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  1. In the novel’s first pages, Catherine the Great’s forces stand poised to invade, unable to tolerate the existence so close to their borders of Poland’s liberal parliamentarian and constitutional monarchy, which inherently poses a challenge to their absolutist monarchies: A formidable, and apparently friendly, state envied the effects of a ...

  2. Russia self-condemned, secret and inedited documents ...

    books.google.com/books/about/Russia_self...

    The Empress Catherine, the least tyrannic sovereign who ever ruled in Russia, wrote fiftyone years ago to Repnin, her ambassador at Warsaw: — " This is why I must impress on you to cause the armies now at your disposal in Poland, to act, setting aside all illusions of humanity, (abstraction faite de toutes les illusions de...

  3. (PDF) Rethinking ‘the oldest surviving amber in the west ...

    www.academia.edu/6225069/Rethinking_the_oldest...

    Rethinking ‘the oldest surviving amber in the West’ by RACHEL KING SINCE THE RE UNIFICATIO N of Germany, the study of art in amber has flourished.1 To date, however, little new has been said about objects produced before 1525, the year in which Prussia – then essentially the only region in which amber was found – became a Duchy following the conversion to Protestantism of Albrecht of ...

  4. Medieval Frontiers: Concepts and Practices - 1st Edition ...

    www.routledge.com/.../p/book/9780754605225

    In recent years, the 'medieval frontier' has been the subject of extensive research. But the term has been understood in many different ways: political boundaries; fuzzy lines across which trade, religions and ideas cross; attitudes to other peoples and their customs. This book draws attention to the differences between the medieval and modern understanding of frontiers, questioning the ...

  5. Decoding Old Masters - Soudavar

    www.soudavar.com/Decoding Masters - 9 text.pdf

    frequently mentioned in this book, was both a manuscript illustrator and a panel ... 1 = Catherine of France (1428-46) ... = Cymburgis of Masovia (1397-1429)

  6. You can write a book review and share your experiences. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them.

  7. (PDF) The Great Royal Trio, Charles IV, Louis I of Anjou and ...

    www.academia.edu/37840069/The_Great_Royal_Trio...

    264 The Great Royal Trio: Charles IV, Louis I of Anjou and Casimir the Great reunification of his members, chopped to pieces by his murderers, became the meta- phor for the reunion of Polish principalities).55 The most remarkable cooperation between the three dynasties in the field of reli- gious self-representation was the following one.

  8. Talk:Catherine of Masovia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Catherine_of_Masovia

    This article is within the scope of WikiProject Poland, a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of Poland on Wikipedia. If you would like to participate, please visit the project page, where you can join the discussion and see a list of open tasks.

    • Etymology
    • History
    • Geography
    • Politics
    • Notes
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    • International Rankings
    • Culture
    • Demographics
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    The source of the name Poland and the ethnonyms for the Poles include endonyms (the way Polish people refer to themselves and their country) and exonyms (the way other peoples refer to the Poles and their country). Endonyms and most exonyms for Poles and Poland derive from the name of the West Slavic tribe of the Polans (Polanie). The origin of the name Polanie itself is uncertain. It may derive from such Polish words as pole (field). The early tribal inhabitants denominated it from the nature of the country. Lowlands and low hills predominate throughout the vast region from the Baltic shores to the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains. Inter Alpes Huniae et Oceanum est Polonia, sic dicta in eorum idiomate quasi Campania is the description by Gervase of Tilbury in his Otia imperialia (Recreation for the emperor, 1211). In some languages the exonyms for Poland derive from another tribal name, Lechites (Lechici).

    Historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland. The ethnicity and linguistic affiliation of these groups have been hotly debated; the time and route of the original settlement of Slavic peoplesin these regions lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement (now reconstructed as an open air museum), dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC. The Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. After the Baptism of Poland the new religion accepted by the Polish ruler was Catholicism...

    Poland's territory extends across several geographical regions, between latitudes 49° and 55° N, and longitudes 14° and 25° E. In the north-west is the Baltic seacoast, which extends from the Bay of Pomerania to the Gulf of Gdańsk. This coast is marked by several spits, coastal lakes (former bays that have been cut off from the sea), and dunes. The largely straight coastline is indented by the Szczecin Lagoon, the Bay of Puck, and the Vistula Lagoon. The centre and parts of the north lie within the North European Plain. Rising above these lowlands is a geographical region comprising the four hilly districts of moraines and moraine-dammed lakes formed during and after the Pleistocene ice age. These lake districts are the Pomeranian Lake District, the Greater Polish Lake District, the Kashubian Lake District, and the Masurian Lake District. The Masurian Lake District is the largest of the four and covers much of north-eastern Poland. The lake districts form part of the Baltic Ridge, a...

