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  1. Mar 04, 2018 · A joint effort that can be undertaken between this project and WikiProject Philosophy is to improve the quality of articles concerned with the philosophical questions about law itself. Key components of the philosophy of law include: Jurisprudence. Natural law. Legal realism. Legal formalism. Legal positivism.

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  2. As such, intuitionism is a variety of mathematical constructivism; but it is not the only kind. As well, to say A or B , to an intuitionist, is to claim that either A or B can be proved . In particular, the law of excluded middle , A or not A , is disallowed since one can construct, via Gödel's incompleteness theorems , a mathematical ...

    • Deduction, Induction, and Abduction
    • Logic-Based Abduction
    • Set-Cover Abduction
    • History of The Concept
    • Applications
    • Abductive Validation
    • References
    • Notes
    • External Links


    1. allows deriving b as a consequence of a. In other words, deduction is the process of deriving the consequences of what is assumed. Given the truth of the assumptions, a valid deduction guarantees the truth of the conclusion. It is true by definition and is independent of sense experience. For example, if it is true (given) that the sum of the angles is 180° in alltriangles, and if a certain triangle has angles of 90° and 30°, then it can be deduced that the third angle is 60°.


    1. allows inferring a from multiple instantiations of b when a entails b. Induction is the process of inferring probable antecedents as a result of observing multiple consequents. An inductive statement requires empirical evidence for it to be true. For example, the statement 'it is snowing outside' is invalid until one looks or goes outside to see whether it is true or not. Induction requires sense experience.


    1. allows inferring a as an explanation of b. Because of this, abduction allows the precondition a to be inferred from the consequence b. Deduction and abduction thus differ in the direction in which a rule like “a entails b” is used for inference. As such abduction is formally equivalent to the logical fallacy affirming the consequent or Post hoc ergo propter hoc, because there are multiple possible explanations for b.

    In logic, explanation is done from a logical theory T representing a domain and a set of observations O. Abduction is the process of deriving a set of explanations of O according to T and picking out one of those explanations. For E to be an explanation of O according to T, it should satisfy two conditions: 1. O follows from E and T; 1. E is consis...

    A different formalization of abduction is based on inverting the function that calculates the visible effects of the hypotheses. Formally, we are given a set of hypotheses H and a set of manifestations M; they are related by the domain knowledge, represented by a function e that takes as an argument a set of hypotheses and gives as a result the cor...

    Historically, Aristotle's use of the term epagoge has referred to a syllogismin which the major premise is known to be true, but the minor premise is only probable (Edwards, 1967). The philosopher Charles Peirceintroduced abduction into modern logic. In his works before 1900, he mostly used the term to mean the use of a known rule to explain an obs...

    Applications in artificial intelligence include fault diagnosis, belief revision, and automated planning. The most direct application of abduction is that of automatically detecting faults in systems: given a theory relating faults with their effects and a set of observed effects, abduction can be used to derive sets of faults that are likely to be...

    Abductive validation is the process of validating a given hypothesis through abductive reasoning. This can also be called reasoning through successive approximation. Under this principle, an explanation is valid if it is the best possible explanation of a set of known data. The best possible explanation is often defined in terms of simplicity and e...

    Awbrey, Jon, and Awbrey, Susan (1995), "Interpretation as Action: The Risk of Inquiry", Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines, 15, 40-52. Eprint

    Josephson, John, "Abductive Inference in Reasoning and Perception", Webpage
    Ryder, Martin, Instructional Technology Connections: Abduction, Webpage
    Magnani, Lorenzo, Abduction, Reason, and Science. Processes of Discovery and Explanation, Webpage
    [it] Magnani, Lorenzo
  3. › wiki › FalsidicalParadox - Wikipedia

    A paradox is a logically self-contradictory statement or a statement that runs contrary to one's expectation. [1] [2] It is a statement that, despite apparently valid reasoning from true premises, leads to a seemingly self-contradictory or a logically unacceptable conclusion.

  4. Shakespeare's influence extends from theatre and literatures to present-day movies, Western philosophy, and the English language itself. William Shakespeare is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the history of the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He transformed European theatre by expanding expectations about what could be accomplished through innovation in ...

  5. › wiki › Jeremy_Jacobs,_SrJeremy Jacobs - Wikipedia

    Jeremy Maurice Jacobs Sr. (born January 21, 1940) is an American billionaire businessman, the owner of the Boston Bruins and chairman of Delaware North. Forbes magazine ranks him as 481st richest person in the world.

  6. › m › ForestryWikizero - Forestry

    WikiZero Özgür Ansiklopedi - Wikipedia Okumanın En Kolay Yolu . Systematic management of forests for a sustainable yield of timber began in Portugal in the 13th century when King AfonsoIII planted the Pinhal do Rei (King's Pine Forest) near Leiria to prevent coastal erosion and soil degradation, and as a sustainable source for timber used in naval construction.

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