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  1. Russia self-condemned, secret and inedited documents ...

    books.google.com/books/about/Russia_self...

    The Empress Catherine, the least tyrannic sovereign who ever ruled in Russia, wrote fiftyone years ago to Repnin, her ambassador at Warsaw: — " This is why I must impress on you to cause the armies now at your disposal in Poland, to act, setting aside all illusions of humanity, (abstraction faite de toutes les illusions de...

  2. Elizabeth of Bosnia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_of_Bosnia

    Descent and early years. Born about 1339, Elizabeth was the daughter of Ban Stephen II of Bosnia, the head of the House of Kotromanić. Her mother, Elizabeth of Kuyavia, was a member of the House of Piast and grandniece of King Władysław I of Poland.

  3. The Collective Biographies of Women: Bibliography

    womensbios.lib.virginia.edu/browse?section=9.html

    The back of the book contains several glossy pages of advertisements for other books from "John Ritchie, Ltd., Publishers of Christian Literature." Sorted in declining order of price, from 3/6 to 4d. "Evangelical Wonder Books," "Good Books for Senior Scholars," "Select Gift and Reward Books," etc., a high proportion of biographies.

  4. Proxy marriage | Project Gutenberg Self-Publishing - eBooks ...

    self.gutenberg.org/articles/eng/Proxy_marriage

    Proxy marriage: | A |proxy wedding| or (|proxy marriage|) is a |wedding| in which one or both of the indivi... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.

  5. Stanisław August Poniatowski - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Stanislaus_Augustus

    Stanisław Antoni Poniatowski was born on 17 January 1732 in Wołczyn, then in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and now in Belarus.He was one of eight surviving children and fourth son of Princess Konstancja Czartoryska and of Count Stanisław Poniatowski, Ciołek coat of arms, Castellan of Kraków.

    • 7 September 1764 – 25 November 1795
    • Augustus III
  6. Patrick von Stutenzee's History Blog: Nicolaus Copernicus and ...

    stutenzeehistoryblog.blogspot.com/2012/10/...

    In 1228, Duke Conrad I of Masovia called in the Teutonic Knights and granted them Chełmno Land as a dependent Duchy and part of Masovia (as to Polish history books); or he called them in to conquer and to hold independently (as to German history books); the original treaty is missing.

  7. You can write a book review and share your experiences. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them.

  8. Philip I of Castile - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_I_(of_Castile)

    Philip's wife Joanna was an elder sister to Catherine of Aragon, who married successively the brothers Arthur, Prince of Wales and King Henry VIII of England. He did once visit England, and the young Prince Henry was much impressed with him.

  9. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor | Military Wiki | Fandom

    military.wikia.org/.../Charles_V,_Holy_Roman_Emperor
    • Heritage and Early Life
    • Reign
    • Health
    • Abdication and Later Life
    • Marriage and Children
    • Titles

    Charles was born in the Flemish city of Ghent in 1500. The culture and courtly life of the Burgundian Low Countries were an important influence in his early life. He was tutored by William de Croÿ (who would later become his first prime minister), and also by Adrian of Utrecht (later Pope Adrian VI). It is said that Charles spoke several vernacular languages: he was fluent in French, Flemish, later adding an acceptable Spanish which was required by the Castilian Cortes Generales as a condition for becoming King of Castile. A witticism sometimes attributed to Charles is: "I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to my horse." But this quote has many variants and is often attributed instead to Frederick the Great. From his Burgundian ancestors he inherited an ambiguous relationship with the Kings of France. Charles shared with France his mother tongue and many cultural forms. In his youth he made frequent visits to Paris, then the largest city of Western Euro...

    Burgundy and the Low Countries

    In 1506, Charles inherited his father's Burgundian territories, most notably the Low Countries and Franche-Comté, most of which were fiefs of the German Kingdom (part of the Holy Roman Empire), except his birthplace of Flanders which was still a French fief, a last remnant of what had been a powerful player in the Hundred Years' War. As he was a minor, his aunt Margaret of Austria[citation needed]born as Archduchess of Austria acted as regent as appointed by Emperor Maximilian until 1515 and...