    Poland is a democracy, with a president as a head of state, whose current constitution dates from 1997. Poland is a peaceful country. The government structure centers on the Council of Ministers, led by a prime minister. The president appoints the cabinet according to the proposals of the prime minister, typically from the majority coalition in the Sejm. The president is elected by popular vote every five years. The president is Bronisław Komorowski. Komorowski replaced President Lech Kaczyński following the latter's death in an 10 April 2010 air crash. Since 2007 Polish government has been formed by the Civic Platform party. The current prime minister, Ewa Kopacz, was appointed in 2014. Polish voters elect a bicameral parliament consisting of a 460-member lower house (Sejm) and a 100-member Senate (Senat). The Sejm is elected under proportional representation according to the d'Hondt method, a method similar to that used in many parliamentary political systems. The Senat, on the ot...

    The following are links to international rankings of Poland from selected research institutes and foundations including economic output and various composite indices.

    Poles made significant achievements in mountaineering, in particular, in the Himalayas and the winter ascending of the eight-thousanders. The most famous Polish climbers are Jerzy Kukuczka, Krzysztof Wielicki, Piotr Pustelnik, Andrzej Zawada, Maciej Berbeka, Artur Hajzer, Andrzej Czok, Wojciech Kurtyka, and women Wanda Rutkiewicz, and Kinga Baranowska. Polish mountains are one of the tourist attractions of the country. Hiking, climbing, skiing and mountain biking and attract numerous tourists every year from all over the world.Popular summer recreation activities centre around water sports with ample locations for fishing, canoeing, kayaking, sailing and windsurfing especially in the northern regions of the country. Poland has made a distinctive mark in motorcycle speedway racing thanks to Tomasz Gollob, a highly successful Polish rider. The top Ekstraliga division has one of the highest average attendances for any sport in Poland. The national speedway team of Poland, one of the ma...

    There are a number of higher educational institutions dedicated to the teaching of the arts. Amongst these are the seven higher state academies of music. There are a number of private educational institutions and four national military academies (two for the army and one each for the other branches of service). There are 18 fully accredited traditional universities in Poland. There are twenty technical universities, nine independent medical universities, five universities for the study of economics, nine agricultural academies, three pedagogical universities, a theological academy and three maritime service universities. There are 500 university-level institutions for the pursuit of higher education in Poland, one of the largest number in Europe. The Jagiellonian University in Kraków, the first Polish university, was founded in 1364 by King Casimir III, as the 19th oldest university in the world, established in 1364.

    The public postal service in Poland is operated by Poczta Polska (the Polish Post). It was created on 18 October 1558, when King Zygmunt August established a permanent postal route from Kraków to Venice. The service was dissolved during the foreign partitions. After regaining independence in 1918, Poland saw the rapid development of the postal system as new services were introduced including money transfers, payment of pensions, delivery of magazines, and air mail. During wars and national uprisings communication was provided mainly through the military authorities. Many important events in the history of Poland involved the postal service, like the heroic defence of the Polish Post Office in Gdańsk in 1939, and the participation of the Polish Scouts' Postal Service in the Warsaw Uprising. Nowadays the service is a modern state-owned company that provides a number of standard and express delivery as well as home-delivery services. Digital technologies are made available through the...

    Since joining the European Union all of Poland's emergency services have been undergoing major restructuring and have, in the process, acquired large amounts of new equipment and staff.All emergency services personnel are now uniformed and can be easily recognised thanks to a number of innovative design features, such as reflective paint and printing, present throughout their service dress and vehicle liveries. In addition to this, in an effort to comply with EU standards and safety regulations, the police and other agencies have been steadily replacing and modernising their fleets of vehicles; this has left them with thousands of new automobiles, as well as many new aircraft, boats and helicopters. Emergency services in Poland consist of the Emergency Medical Services, Search and Rescue units of the Polish Armed Forces and State Fire Service. Emergency medical services in Poland are, unlike other services, provided for by local and regional government. Poland has a highly developed...

  9. Talk:Nicolaus Copernicus/Archive 2 - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Nicolaus_Copernicus...

    (Koenigsberg, Elbing, Danzig were attacked and occupied by Russian and Saxon troops in the 17-hundreds, and Koenigsberg submitted to the 'Russian Czarina' Catherine the Great. Elbing and Danzig sent their vital statistics of the population, church records- birth marriage, death to the Imperial Elector, the archbishop of Cologne.

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