The Catalan independence movement (Catalan: independentisme català; Spanish: independentismo catalán) is a social and political movement with roots in Catalan nationalism, which seeks the independence of Catalonia from Spain, along with some in the movement supporting the independence of North Catalonia from France and that of other Catalan-speaking areas, referred to as the Catalan Countries.
The Catalan independence or separatism is a political movement that supports the independence of Catalonia or the Catalan countries from Spain and France. The Catalan independence movement began in the 19th century. The separatists believe that Catalonia is a nation. Catalonia has its own language ( Catalan language) and culture ( Catalan culture ).
Catalan Countries. Catalan Declaration of Sovereignty. Catalan European Democratic Party. 2009–2011 Catalan independence referendums. Catalan National Committee. Catalan Nationalist Party. Catalan Solidarity for Independence. Catalan Way. Catalan Way 2014.
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Catalan Solidarity for Independence ( Catalan: Solidaritat Catalana per la Independència, SI; IPA: [suliðəɾiˈtat kətəˈlanə pəɾ lə jndəpənˈdɛnsi.ə]) is an electoral coalition in Catalonia, founded in the summer of 2010 as an outcome of the grassroots social movement that initiated and organized the Catalan independence referendums of 2009 and 2010. It was organized as a common political platform for Catalan independentism, dissatisfied with what they considered a pragmatist ...
- The Origins of Catalan National Identity
- The Development of Modern Catalanism
- Forms of Contemporary Catalan Nationalism
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During the first centuries of the Reconquista, the Franks drove the Muslims south of the Pyrenees. To prevent future incursions, Charlemagne created the Marca Hispanica in 790 CE, which consisted of a series of petty kingdoms serving as buffer states between the Frankish kingdom and Al-Andalus. Between 878 and 988 CE, the area became a hotbed of Frankish-Muslim conflict. However, as the Frankish monarchy and the Caliphate of Córdoba both weakened during the 11th century, the resulting impasse allowed for a process of consolidation throughout the region's many earldoms, resulting in their combination into the County of Barcelona, which became the embryo of today's Catalonia. By 1070, Ramon Berenguer I, Count of Barcelona, had subordinated other Catalan Counts and intransigent nobles as vassals. His action brought peace to a turbulent feudal system and sowed the seeds of Catalan identity. According to several scholars, the term "Catalan" and "Catalonia" emerged near the end of the 11t...
The Renaixença ("rebirth" or "renaissance") was a cultural, historical and literary movement that pursued, in the wake of European Romanticism, the recovery of the Catalans' own language and literature after a century of repression and radical political and economical changes. As time went by, and particularly immediately after the fiasco of the Revolution of 1868 (led by the Catalan general Juan Prim) and the subsequent fail of the First Spanish Republic(1873–1874), which many Catalans expected an instauration of a federal republic, the movement acquired a clear political character, directed to the attainment of self-government for Catalonia within the framework of the Spanish liberal state. Like most Romantic currents, the Renaixença gave historical analysis a central role. History, in fact, was an integral part of Catalonia's "rebirth." Texts on Catalonia's history — inspired by the Romantic philosophy of history — laid the foundations of a Catalanist movement. Works like Valentí...
Being a broad movement, Catalan nationalism can be found in several manifestations in the current political scene. Most of the main Catalan political parties— as of 2019, Catalan European Democratic Party (PDECAT), Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC), Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC), En Comú Podem (ECP) and Popular Unity Candidature(CUP)—adhere to Catalanism to varying degrees, though neither the PSC nor En Comú Podem are usually regarded as Catalan nationalist. The scope of their national objectives diverges. While some restrict them to Catalonia-proper alone, others seek the acknowledgment of the political personality of the so-called Catalan Countries, the Catalan-speaking territories as a whole. Such claims, which can be seen as a form of Pan-nationalism, can be read in official documents of CiU, ERC and Popular Unity Candidates (CUP). Besides Catalonia, the main Catalan-speaking regions have their own nationalist parties and coalitions which support, to varying degrees, the...Alland, Alexander. Catalunya, One Nation, Two States: An Ethnographic Study of Nonviolent Resistance to Assimilation. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.Balcells, Albert. Catalan Nationalism: Past and Present. New York: St. Martin's Press, Inc., 1996.Conversi, Daniele. The Basques, the Catalans, and Spain: Alternative Routes to Nationalist Mobilisation. London: Hurst & Company, 1997. ISBN 1-85065-268-6.Conversi, Daniele. "Language or race?: the choice of core values in the development of Catalan and Basque nationalisms." Ethnic and Racial Studies 13 (1990): 50–70.
Since the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence. On 27 October 2017, the Catalan Parliament unilaterally declared independence following a disputed referendum. The Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the Catalan government and calling a snap regional election.