    Spain

    In the Castilian Cortes of Valladolid of 1506, and of Madrid of 1510 he was sworn as prince of Asturias, heir-apparent of his mother the queen Joanna. On the other hand, in 1502, the Aragonese Cortes gathered in Saragossa, pledged an oath to his mother Joanna as heiress-presumptive, but the Archbishop of Saragossa expressed firmly that this oath could not establish jurisprudence, that is to say, without modifying the right of the succession, but by virtue of a formal agreement between the Cor...

    Italy

    The Crown of Aragon inherited by Charles included the Kingdom of Naples, the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Sardinia. Aragon also previously controlled the Duchy of Milan, but a year before Charles ascended to the throne, it was annexed by France after the Battle of Marignano in 1515. Charles succeeded in re-capturing Milan in 1522 when Imperial troops defeated the Franco-Swiss army at Bicocca. Yet in 1524 Francis I of France retook the initiative, crossing into Lombardy where Milan, al...

    Charles suffered from an enlarged lower jaw, a deformity that became considerably worse in later Habsburg generations, giving rise to the term Habsburg jaw. This deformity was caused by the family's long history of inbreeding, which was commonly practiced in royal families of that era to maintain dynastic control of territory. He struggled to chew his food properly and consequently experienced bad indigestion for much of his life. As a result, he usually ate alone.He suffered from epilepsy and was seriously afflicted with gout, presumably caused by a diet consisting mainly of red meat. As he aged, his gout progressed from painful to crippling. In his retirement, he was carried around the monastery of St. Yuste in a sedan chair. A ramp was specially constructed to allow him easy access to his rooms.

    On 25 October 1555, Charles abdicated all his titles except the county of Charolais, giving his Spanish Empire (continental Spain, the Netherlands, Naples–Sicily, Lombardy and Spain's possessions in the Americas) to his son, Philip. His brother Ferdinand, already in possession of the dynastic Habsburg lands, succeeded as Holy Roman Emperor. Charles retired to the monastery of Yustein Extremadura, but continued to correspond widely and kept an interest in the situation of the empire. He suffered from severe gout and some scholars think Charles decided to abdicate after a gout attack in 1552 forced him to postpone an attempt to recapture the city of Metz, where he was later defeated. He lived alone in a secluded monastery, with clocks lining every wall, which some historians believe symbolizes his reign and his lack of time. Charles died on 21 September 1558 from malaria. Twenty-six years later, his remains were transferred to the Royal Pantheon of The Monastery of San Lorenzo de El E...

    On 10 March 1526, Charles married his first cousin Isabella of Portugal, sister of John III of Portugal, in Seville. Their children included: 1. Philip II of Spain(1527–1598), the only son to reach adulthood. 2. Maria of Austria (1528–1603), who married her first cousin Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor. 3. Joanna of Austria (1535–1573), who married her first cousin João Manuel, Prince of Portugal Isabella often administered Spain while Charles was in other lands. Due to Philip II being a grandson of Manuel I of Portugal through his mother Isabella, Philip was in the line of succession to the throne of Portugal, and claimed it after his uncle's death (Henry, the Cardinal-King, in 1580), thus establishing the Iberian Union. Charles also had several mistresses. Two of them gave birth to two future Governors of the Habsburg Netherlands: 1. Johanna Maria van der Gheynst, a servant of Charles I de Lalaing, Seigneur de Montigny, daughter of Gilles Johann van der Gheynst and wife Johanna v...

    The titles of King of Hungary, of Bohemia, and of Croatia, were incorporated into the imperial family during Charles' reign, but they were held, both nominally and substantively, by his brother Ferdinand, who initiated a four-century-long Habsburg rule over these eastern territories. The full Charles' titulature went as follows: Charles, by the grace of God, Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King of Germany, King of Italy, King of all Spains, of Castile, Aragon, León, Navarra, Grenada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Sevilla, Cordova, Murcia, Jaén, Algarves, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, King of Two Sicilies, of Sardinia, Corsica, King of Jerusalem, King of the Western and Eastern Indies, Lord of the Islands and Main Ocean Sea, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Lorraine, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Limburg, Luxembourg, Gelderland, Neopatria, Württemberg, Landgrave of Alsace, Prince of Swabia, Asturia and Catalonia, Count of Flanders, Habsburg, Tyrol,...

  10. Nobility - Unionpedia, the concept map

    en.unionpedia.org/i/Nobility

    Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary. 3740 relations.

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