, launch a massive campaign to regain their lost territories. Humphrey allows them to advance. By the end of the year, the French have annexed Burgundy and regained control of many of their northern territories. France also begins plans of subsuming Provence, Avignon, and Brittany. In England, Humphrey, the Lord Protector, launches the second part of his plan. He has Parliament pass a law which grants the Crown greater authority over the House of Commons. Humphrey also places the revenues and monasteries of...

    Humphrey, the Lord Protector, continues to build up and increase his power. He has Parliament pass a law which allows the Crown to confiscate private property, especially that of the nobles, at the will for the benefit of the kingdom. Humphrey also establishes a Commission of Bishops, which becomes responsible for administering the English church day to day and maintaining control over Church doctrine. He also establishes a new military conscription system, which applies equally to merchants and nobles. At the same time, Humphrey opens up negotiations with the Kingdom of France, in order to bring the Hundred Years' War to a end. He proposes a treaty which is lenient to both sides: England would secede to France Brittany and most of it's other remaining French territories, except Calais; the English Crown would drop it's claims to the French Crown; and both countries would have a economic alliance. The French accept, signing the Treaty. The Hundred Years' War is finally over. The Hol...

    Humphrey, the Lord Protector, begins making further preparations. He arranged for King Henry VI to appoint him the lord treasurer and chief privy councilor, after his regency would end the next year, in 1437. He also gathered a base of supporters, assembled his own private army, and amassed more influence at the court. The final reform Humphrey pushed through before the end of his regency was the reorganization of the levies system, which increased England's revenues five fold. The Khanate of the Golden Horde, in eastern Europe, begins to suffer more internal troubles. The Tatar khan fell into severe political disputes with many of his leading generals and advisers. Muscovy, still a dependency of the Tatars at this point, is becoming increasingly restless and rebellious, although remaining subordinate. To the west, Poland-Lithuania launch constant pillaging operations and raids, as does the Genoan territories in the south. This will pave the way for the disintegration of the Khanate...

    In England, King Henry VI turns 18 and officially assumes power. Humphrey becomes his Chancellor and Head of the Privy Council. In Scotland, King James I dies, and his eldest daughter, Margaret, (married to Henry) ascends to the Scottish throne. Henry thus becomes King Consort of Scotland. As such, Henry and Margaret become known as the "British Monarchs", since they each had their domain which they ruled over, and that will pave the way for the upcoming unification of Britain. The King of Portugal, Edward I establishes the Royal Academy of Navigation, influenced by the renowned Prince Henry the Navigator. This academy will become one of the greatest schools of navigation and science in all of Europe. Edward I also begins planning for a expedition to Africa, for purposes of "trade with the natives in goods and servants (slaves)".

    Chancellor Humphrey persuades King Henry VI and Queen Margaret I to issue a joint royal proclamation, concerning both Scotland and England. This proclamation laid another foundation in the process of the unification of the British Isles, and laid out the following two basic objectives: 1. The Kingdoms of England and Scotland were to conduct free trade with each-other, under such regulations as would be provided by the Monarchs or the Parliaments of the two Nations; the ports of both nations would be open to each-other, and subjects of one would be able to freely cross the boundary into the other nation 2. Scotland would terminate it's Auld Alliance with France, instead establishing a similar diplomatic alliance with England. In this alliance, both nations would pledge to support each-other in all wars, and if one was invaded, the other would have to send troops in support of the nation attacked. Scotland and England also agreed to not sign any peace treaties or agreements deterring...

    The Ottoman Sultan Murad II dies when he falls off his horse while out on a royal hunt. In his will, he named his Grand Vizier, Hazi, his successor, instead of his son Mehmed. Hazi changes his name to Hatui, becoming Hatui I of the Ottoman Empire. He will become one of the greatest monarchs of the Ottoman Empire in it's history. Hatui I has himself coronated, the first Ottoman Sultan to being crowned in such a manner. He then begins preparing for war with Hungary in the north-west. Scotland annexes the Lordship of the Isles, thus extending it's territory to the north-west. It receives support in this endeavor from it's southern ally and neighbor, England. Meanwhile, Humphrey has King Henry VI annex Orkney and Shetland, after having been on a diplomatic-military protectorship arrangement with those two states for a number of years. The unification of the British isles is rapidly approaching, and will change Europe in many ways. Haci I Giray, the governor of the Crimean province, sece...

