Escherichia coli (/ ˌ ɛ ʃ ə ˈ r ɪ k i ə ˈ k oʊ l aɪ /), also known as E. coli (/ ˌ iː ˈ k oʊ l aɪ /), is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Strong lactose fermenters will appear as dark blue/purple/black, and E.coli (which also ferments lactose) colonies will be dark colored, but will also appear to have a metallic green sheen. Other coliform bacteria will appear as thick, slimy colonies, with non-fermenters being colorless, and weak fermenters being pink.
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May 17, 2018 · MORPHOLOGY OF ESCHERICHIA COLI (E. COLI) Shape – Escherichia coli is a straight, rod shape (bacillus) bacterium. Size – The size of Escherichia coli is about 1–3 µm × 0.4–0.7 µm (micrometer). Arrangement Of Cells – Escherichia coli is arranged singly or in pairs. Motility – Escherichia coli is a motile bacterium.
2. Morphology and Staining of Escherichia Coli: E. coli is Gram-negative straight rod, 1-3 µ x 0.4-0.7 µ, arranged singly or in pairs (Fig. 28.1). It is motile by peritrichous flagellae, though some strains are non-motile. Spores are not formed. Capsules and fimbriae are found in some strains. 3. Cultural Characteristics of Escherichia Coli:
Olsén A, Arnqvist A, Hammar M, Normark S. Environmental regulation of curli production in Escherichia coli. Infectious Agents and Disease. 2 (4), 272–274 (1993). Zogaj X, Bokranz W, Nimtz M, Romling U. Production of cellulose and curli fimbriae by members of the family Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract.
A bacteriophage (/ b æ k ˈ t ɪər i oʊ f eɪ dʒ /), also known informally as a phage (/ ˈ f eɪ dʒ /), is a virus that infects and replicates within bacteria and archaea.The term was derived from "bacteria" and the Greek φαγεῖν (phagein), meaning "to devour".
E. coliwas discovered by Theodor Escherich in 1885 after isolating it from the feces of newborns.E. coliis the normal flora of the human body.The niche of E. colidepends upon the availability of the nutrients within the intestine of host organisms.The primary habitat of E. coliis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and many other warm-blooded animals.E. coliis gram-negative (-ve) rod-shaped bacteria.It is 1-3 x 0.4-0.7 µm in size and 0.6 to 0.7 µm in volume.It is arranged singly or in pairs.It is motile due to peritrichous flagella.
- Habitat of E. Coli
- Morphology of E. Coli
- Cultural Characteristics of E. Coli
- Pathogenicity of E. Coli
- Clinical Feature of E. Coli
- Clinical Manifestations of E. Coli
- Laboratory Diagnosis of E. Coli
- Treatment of E. Coli Infections
- Prevention and Control of E. Coli Infections
- References and Sources
1. E. coli is a facultative anaerobe. 2. Its optimum growth temperature is 37°C and ranges from 10°C to 40°C.E. coli is the most common and important member of the genus Escherichia.It is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).Human Escherichia coli strains are classified as commensal microbiota E. coli, enterovirulent E. coli, and extraintestinal pathogenic E. colion the basis of their genetic features and clinical outc...Most infections (with the exception of neonatal meningitis and gastroenteritis) are endogenous; that is, the E. colithat are part of the patient’s normal microbial flora are able to establish infec...
1. ETEC causes traveler’s diarrhea or infant diarrhea in infants. Pathogenesis involves plasmid-mediated, heat-stable (ST) and heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins that stimulate hypersecretion of fluids and electrolytes. 2. EPEC causes infant diarrhea in developing countries. Pathogenesis involves plasmid-mediated A/E histopathology, with disruption of normal microvillus structure resulting in malabsorption and diarrhea. 3. EAEC causes infant diarrhea in developing and probably developed countries...
1. Most gram-negative rods that produce UTIs originate in the colon, contaminate the urethra, ascend into the bladder, and may migrate to the kidney or prostate. 2. Although most strains of E. colican produce UTIs, the disease is more common with certain specific serogroups. 3. These bacteria are particularly virulent because of their ability to produce adhesins (primarily P pili, AAF/I, AAF/III, and Dr) that bind to cells lining the bladder and upper urinary tract (preventing the elimination...
