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  1. / Date of death

    • June 2, 1479
  2. Elizabeth Báthory - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_Countess

    Elizabeth Báthory was born on a family estate in Nyírbátor, Royal Hungary, in 1560 or 1561, and spent her childhood at Ecsed Castle. Her father was Baron George VI Báthory of the Ecsed branch of the family, brother of Andrew Bonaventura Báthory, who had been voivode of Transylvania, while her mother was Baroness Anna Báthory (1539–1570), daughter of Stephen Báthory of Somlyó, another ...

  3. Bolesław IV the Curly - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boleslaus_IV_the_Curly

    Bolesław was 13 years old at the time of his father's death (1138) and of the legal age to take on the government of the lands he inherited according to his father's testament, the newly created Duchy of Masovia (composed of Masovia and eastern Kuyavia). Because his main domain was Masovia, the prince was called Bolesław of Masovia.

  4. Talk:Catherine the Great - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Catherine_II_of_Russia

    This question also calls into question her being an Enlightened ruler, despite affirming Russias no death penalty (which her husband had hated), improving literature, trade, fire-safety and a number of other things including laws based on treating people humanely.

  5. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

    pacificschoolserver.org/Wikipedia/wp/c/Charles_V...

    In 1550, the death penalty was introduced for all cases of unrepentant heresy. Political dissent was also firmly controlled, most notably in his place of birth, where Charles, assisted by the Duke of Alva, personally suppressed the . Revolt of Ghent in mid-February 1540.

  6. Casimir III the Great of Poland (1310-1370) | Familypedia ...

    familypedia.wikia.org/wiki/Casimir_III_the_Great...
    • The Great King
    • Concession to The Nobility
    • Relationship with Polish Jews
    • Title and Style
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Casimir is the only Polish king who both received and kept the title of the Great in Polish history (Bolesław I Chrobry is also called the Great, but his title Chrobry (Valiant) is now more common). When he received the crown, his hold on it was in danger, as even his neighbours did not recognise his title and instead called him "king of Kraków". The economy was ruined, and the country was depopulated and exhausted by war. Upon his death, he left a country doubled in size (mostly through the addition of land in today's Ukraine, then the Duchy of Halicz), prosperous, wealthy and with great prospects for the future. Although he is depicted as a peaceful king in children's books, he in fact waged many victorious wars and was readying for others just before he died. Casimir the Great built many new castles (including Wawel Castle), reformed the Polish army and Polish civil and criminal law. At the Sejm in Wiślica, 11 March 1347, he introduced salutary legal reforms in the jurisprudence...

    In order to enlist the support of the nobility, especially the military help of pospolite ruszenie, Casimir was forced to grant important privileges to their caste, which made them finally clearly dominant over townsfolk (burghers or mieszczaństwo). In 1335, in the Treaty of Trentschin, Casimir relinquished "in perpetuity" his claims to Silesia. In 1355 in Buda, Casimir designated Louis I of Hungary as his successor. In exchange, the szlachta's tax burden was reduced and they would no longer be required to pay for military expeditions expenses outside Poland. Those important concessions would eventually lead to the ultimately crippling rise of the unique nobles' democracy in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. His second daughter, Elisabeth, Duchess of Pomerania, bore a son in 1351, Casimir IV of Pomerania. He was slated to become the heir, but did not succeed to the throne, dying childless in 1377, 7 years after King Casimir. He was the only male descendant of King Casimir who live...

    King Casimir was favorably disposed toward Jews. On 9 October 1334, he confirmed the privileges granted to Jewish Poles in 1264 by Bolesław V the Chaste. Under penalty of death, he prohibited the kidnapping of Jewish children for the purpose of enforced Christian baptism. He inflicted heavy punishment for the desecration of Jewish cemeteries. Although Jews had lived in Poland since before the reign of King Casimir, he allowed them to settle in Poland in great numbers and protected them as people of the king.

