Escherichia coli (/ ˌ ɛ ʃ ə ˈ r ɪ k i ə ˈ k oʊ l aɪ /), also known as E. coli (/ ˌ iː ˈ k oʊ l aɪ /), is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
- Section I - Infectious Agent
- Section II - Hazard Identification
- Section III - Dissemination
- Section IV - Stability and Viability
- Section V – First Aid / Medical
- Section Vi - Laboratory Hazards
- Section VII – Exposure Controls / Personal Protection
- Section VIII – Handling and Storage
- Section IX - Regulatory and Other Information
NAME: Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: EPEC Footnote 1, Footnote 2, intestinal pathogenic E coli Footnote 3, acute and protracted infant diarrhea Footnote 4. CHARACTERISTICS: EnteropathogenicEscherichia coli (EPEC) are in the family Enterobacteriaceae Footnote 2. The bacteria are gram negative, rod shaped, non-spore forming, motile with peritrichous flagella or nonmotile, and grow on MacConkey agar (colonies are 2 to 3 mm in diameter and red or colorless) Footnote 5. They can grow under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and do not produce enterotoxins Footnote 1.
PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: EPEC cause acute, profuse, watery diarrhea, which rarely becomes persistent Footnote 1. Stools are typically not bloody, mucoid, or dysenteric. Low-grade fever with nausea and vomiting may be present Footnote 1, Footnote 6. EPEC is characterized by the formation of attaching-and-effacing lesions in the involved intestinal areas Footnote 7. Two groups of EPEC are now recognized, typical EPEC and atypical EPEC. Typical EPEC, a leading cause of infantile diarrhea in developing countries, is rare in industrialized countries, where atypical EPEC seems to be a more important cause of diarrhea Footnote 8. Typical and atypical EPEC also differ in genetic characteristics, serotypes, and virulence properties. Atypical EPEC is more closely related to Shiga toxin–producing E. coli (STEC), and like STEC these strains appear to be emerging pathogens Footnote 8. The atypical EPEC strains may be less virulent than the typical ones. One reason may be the lack of the EPEC adhe...
RESERVOIR: Typical EPEC: Humans Footnote 18. Atypical EPEC: dogs, cats, cattle, sheep, rabbits, monkeys and humans Footnote 8, Footnote 9. ZOONOSIS: Yes. May be transmitted when handling infected cattle, dogs, cats, sheep, rabbits, and horses Footnote 19. VECTORS: None.
DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY/RESISTANCE: Susceptible to carbapenem, fosfomycin-trometanol, nitrofurantoin, and bovine apo-lactoferrin. E. coli can be resistant to chloramphenicol, β lactams, nalidixic acid, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. Fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin enhance toxin production Footnote 3, Footnote 20. SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to a combination of 2,2-dibromo-2-cyanoacetamide (DBA) with sodium iodide (20:80 parts), iodine, 2 % glutaraldehyde, quaternary ammonium (20°C, 0.5 min), hypochlorite (0.525%, 20°C, 0.5 min), phenolics (20°C, 0.5 min), and ethyl alcohol (70%, 20°C, 0.5 min) Footnote 21-Footnote 23. PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Ozone can inactivate E. coli Footnote 24. E. coli is also sensitive to heat treatment, especially at temperatures of 70°C or higher Footnote 19, Footnote 25. SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: E. coli can survive for 1.5 hours to 16 months on dry inanimate surfaces Footnote 26.
SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms. Stool culture is a common method used to identify E. coli Footnote 27. DNA probes and techniques such as PCR can be applied directly to clinical samples and food Footnote 3. Both typical and atypical EPEC are most frequently identified by detection of the eae gene encoding the intimin protein. The presence of the eae gene and demonstration of the absence of the verotoxin (enterotoxin) gene are absolutely required for the molecular identification of EPEC Footnote 1. To identify typical EPEC, PCR or DNA hybridization methods can be used for detection of the EAF plasmid and the gene encoding bfp Footnote 1, Footnote 3. Additional tests that may be performed in some situations are the fluorescent actin staining test and adherence tests showing localized adherence (LA). Note: All diagnostic methods are not necessarily available in all countries. FIRST AID TREATMENT: Treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) or quinolones reduces the durati...
LABORATORY ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: 12 cases of laboratory acquired infections with E. coli have been reported, the majority of which have been caused by enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC) Footnote 29. SOURCES / SPECIMENS: Stools and fecally contaminated material Footnote 1, Footnote 6, Footnote 16. PRIMARY HAZARD: Ingestion Footnote 29. SPECIAL HAZARD: None.