    King Eric of Denmark dies, and is succeeded by his daughter, Mary. She will become renowned for her domestic reforms and promotion of the Danish economy. Queen Mary I marries Ludwig Ferdinand, a prince of the Holy Roman Empire. They will eventually have five children: Eric (born 1443), Charles (born 1445), Robert (born 1447), Ludwig (born 1449), and Joanna (born 1451). All of these children will be married into other European royal houses, including those of Britain, Muscovy, Castile, and France. Sultan Hatui I instigates another war in the Balkans. The sultan has three primary targets: Venice, Hungary, and the Byzantine Empire. He begins his military campaigns in the region by assaulting the Byzantine Empire, which by then had shrunk to only Constantinople and a couple minor territories scattered across Anatolia and Greece. Hatui I leads these campaigns personally, and becomes known for his military prowess, his leadership, and his determination. By the end of the year, the Byzanti...

    Sultan Hatui I, inspired by the Golden Bull in the Holy Roman Empire, issues the General Code of Laws in the Ottoman Empire (Genel Ahlak Kanunu Osmanlı imparatorluğu'nda). The Code is almost as detailed as the Golden Bull. It describes the absolute powers and unique position of the Sultan, outlines the frame of the Ottoman Royal Court and government, organizes the Ottoman military, and establishes other matters as well, including religious and finanical matters. It also contains a list of all laws and decrees in the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1442. The Code comes out to 78,000 words, and will serve as the constitution of the Ottoman Empire. The British Monarchs, Henry VI and Margaret I, have their first child, Mary. Mary is baptized at Westminster Abbey and made Duchess of York upon her birth. They will have four other children, all of them female: Catherine (born 1444), Elizabeth (born 1446), Margaret (born 1448), and Joanna (born 1451). All of their children will be married into...

    King Henry VI and Queen Margaret I of England and Scotland finally accede to Humphrey's proposal of a unified Britain. Representatives from both nations, appointed by the two Monarchs, begin negotiations at Westminster Palace. After months of wrangling, argument, and discussion, the Delegates signed the Treaty of Union 1445on March 19, 1445. They then submitted it to the Parliaments of England and Scotland. The English Parliament ratified the Treaty on April 3. It passed largely due to the King's considerable influence in the House of Lords. On April 18, the Scottish Parliament ratified the Treaty. On April 30, King Henry VI and Queen Margaret I jointly granted ascent to the Treaty, which came into effect on June 5. The following terms were laid out: 1. Starting on 5 June, and "forever after", as stated in the Acts, the two Kingdoms of England and Scotland, including the territories in Ireland, would be unified into one kingdom, to be stiled the United Kingdom of Great Britain and I...

  5. Nicolaus Copernicus - Wikipedia

    Life. Nicolaus Copernicus was born on 19 February 1473 in the city of Toruń (Thorn), in the province of Royal Prussia, in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.. His father was a merchant from Kraków and his mother was the daughter of a wealthy Toruń merchant.

  6. 1457 - Find link - Edward Betts

    Eric II, Duke of Pomerania (795 words) exact match in snippet view article find links to article the House of Griffins) and was the ruling Duke of Pomerania-Wolgast from 1457 to 1474. He was the son of Wartislaw IX of Pomerania-Wolgast and Sophia,

  7. Eastern Orthodox Church - Unionpedia, the concept map

    The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members. 9212 relations.

  8. The Portrait Timeline. It's history's yearbook!

    Richard II murdered (or starved) in captivity at Pontefract Castle (2/17) ----- Owen Glendower proclaims himself Prince of Wales and begins rebellion Holy Roman Emperor Wenceslaus IV is deposed for drunkenness Aztec empire (-1519) Codex Faenza (aka Bonadies) compiled (1400-1420)

  9. Full text of "A. History Of Poland.." -

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  10. Full text of "Travels Through Part of the Russian Empire and ...

    Full text of "Travels Through Part of the Russian Empire and the Country of Poland; Along the Southern Shores ...See other formats