    Casimir's full title was: Casimir by the grace of God king of Poland, lord and heir of the land of Kraków, Sandomierz, Sieradz, Łęczyca, Kuyavia, Pomerania (Pomerelia) and Ruthenia. The title in Latin was: Kazimirus, Dei gracia rex Poloniæ ac terrarum Cracoviæ, Sandomiriæ, Syradiæ, Lanciciæ, Cuyaviæ, Pomeraniæ, Russiequæ dominus et heres.

    History of Poland (966–1385)
    Jagiellonian University
    Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
    Kazimierz

    His listing in "Medieval lands" by Charles Cawley. The project "involves extracting and analysing detailed information from primary sources, including contemporary chronicles, cartularies, necrolog...

    • Adelaide of Hesse (1324-1371)
    • Cudka
    • Christina Rokiczanka (c1330-c1375)
    • 1325
  7. History of Warsaw - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Warsaw

    The city has had a particularly tumultuous history for a European city. It experienced numerous plagues, invasions, and devastating fires. The most destructive events include the Deluge, the Great Northern War (1702, 1704, 1705), War of the Polish Succession, Warsaw Uprising (1794), Battle of Praga and the Massacre of Praga inhabitants, November Uprising, January Uprising, World War I, Siege ...

  8. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor | Military Wiki | Fandom

    military.wikia.org/.../Charles_V,_Holy_Roman_Emperor
    • Heritage and Early Life
    • Reign
    • Health
    • Abdication and Later Life
    • Marriage and Children
    • Titles

    Charles was born in the Flemish city of Ghent in 1500. The culture and courtly life of the Burgundian Low Countries were an important influence in his early life. He was tutored by William de Croÿ (who would later become his first prime minister), and also by Adrian of Utrecht (later Pope Adrian VI). It is said that Charles spoke several vernacular languages: he was fluent in French, Flemish, later adding an acceptable Spanish which was required by the Castilian Cortes Generales as a condition for becoming King of Castile. A witticism sometimes attributed to Charles is: "I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to my horse." But this quote has many variants and is often attributed instead to Frederick the Great. From his Burgundian ancestors he inherited an ambiguous relationship with the Kings of France. Charles shared with France his mother tongue and many cultural forms. In his youth he made frequent visits to Paris, then the largest city of Western Euro...

    Burgundy and the Low Countries

    In 1506, Charles inherited his father's Burgundian territories, most notably the Low Countries and Franche-Comté, most of which were fiefs of the German Kingdom (part of the Holy Roman Empire), except his birthplace of Flanders which was still a French fief, a last remnant of what had been a powerful player in the Hundred Years' War. As he was a minor, his aunt Margaret of Austria[citation needed]born as Archduchess of Austria acted as regent as appointed by Emperor Maximilian until 1515 and...

    Spain

    In the Castilian Cortes of Valladolid of 1506, and of Madrid of 1510 he was sworn as prince of Asturias, heir-apparent of his mother the queen Joanna. On the other hand, in 1502, the Aragonese Cortes gathered in Saragossa, pledged an oath to his mother Joanna as heiress-presumptive, but the Archbishop of Saragossa expressed firmly that this oath could not establish jurisprudence, that is to say, without modifying the right of the succession, but by virtue of a formal agreement between the Cor...

    Italy

    The Crown of Aragon inherited by Charles included the Kingdom of Naples, the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Sardinia. Aragon also previously controlled the Duchy of Milan, but a year before Charles ascended to the throne, it was annexed by France after the Battle of Marignano in 1515. Charles succeeded in re-capturing Milan in 1522 when Imperial troops defeated the Franco-Swiss army at Bicocca. Yet in 1524 Francis I of France retook the initiative, crossing into Lombardy where Milan, al...

    Charles suffered from an enlarged lower jaw, a deformity that became considerably worse in later Habsburg generations, giving rise to the term Habsburg jaw. This deformity was caused by the family's long history of inbreeding, which was commonly practiced in royal families of that era to maintain dynastic control of territory. He struggled to chew his food properly and consequently experienced bad indigestion for much of his life. As a result, he usually ate alone.He suffered from epilepsy and was seriously afflicted with gout, presumably caused by a diet consisting mainly of red meat. As he aged, his gout progressed from painful to crippling. In his retirement, he was carried around the monastery of St. Yuste in a sedan chair. A ramp was specially constructed to allow him easy access to his rooms.

