- in Various Religions
- as An Academic Discipline
- External Links
Theology is derived from the Greek theologia (θεολογία), which derived from theos (Θεός), meaning "god", and -logia (-λογία), meaning "utterances, sayings, or oracles" (a word related to logos [λόγος], meaning "word, discourse, account, or reasoning") which had passed into Latin as theologia and into French as théologie. The English equivalent "theology" (Theologie, Teologye) had evolved by 1362. The sense the word has in English depends in large part on the sense the Latin and Greek equivalents had acquired in patristic and medievalChristian usage, although the English term has now spread beyond Christian contexts.
Augustine of Hippo define the Latin equivalent, theologia, as "reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity"; Richard Hooker defined "theology" in English as "the science of things divine".The term can, however, be used for a variety of disciplines or fields of study. Theology considers whether the divine exists in some form, such as in physical, supernatural, mental, or social realities, and what evidence for and about it may be found via personal spiritual experiences or historical records of such experiences as documented by others. The study of these assumptions is not part of theology proper but is found in the philosophy of religion, and increasingly through the psychology of religion and neurotheology. Theology then aims to structure and understand these experiences and concepts, and to use them to derive normative prescriptions for how to live our lives. Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument (experiential, philosophical, ethnographic, historical, and others)...
Greek theologia (θεολογία) was used with the meaning "discourse on God" around 380 BC by Plato in The Republic, Book ii, Ch. 18. Aristotle divided theoretical philosophy into mathematike, physike and theologike, with the last corresponding roughly to metaphysics, which, for Aristotle, included discourse on the nature of the divine. Drawing on Greek Stoic sources, the Latin writer Varro distinguished three forms of such discourse: mythical(concerning the myths of the Greek gods), rational (philosophical analysis of the gods and of cosmology) and civil (concerning the rites and duties of public religious observance). Some Latin Christian authors, such as Tertullian and Augustine, followed Varro's threefold usage,though Augustine also used the term more simply to mean 'reasoning or discussion concerning the deity' In patristic Greek Christian sources, theologiacould refer narrowly to devout and inspired knowledge of, and teaching about, the essential nature of God. The Latin author Boe...
The term theology has been deemed by some as only appropriate to the study of religions that worship a supposed deity (a theos), i.e. more widely than monotheism; and presuppose a belief in the ability to speak and reason about this deity (in logia). They suggest the term is less appropriate in religious contexts that are organized differently (religions without a single deity, or that deny that such subjects can be studied logically). ("Hierology" has been proposed as an alternative, more generic term.)
The history of the study of theology in institutions of higher education is as old as the history of such institutions themselves. For instance, Taxila was an early centre of Vedic learning, possible from the 6th century BC or earlier; the Platonic Academy founded in Athens in the 4th century BC seems to have included theological themes in its subject matter; the Chinese Taixue delivered Confucian teaching from the 2nd century BC; the School of Nisibis was a centre of Christian learning from the 4th century AD; Nalanda in India was a site of Buddhist higher learning from at least the 5th or 6th century AD; and the Moroccan University of Al-Karaouine was a centre of Islamic learning from the 10th century, as was Al-Azhar Universityin Cairo. The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and perhaps from cathedral schools. It is possible, however, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare,...
Before the 20th century
Whether or not reasoned discussion about the divine is possible has long been a point of contention. Protagoras, as early as the fifth century BC, who is reputed to have been exiled from Athens because of his agnosticism about the existence of the gods, said that "Concerning the gods I cannot know either that they exist or that they do not exist, or what form they might have, for there is much to prevent one's knowing: the obscurity of the subjectand the shortness of man's life." Since at lea...
20th and 21st centuries
A.J. Ayer, a British former logical-positivist, sought to show in his essay "Critique of Ethics and Theology" that all statements about the divine are nonsensical and any divine-attribute is unprovable. He wrote: "It is now generally admitted, at any rate by philosophers, that the existence of a being having the attributes which define the god of any non-animistic religion cannot be demonstratively proved... [A]ll utterances about the nature of God are nonsensical." The Jewish atheist philoso..."Theology" on Encyclopædia BritannicaChattopadhyay, Subhasis. "Reflections on Hindu Theology" in Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India120(12):664-672 (2014). ISSN 0032-6178. Edited by Swami Narasimhananda.Theology public domain audiobook at LibriVox
Founded in 1855, the Chicago Theological Seminary (CTS) is the oldest higher education institution in the City of Chicago and was established with two principal goals: first, to educate pastors who would minister to people living on the new western frontier of the United States and second, to train ministers who would advance the movement to abolish slavery.
- Stephanie Buckhanon Crowder
- "Leaders for the Next"
- Stephen G. Ray Jr.
People also ask
Is the Chicago Theological Seminary a Christian seminary?
What is the seal of Chicago Theological Seminary?
How did the Triennial Convention help Baptists unify?
The seminary offers 20 degrees including the Master of Divinity (M.Div.), Master of Theology (Th.M.), Doctor of Ministry (D.Min.), and a wide range of specialized master's degrees. Gordon-Conwell has been accredited by the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada since 1964  and by the New England Association of ...
- 1969 merger, 1888 (as Gordon Divinity School), 1889 (as Conwell School of Theology)
- Think Theologically, Engage Globally, Live Biblically
- Gordon College of Theology and Mission, Gordon Divinity School, Conwell School of Theology
The Interdenominational Theological Center (ITC) is a consortium of five predominantly African-American denominational Christian seminaries in Atlanta, Georgia. ITC is operating together as a professional graduate school of theology. It is the largest free-standing African American theological school in the United States.
Pro Ecclesia: A Journal of Catholic and Evangelical Theology: 1063-8512 Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology by Rowman & Littlefield: Washington, D.C. 20008 United States Catholic: Protestant Reformed Theological Journal: 1070-8138 (print) or 2373-2091 (digital) PRTJ 1967–present Protestant Reformed Theological School : Grandville, MI ...
In a historical perspective, Catholic Modernism is neither a system, school, or doctrine, but refers to a number of individual attempts to reconcile Roman Catholicism with modern culture; specifically an understanding of the Bible and Catholic tradition in light of modern mainstream conceptions of archeology, philology, the historical-critical method and new philosophical and political ...
Jewish Theological Seminary of America. The Jewish Theological Seminary ( JTS) is a Conservative Jewish education organization in New York City, New York. It is one of the academic and spiritual centers of Conservative Judaism and a major center for academic scholarship in Jewish studies.
Thomas Forsyth Torrance MBE FRSE FBA (30 August 1913 – 2 December 2007), commonly referred to as T. F. Torrance, was a Scottish Protestant theologian and minister. Torrance served for 27 years as professor of Christian dogmatics at New College, in the University of Edinburgh.
In religious organizations, the laity consists of all members who are not part of the clergy, usually including any non-ordained members of religious orders, e.g. a nun or lay brother.   A layperson (also layman or laywoman ) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject.