Escherichia coli (/ ˌ ɛ ʃ ə ˈ r ɪ k i ə ˈ k oʊ l aɪ /), also known as E. coli (/ ˌ iː ˈ k oʊ l aɪ /), is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms.
Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to classify bacterial species into two large groups: gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. The name comes from the Danish bacteriologist Hans Christian Gram , who developed the technique.
People also ask
Why does E coli stain Gram positive and Gram negative?
What is the morphology of Escherichia coli?
What is the method of staining used to differentiate bacteria?
Which bacteria will pick up the counterstain in a Gram stain?
Precautions in Using Gram Stain The Gram stain is especially useful as one of the first steps in the identification of a bacterial species, since it reveals both the morphology and the Gram reaction of the bacteria. In this exercise, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative rods and cocci of commonly encountered bacterial species will be stained.
- Biology of E. Coli
- The Role of E. Coli in The Human Body and Disease
- Genetics of E. Coli
- Discovery of E. coli.
E. coli (Escherichia coli) are a small, Gram-negative species of bacteria. Most strains of E. coli are rod-shaped and measure about 2.0 μm long and 0.2-1.0 μm in diameter. They typically have a cell volume of 0.6-0.7 μm, most of which is filled by the cytoplasm. Since it is a prokaryote, E. colidon’t have nuclei; instead, their genetic material floats uncovered, localized to a region called the nucleoid. E. coli are Gram-negative bacteria, meaning that they do not retain the crystal violet stain commonly used to differentiate bacteria. Their status as Gram-negative bacteria is due to their thin cell walls. E. coli has cell walls made out of two thing peptidoglycan layers, an inner and outer membrane. The Gram-negative outer membrane explains why many strains of E. coli are resistant to penicillin; the mechanism of action is disrupted by the thin cell walls. Many serotypes also have an external, flagella extending from the cell wall that is used to motility. In the mammalian gut, E....
Most strains of E. coli are actually completely harmless to humans. In fact, colonies of E. coli form a natural part of the microbiome of the mammalian gut. In mammals, E. coli facilitates the absorption of iron via the production of enterobactin, a siderophore (Greek: “iron carrier”) that strongly binds to iron ions. It is thought that enterobactin produced by E. colibinds to ATP-synthase which helps it draw iron into the intestines. Additionally, E. coli produces vitamin K2, an important nutrient that assists with blood clotting. The presence of E. coli in the gut also prevents the colonization of harmful bacteria. However, some serotypes of E. coli are highly infectious and can cause a range of symptoms, including gastroenteritis, UTIs, colitis, and, in extreme cases, meningitis and Chron’s disease. Most infections by harmful E. coli are caused by ingestion of tainted food, in particular, beef, milk, and fresh produce. E. coli can also be spread by contact with contaminated water...
E. coli are some of the most genetically diverse known bacteria. It is estimated that only 20% of the genes in a typical E. coli strand are shared between strands. Many of the differences in E. coli are molecular, though these small differences often lead to changes in the physiology and life cycle of the cell. Escherichia and the closely related genus Salmonella diverged about 102 million years ago. This split was caused by the divergence of their hosts into mammals and reptiles/birds, which explains why E. coli is found in the former and Salmonellain the latter. Over 300 strains of E. coli have had their complete genome sequenced. This has revealed that only 20% of gene sequences are shared between all strains, the other 80% varies considerably among strains. Further, it has been revealed that approximately two-thirds of the overall genome of all know strains of E. colihas been introduced by other bacteria via horizontal gene transfer. In general, E. coli DNAis stored in a single...
E. coli was first identified in 1885 by German-Austrian pediatrician and microbiologist Theodor Escherich. Escherich first discovered the bacteria in the feces of his patients as a part of his research identifying the role of gut flora in early infantile and childhood development. Escherich demonstrated that gut flora, including E. coli, is a critical part of digestion and that imbalances in gut flora can cause pathologies. He was also well known for his pioneering work in using X-rays as a diagnostic tool in children.
May 17, 2018 · MORPHOLOGY OF ESCHERICHIA COLI (E. COLI) Shape – Escherichia coli is a straight, rod shape (bacillus) bacterium. Size – The size of Escherichia coli is about 1–3 µm × 0.4–0.7 µm (micrometer). Arrangement Of Cells – Escherichia coli is arranged singly or in pairs. Motility – Escherichia coli is a motile bacterium.
The most widely used staining procedure in microbiology is the Gram stain, discovered by the Danish scientist and physician Hans Christian Joachim Gram in 1884. Gram staining is a differential staining technique that differentiates bacteria into two groups: gram-positives and gram-negatives.