    On 25 October 1555, Charles abdicated all his titles except the county of Charolais, giving his Spanish Empire (continental Spain, the Netherlands, Naples–Sicily, Lombardy and Spain's possessions in the Americas) to his son, Philip. His brother Ferdinand, already in possession of the dynastic Habsburg lands, succeeded as Holy Roman Emperor. Charles retired to the monastery of Yustein Extremadura, but continued to correspond widely and kept an interest in the situation of the empire. He suffered from severe gout and some scholars think Charles decided to abdicate after a gout attack in 1552 forced him to postpone an attempt to recapture the city of Metz, where he was later defeated. He lived alone in a secluded monastery, with clocks lining every wall, which some historians believe symbolizes his reign and his lack of time. Charles died on 21 September 1558 from malaria. Twenty-six years later, his remains were transferred to the Royal Pantheon of The Monastery of San Lorenzo de El E...

    On 10 March 1526, Charles married his first cousin Isabella of Portugal, sister of John III of Portugal, in Seville. Their children included: 1. Philip II of Spain(1527–1598), the only son to reach adulthood. 2. Maria of Austria (1528–1603), who married her first cousin Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor. 3. Joanna of Austria (1535–1573), who married her first cousin João Manuel, Prince of Portugal Isabella often administered Spain while Charles was in other lands. Due to Philip II being a grandson of Manuel I of Portugal through his mother Isabella, Philip was in the line of succession to the throne of Portugal, and claimed it after his uncle's death (Henry, the Cardinal-King, in 1580), thus establishing the Iberian Union. Charles also had several mistresses. Two of them gave birth to two future Governors of the Habsburg Netherlands: 1. Johanna Maria van der Gheynst, a servant of Charles I de Lalaing, Seigneur de Montigny, daughter of Gilles Johann van der Gheynst and wife Johanna v...

    The titles of King of Hungary, of Bohemia, and of Croatia, were incorporated into the imperial family during Charles' reign, but they were held, both nominally and substantively, by his brother Ferdinand, who initiated a four-century-long Habsburg rule over these eastern territories. The full Charles' titulature went as follows: Charles, by the grace of God, Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King of Germany, King of Italy, King of all Spains, of Castile, Aragon, León, Navarra, Grenada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Sevilla, Cordova, Murcia, Jaén, Algarves, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, King of Two Sicilies, of Sardinia, Corsica, King of Jerusalem, King of the Western and Eastern Indies, Lord of the Islands and Main Ocean Sea, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Lorraine, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Limburg, Luxembourg, Gelderland, Neopatria, Württemberg, Landgrave of Alsace, Prince of Swabia, Asturia and Catalonia, Count of Flanders, Habsburg, Tyrol,...

  9. CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Index for S

    www.newadvent.org/cathen/s-ce.htm

    Sarbiewski, Mathias Casimir - The Horace of Poland, b. near Plonsk, in the Duchy of Masovia, 24 February, 1595; d. 2 April, 1649. He entered the novitiate of the Jesuits at Vilna on 25 July, 1612 He entered the novitiate of the Jesuits at Vilna on 25 July, 1612

  10. Judges as Jailers: The Dangerous Disconnect between Courts ...

    www.researchgate.net/publication/228187700...

    [Show full abstract] has permitted the use of the death penalty for robbers in nearly all cases, and courts have applied it regularly and in many different types of robbery cases. Since 1983 ...

  11. History of Lviv - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Lviv

    After Daniel's death Lev rebuilt the city around the year 1270 and, choosing Lviv as his residence, made Lviv the capital of Galicia-Volhynia. The city is first mentioned in the Halych-Volhynian Chronicle which dates from 1256. As a major trade center, Lviv attracted German, Armenian and other merchants.

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