RISK GROUP CLASSIFICATION: Risk Group 2 Footnote 30. CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Containment Level 2 facilities, equipment, and operational practices for work involving infectious or potentially infectious materials, animals, or cultures Footnote 31. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Lab coat. Gloves when direct skin contact with infected materials or animals is unavoidable. Eye protection must be used where there is a known or potential risk of exposure to splashes. OTHER PRECAUTIONS: All procedures that may produce aerosols, or involve high concentrations or large volumes should be conducted in a biological safety cabinet (BSC) Footnote 31. The use of needles, syringes, and other sharp objects should be strictly limited. Additional precautions should be considered with work involving animals or large scale activities.
SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle and, wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towels and apply an appropriate disinfectant, starting at the perimeter and working towards the centre. Allow sufficient contact time before clean up Footnote 31. DISPOSAL: Decontaminate all wastes that contain or have come in contact with the infectious organism by autoclave, chemical disinfection, gamma irradiation, or incineration before disposing Footnote 31. STORAGE: The infectious agent should be stored in leak-proof containers that are appropriately labeled Footnote 31.
REGULATORY INFORMATION: The import, transport, and use of pathogens in Canada is regulated under many regulatory bodies, including the Public Health Agency of Canada, Health Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Environment Canada, and Transport Canada. Users are responsible for ensuring they are compliant with all relevant acts, regulations, guidelines, and standards. UPDATED: December 2011 PREPARED BY: Pathogen Regulation Directorate, Public Health Agency of Canada Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Pathogen Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date. Copyright © Public Health Agency of Canada, 2011 Canada
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Escherichia coli (E. coli) can be distinguished from most other coliforms by its ability to ferment lactose at 44°C in the fecal coliform test, and by its growth and color reaction on certain types of culture media. When cultured on an eosin methylene blue (EMB) plate, a positive result for E. coli is metallic green colonies on a dark purple ...
May 17, 2018 · MORPHOLOGY OF ESCHERICHIA COLI (E. COLI) Shape – Escherichia coli is a straight, rod shape (bacillus) bacterium. Size – The size of Escherichia coli is about 1–3 µm × 0.4–0.7 µm (micrometer). Arrangement Of Cells – Escherichia coli is arranged singly or in pairs. Motility – Escherichia coli is a motile bacterium.
The E. coli long-term evolution experiment (LTEE) is an ongoing study in experimental evolution led by Richard Lenski that has been tracking genetic changes in 12 initially identical populations of asexual Escherichia coli bacteria since 24 February 1988. The populations reached the milestone of 50,000 generations in February 2010.
The gallbladder is initially sterile but often becomes infected by bacteria, predominantly E. coli, Klebsiella, Streptococcus, and Clostridium species. Inflammation can spread to the outer covering of the gallbladder and surrounding structures such as the diaphragm, causing referred right shoulder pain. Acalculous cholecystitis
Enterococcus faecalis – formerly classified as part of the group D Streptococcus system – is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans. Like other species in the genus Enterococcus, E. faecalis is found in healthy humans and can be used as a probiotic. The probiotic strains such as Symbioflor1 and ...
E. coliwas discovered by Theodor Escherich in 1885 after isolating it from the feces of newborns.E. coliis the normal flora of the human body.The niche of E. colidepends upon the availability of the nutrients within the intestine of host organisms.The primary habitat of E. coliis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and many other warm-blooded animals.E. coliis gram-negative (-ve) rod-shaped bacteria.It is 1-3 x 0.4-0.7 µm in size and 0.6 to 0.7 µm in volume.It is arranged singly or in pairs.It is motile due to peritrichous flagella.
- Habitat of E. Coli
- Morphology of E. Coli
- Cultural Characteristics of E. Coli
- Pathogenicity of E. Coli
- Clinical Feature of E. Coli
- Clinical Manifestations of E. Coli
- Laboratory Diagnosis of E. Coli
- Treatment of E. Coli Infections
- Prevention and Control of E. Coli Infections
- References and Sources
1. E. coli is a facultative anaerobe. 2. Its optimum growth temperature is 37°C and ranges from 10°C to 40°C.E. coli is the most common and important member of the genus Escherichia.It is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).Human Escherichia coli strains are classified as commensal microbiota E. coli, enterovirulent E. coli, and extraintestinal pathogenic E. colion the basis of their genetic features and clinical outc...Most infections (with the exception of neonatal meningitis and gastroenteritis) are endogenous; that is, the E. colithat are part of the patient’s normal microbial flora are able to establish infec...
1. ETEC causes traveler’s diarrhea or infant diarrhea in infants. Pathogenesis involves plasmid-mediated, heat-stable (ST) and heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins that stimulate hypersecretion of fluids and electrolytes. 2. EPEC causes infant diarrhea in developing countries. Pathogenesis involves plasmid-mediated A/E histopathology, with disruption of normal microvillus structure resulting in malabsorption and diarrhea. 3. EAEC causes infant diarrhea in developing and probably developed countries...