1. When normal host defenses are inadequate, E colimay reach the bloodstream and cause sepsis. 2. Newborns may be highly susceptible to E colisepsis because they lack IgM antibodies. 3. Sepsis may occur secondary to urinary tract infection.
Gastroenteritis 1. watery or bloody diarrhea 2. vomiting 3. cramps 4. nausea 5. low-grade fever 6. dehydration 7. abdominal cramps Urinary tract infection The most common bacteria found to cause UTIs is Escherichia coli (E. coli). Other bacteria can cause UTI, but E. coliis the culprit about 90 percent of the time. The major manifestations of the infection include: 1. A strong, persistent urge to urinate 2. A burning sensation when urinating 3. Pelvic pressure 4. Lower abdomen discomfort 5. Frequent, painful urination 6. Blood in urine Acute bacterial meningitis 1. Newborns with E. coli meningitis present with fever and failure to thrive or abnormal neurologic signs. 2. Other findings in neonates include jaundice, decreased feeding, periods of apnea, and listlessness. 3. Patients younger than 1 month present with irritability, lethargy, vomiting, lack of appetite, and seizures.
1. Most urine specimens are obtained from adult patients via the clean-catch midstream technique. 2. Bacteriuria can be detected microscopically using Gram staining of uncentrifuged urine specimens, Gram staining of centrifuged specimens, or direct observation of bacteria in urine specimens. 3. On staining, E coliappear as non-spore-forming, Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium 4. Routine urine cultures should be plated using calibrated loops for the semi-quantitative method. Note: The most com...
E. coli typically produce positive test results for indole, lysine decarboxylase, lactose, and mannitol fermentation and produces gas from glucose. An isolate from urine can be quickly identified as E. coli by its hemolysis on blood agar, typical colonial morphology with an iridescent “sheen” on differential media such as EMB agar, and a positive spot indole test result. More than 90% of E. coliisolates are positive for β-glucuronidase using the substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-glucuronide (M...
1. ETEC: commercial immunoassays available for detecting ST in clinical specimens and cultures; PCR assays used with clinical specimens. 2. EPEC: Characteristic adherence to HEp-2 or HeLa cells; probes and amplification assays developed for the plasmid-encoded bundle-forming pili and gene targets on the “locus of enterocyte effacement” pathogenicity island. 3. EAEC: Characteristic adherence to HEp-2 cells; DNA probe and amplification assays developed for conserved plasmid. 4. STEC: Screen for...The sulfonamides, ampicillin, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides have marked antibacterial effects against the enterics, but variation in susceptibility is great, and laboratory...E. coli meningitis requires antibiotics, such as third-generation cephalosporins (eg, ceftriaxone).E. colipneumonia requires respiratory support, adequate oxygenation, and antibiotics, such as third-generation cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones.In most cases of diarrheal disease, antibiotics are not prescribed. The best way to treat E coli infection is to drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration and to get as much rest as possible. How...It is widely recommended that caution be observed in regard to food and drink in areas where environmental sanitation is poor and that early and brief treatment (eg, with ciprofloxacin or trimethop...Their control depends on handwashing, rigorous asepsis, sterilization of equipment, disinfection, restraint in intravenous therapy, and strict precautions in keeping the urinary tract sterile (ie,...Ananthanarayan and Paniker. Textbook of Microbiology.Bailey and Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology. Part 3. Section 7. Chapter 22. Enterobacteriaceae, 323.Mackie and McCartney Practical Medical Microbiology. Section B. Bacteria and Related Organisms. Chapter 20. Escherichia, 361.Murray, P. R., Rosenthal, K. S., & Pfaller, M. A. (2013). Medical microbiology. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders
Escherichia coli (commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in humans.
E. coli pink colonies and yellow-amber colonies. E. coli colonial morphology (CM): CM I (a), CM II (b), CM III (c) and CM IV (d) classes.
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