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- Prior to Israel's Formation
- Organizational History
- Soviet Union
- See Also
- Further Reading
- External Links
The "Mossad Le'aliyah Bet" was a small, unorthodox Zionistorganization whose mission in 1938 was to bring Jews to Israel. This was done to subvert the British quotas on Jewish immigration. The Mossad's modes of operation, its ideology, and politics resulted in the creation of the intelligence agency for the Israeli government once it was established in 1948. The agency consisted of several of the existing members who had worked to establish Israel as a Jewish nation and to bring the Jewish people to it.
 Executive offices
From its headquarters in the Israeli city of Tel Aviv, the Mossad oversees a staff estimated at 1,200 personnel, although it may have numbered up to 2,000 in the late 1980s. The Mossad does not use military ranks, although most of its staff have served in the Israel Defense Forces as part of Israel's compulsory draft system, and many of them are officers. It is assumed to consist of eight different departments. The largest is Collections, tasked with many aspects of conducting espionage ov...
 Directors of Mossad
1. Reuven Shiloah, 1949-1952 2. Isser Harel, 1952-1963 3. Meir Amit, 1963-1968 4. Zvi Zamir, 1968-1974 5. Yitzhak Hofi, 1974-1982 6. Nahum Admoni, 1982-1989 7. Shabtai Shavit, 1989-1996 8. Danny Yatom, 1996-1998 9. Efraim Halevy, 1998-2002 10. Meir Dagan, 2002-present
The Mossad was formed on December 13, 1949 as the "Central Institute for Coordination", at the recommendation of Reuven Shiloah to Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion. Shiloah wanted a central body to coordinate and improve cooperation between the existing security services – the army's intelligence department (AMAN), the General Security Service (GSS or "Shin Bet") and the foreign office's "political department". In March 1951, it was reorganized and made a part of the prime minister's office, reporting directly to the prime minister. Its current staff is estimated at 1,200. Mossad's former motto: be-tachbūlōt ta`aseh lekhā milchāmāh (Hebrew: בתחבולות תעשה לך מלחמה is a quote from the Bible (Proverbs 24:6): "For by wise guidance you can wage your war, and in abundance of counselors there is victory" (NRSV). (Hebrew "tachbulot" - wise guidance - is more commonly translated as "cunning"/"trick" or even "deception") The motto was changed recently as part of the Mossad's public 'coming ou...
In February 1956, a friendly member of the Politburo provided the Mossad with a copy of Nikita Khrushchev's speech denouncing Joseph Stalin. The Mossad passed it on to the United States, which published the speech, embarrassing the USSR. This was a major intelligence coup that raised the prestige of the organization.
Mossad has often come under criticism for perceived excessive actions against Israel's many enemies. It has been criticized for carrying out assassinations, abductions and torture.Israeli Intelligence CommunityShin Bet, Israel's internal security serviceSayeret MatkalForeign relations of the VaticanYuval Aviv - Vengeance: The True Story of an Israeli Counter-Terrorist TeamAri Ben-MenasheBlack, Ian and Morris, Benny. Israel's Secret Wars: A History of Israel's Intelligence Services. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1991. 603 pages.Victor Ostrovsky - By Way of Deception and The Other Side of Deception
Shimron, Gad 2007, "Mossad Exodus; The Daring Undercover Rescue of the Lost Jewish Tribe", Gefen Publishing House. ISBN 978-9652294036
The precise nature and definition of informal logic are matters of some dispute.  Ralph H. Johnson and J. Anthony Blair define informal logic as "a branch of logic whose task is to develop non-formal standards, criteria, procedures for the analysis, interpretation, evaluation, criticism and construction of argumentation."
On Wikipedia, vandalism is the act of editing the project in a malicious manner that is intentionally disruptive.Vandalism includes the addition, removal, or modification of the text or other material that is either humorous, nonsensical, a hoax, or that is an offensive, humiliating, or otherwise degrading nature.