1. Most gram-negative rods that produce UTIs originate in the colon, contaminate the urethra, ascend into the bladder, and may migrate to the kidney or prostate. 2. Although most strains of E. colican produce UTIs, the disease is more common with certain specific serogroups. 3. These bacteria are particularly virulent because of their ability to produce adhesins (primarily P pili, AAF/I, AAF/III, and Dr) that bind to cells lining the bladder and upper urinary tract (preventing the elimination...
1. When normal host defenses are inadequate, E colimay reach the bloodstream and cause sepsis. 2. Newborns may be highly susceptible to E colisepsis because they lack IgM antibodies. 3. Sepsis may occur secondary to urinary tract infection.
Gastroenteritis 1. watery or bloody diarrhea 2. vomiting 3. cramps 4. nausea 5. low-grade fever 6. dehydration 7. abdominal cramps Urinary tract infection The most common bacteria found to cause UTIs is Escherichia coli (E. coli). Other bacteria can cause UTI, but E. coliis the culprit about 90 percent of the time. The major manifestations of the infection include: 1. A strong, persistent urge to urinate 2. A burning sensation when urinating 3. Pelvic pressure 4. Lower abdomen discomfort 5. Frequent, painful urination 6. Blood in urine Acute bacterial meningitis 1. Newborns with E. coli meningitis present with fever and failure to thrive or abnormal neurologic signs. 2. Other findings in neonates include jaundice, decreased feeding, periods of apnea, and listlessness. 3. Patients younger than 1 month present with irritability, lethargy, vomiting, lack of appetite, and seizures.
1. Most urine specimens are obtained from adult patients via the clean-catch midstream technique. 2. Bacteriuria can be detected microscopically using Gram staining of uncentrifuged urine specimens, Gram staining of centrifuged specimens, or direct observation of bacteria in urine specimens. 3. On staining, E coliappear as non-spore-forming, Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium 4. Routine urine cultures should be plated using calibrated loops for the semi-quantitative method. Note: The most com...
E. coli typically produce positive test results for indole, lysine decarboxylase, lactose, and mannitol fermentation and produces gas from glucose. An isolate from urine can be quickly identified as E. coli by its hemolysis on blood agar, typical colonial morphology with an iridescent “sheen” on differential media such as EMB agar, and a positive spot indole test result. More than 90% of E. coliisolates are positive for β-glucuronidase using the substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-glucuronide (M...
1. ETEC: commercial immunoassays available for detecting ST in clinical specimens and cultures; PCR assays used with clinical specimens. 2. EPEC: Characteristic adherence to HEp-2 or HeLa cells; probes and amplification assays developed for the plasmid-encoded bundle-forming pili and gene targets on the “locus of enterocyte effacement” pathogenicity island. 3. EAEC: Characteristic adherence to HEp-2 cells; DNA probe and amplification assays developed for conserved plasmid. 4. STEC: Screen for...The sulfonamides, ampicillin, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides have marked antibacterial effects against the enterics, but variation in susceptibility is great, and laboratory...E. coli meningitis requires antibiotics, such as third-generation cephalosporins (eg, ceftriaxone).E. colipneumonia requires respiratory support, adequate oxygenation, and antibiotics, such as third-generation cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones.In most cases of diarrheal disease, antibiotics are not prescribed. The best way to treat E coli infection is to drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration and to get as much rest as possible. How...It is widely recommended that caution be observed in regard to food and drink in areas where environmental sanitation is poor and that early and brief treatment (eg, with ciprofloxacin or trimethop...Their control depends on handwashing, rigorous asepsis, sterilization of equipment, disinfection, restraint in intravenous therapy, and strict precautions in keeping the urinary tract sterile (ie,...Ananthanarayan and Paniker. Textbook of Microbiology.Bailey and Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology. Part 3. Section 7. Chapter 22. Enterobacteriaceae, 323.Mackie and McCartney Practical Medical Microbiology. Section B. Bacteria and Related Organisms. Chapter 20. Escherichia, 361.Murray, P. R., Rosenthal, K. S., & Pfaller, M. A. (2013). Medical microbiology. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders
2. Morphology and Staining of Escherichia Coli: E. coli is Gram-negative straight rod, 1-3 µ x 0.4-0.7 µ, arranged singly or in pairs (Fig. 28.1). It is motile by peritrichous flagellae, though some strains are non-motile. Spores are not formed. Capsules and fimbriae are found in some strains. 3. Cultural Characteristics of Escherichia Coli: