Escherichia coli (/ ˌ ɛ ʃ ə ˈ r ɪ k i ə ˈ k oʊ l aɪ /), also known as E. coli (/ ˌ iː ˈ k oʊ l aɪ /), is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
May 17, 2018 · MORPHOLOGY OF ESCHERICHIA COLI (E. COLI) Shape – Escherichia coli is a straight, rod shape (bacillus) bacterium. Size – The size of Escherichia coli is about 1–3 µm × 0.4–0.7 µm (micrometer). Arrangement Of Cells – Escherichia coli is arranged singly or in pairs. Motility – Escherichia coli is a motile bacterium.
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- Section I - Infectious Agent
- Section II - Hazard Identification
- Section III - Dissemination
- Section IV - Stability and Viability
- Section V – First Aid / Medical
- Section Vi - Laboratory Hazards
- Section VII – Exposure Controls / Personal Protection
- Section VIII – Handling and Storage
- Section IX - Regulatory and Other Information
NAME: Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: EPEC Footnote 1, Footnote 2, intestinal pathogenic E coli Footnote 3, acute and protracted infant diarrhea Footnote 4. CHARACTERISTICS: EnteropathogenicEscherichia coli (EPEC) are in the family Enterobacteriaceae Footnote 2. The bacteria are gram negative, rod shaped, non-spore forming, motile with peritrichous flagella or nonmotile, and grow on MacConkey agar (colonies are 2 to 3 mm in diameter and red or colorless) Footnote 5. They can grow under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and do not produce enterotoxins Footnote 1.
PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: EPEC cause acute, profuse, watery diarrhea, which rarely becomes persistent Footnote 1. Stools are typically not bloody, mucoid, or dysenteric. Low-grade fever with nausea and vomiting may be present Footnote 1, Footnote 6. EPEC is characterized by the formation of attaching-and-effacing lesions in the involved intestinal areas Footnote 7. Two groups of EPEC are now recognized, typical EPEC and atypical EPEC. Typical EPEC, a leading cause of infantile diarrhea in developing countries, is rare in industrialized countries, where atypical EPEC seems to be a more important cause of diarrhea Footnote 8. Typical and atypical EPEC also differ in genetic characteristics, serotypes, and virulence properties. Atypical EPEC is more closely related to Shiga toxin–producing E. coli (STEC), and like STEC these strains appear to be emerging pathogens Footnote 8. The atypical EPEC strains may be less virulent than the typical ones. One reason may be the lack of the EPEC adhe...
RESERVOIR: Typical EPEC: Humans Footnote 18. Atypical EPEC: dogs, cats, cattle, sheep, rabbits, monkeys and humans Footnote 8, Footnote 9. ZOONOSIS: Yes. May be transmitted when handling infected cattle, dogs, cats, sheep, rabbits, and horses Footnote 19. VECTORS: None.
DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY/RESISTANCE: Susceptible to carbapenem, fosfomycin-trometanol, nitrofurantoin, and bovine apo-lactoferrin. E. coli can be resistant to chloramphenicol, β lactams, nalidixic acid, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. Fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin enhance toxin production Footnote 3, Footnote 20. SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to a combination of 2,2-dibromo-2-cyanoacetamide (DBA) with sodium iodide (20:80 parts), iodine, 2 % glutaraldehyde, quaternary ammonium (20°C, 0.5 min), hypochlorite (0.525%, 20°C, 0.5 min), phenolics (20°C, 0.5 min), and ethyl alcohol (70%, 20°C, 0.5 min) Footnote 21-Footnote 23. PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Ozone can inactivate E. coli Footnote 24. E. coli is also sensitive to heat treatment, especially at temperatures of 70°C or higher Footnote 19, Footnote 25. SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: E. coli can survive for 1.5 hours to 16 months on dry inanimate surfaces Footnote 26.
SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms. Stool culture is a common method used to identify E. coli Footnote 27. DNA probes and techniques such as PCR can be applied directly to clinical samples and food Footnote 3. Both typical and atypical EPEC are most frequently identified by detection of the eae gene encoding the intimin protein. The presence of the eae gene and demonstration of the absence of the verotoxin (enterotoxin) gene are absolutely required for the molecular identification of EPEC Footnote 1. To identify typical EPEC, PCR or DNA hybridization methods can be used for detection of the EAF plasmid and the gene encoding bfp Footnote 1, Footnote 3. Additional tests that may be performed in some situations are the fluorescent actin staining test and adherence tests showing localized adherence (LA). Note: All diagnostic methods are not necessarily available in all countries. FIRST AID TREATMENT: Treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) or quinolones reduces the durati...
LABORATORY ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: 12 cases of laboratory acquired infections with E. coli have been reported, the majority of which have been caused by enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC) Footnote 29. SOURCES / SPECIMENS: Stools and fecally contaminated material Footnote 1, Footnote 6, Footnote 16. PRIMARY HAZARD: Ingestion Footnote 29. SPECIAL HAZARD: None.
RISK GROUP CLASSIFICATION: Risk Group 2 Footnote 30. CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Containment Level 2 facilities, equipment, and operational practices for work involving infectious or potentially infectious materials, animals, or cultures Footnote 31. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Lab coat. Gloves when direct skin contact with infected materials or animals is unavoidable. Eye protection must be used where there is a known or potential risk of exposure to splashes. OTHER PRECAUTIONS: All procedures that may produce aerosols, or involve high concentrations or large volumes should be conducted in a biological safety cabinet (BSC) Footnote 31. The use of needles, syringes, and other sharp objects should be strictly limited. Additional precautions should be considered with work involving animals or large scale activities.
SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle and, wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towels and apply an appropriate disinfectant, starting at the perimeter and working towards the centre. Allow sufficient contact time before clean up Footnote 31. DISPOSAL: Decontaminate all wastes that contain or have come in contact with the infectious organism by autoclave, chemical disinfection, gamma irradiation, or incineration before disposing Footnote 31. STORAGE: The infectious agent should be stored in leak-proof containers that are appropriately labeled Footnote 31.
REGULATORY INFORMATION: The import, transport, and use of pathogens in Canada is regulated under many regulatory bodies, including the Public Health Agency of Canada, Health Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Environment Canada, and Transport Canada. Users are responsible for ensuring they are compliant with all relevant acts, regulations, guidelines, and standards. UPDATED: December 2011 PREPARED BY: Pathogen Regulation Directorate, Public Health Agency of Canada Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Pathogen Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date. Copyright © Public Health Agency of Canada, 2011 Canada
Olsén A, Arnqvist A, Hammar M, Normark S. Environmental regulation of curli production in Escherichia coli. Infectious Agents and Disease. 2 (4), 272–274 (1993). Zogaj X, Bokranz W, Nimtz M, Romling U. Production of cellulose and curli fimbriae by members of the family Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract.
The gallbladder is initially sterile but often becomes infected by bacteria, predominantly E. coli, Klebsiella, Streptococcus, and Clostridium species. Inflammation can spread to the outer covering of the gallbladder and surrounding structures such as the diaphragm, causing referred right shoulder pain .
Escherichia coli. Four different strains of Escherichia coli on Endo agar with biochemical slope . Glucose fermentation with gas production, urea and H 2 S negative, lactose positive (with exception of strain D - "late lactose fermenter"; on Endo agar it looks like lactose negative).
Enterococcus faecalis – formerly classified as part of the group D Streptococcus system – is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans. Like other species in the genus Enterococcus, E. faecalis is found in healthy humans and can be used as a probiotic. The probiotic strains such as Symbioflor1 and ...
- The Disease
- Sources and Transmission
- Prevention Methods
- Who Response
Campylobacteriosis is the disease caused by the infection with Campylobacter: 1. The onset of disease symptoms usually occurs 2 to 5 days after infection with the bacteria, but can range from 1 to 10 days. 2. The most common clinical symptoms of Campylobacterinfections include diarrhoea (frequently bloody), abdominal pain, fever, headache, nausea, and/or vomiting. The symptoms typically last 3 to 6 days. 3. Death from campylobacteriosis is rare and is usually confined to very young children or elderly patients, or to those already suffering from another serious disease such as AIDS. 4. Complications such as bacteraemia (presence of bacteria in the blood), hepatitis, pancreatitis (infections of liver and pancreas, respectively), and miscarriage have been reported with various degrees of frequency. Post-infection complications may include reactive arthritis (painful inflammation of the joints which can last for several months) and neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome...
Campylobacterspecies are widely distributed in most warm-blooded animals. They are prevalent in food animals such as poultry, cattle, pigs, sheep and ostriches; and in pets, including cats and dogs. The bacteria have also been found in shellfish. The main route of transmission is generally believed to be foodborne, via undercooked meat and meat products, as well as raw or contaminated milk. Contaminated water or ice is also a source of infection. A proportion of cases occur following contact with contaminated water during recreational activities. Campylobacteriosis is a zoonosis, a disease transmitted to humans from animals or animal products. Most often, carcasses or meat are contaminated by Campylobacter from faeces during slaughtering. In animals, Campylobacterseldom causes disease. The relative contribution of each of the above sources to the overall burden of disease is unclear but consumption of undercooked contaminated poultry is believed to be a major contributor. Since comm...
Treatment is not generally required, except electrolyte replacement and rehydration. Antimicrobial treatment is recommended in invasive cases (when bacteria invade the intestinal mucosa cells and damage the tissues) or to eliminate the carrier state (the condition of people who harbour Campylobacterin their bodies and keep shedding the bacteria while remaining asymptomatic).
There are a number of strategies that can be used to prevent disease from Campylobacter: 1. Prevention is based on control measures at all stages of the food chain, from agricultural production on a farm, to processing, manufacturing and preparation of foods both commercially and domestically. 2. In countries without adequate sewage disposal systems, faeces and articles soiled with faeces may need to be disinfected before disposal. 3. Measures to reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter in poultry include enhanced biosecurity to avoid transmission of Campylobacterfrom the environment to the flock of birds on the farm. This control option is feasible only where birds are kept in closed housing conditions. 4. Good hygienic slaughtering practices reduce the contamination of carcasses by faeces, but will not guarantee the absence of Campylobacterfrom meat and meat products. Training in hygienic food handling for abattoir workers and raw meat producers is essential to keep contamination to...
In partnership with other stakeholders, WHO is strongly advocating the importance of food safety as an essential element in ensuring access to safe and nutritious diets. WHO is providing policies and recommendations that cover the entire food chain from production to consumption, making use of different types of expertise across different sectors. WHO is working towards the strengthening of food safety systems in an increasingly globalized world. Setting international food safety standards, enhancing disease surveillance, educating consumers and training food handlers in safe food handling are amongst the most critical interventions in the prevention of foodborne illnesses. In collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the WHO Collaborating Centre at the University of Utrecht, WHO published the report The global view of campylobacteriosis in 2012. 1. The global view of campylobacteriosis WH...
Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It shows swarming motility and urease activity. P. mirabilis causes 90% of all Proteus infections in humans. It is widely distributed in soil and water. Proteus mirabilis can migrate across the surface of solid media or devices using a type of cooperative group ...