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  1. CDC H1N1 Flu - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention › h1n1flu › callcenters
    • Introduction
    • Overview
    • Step 1 – Identify and Meet with Your Key Partners
    • Step 2 – Discuss What You Want to Accomplish
    • Step 3 – Identify Your Concept of Operations
    • Step 4 – Determine How You Can Accomplish Your Objective
    • Step 5 – Prepare For The Next Wave
    • Resources

    During a response to a large-scale influenza outbreak such as the current H1N1 outbreak, a community’s 9-1-1 and healthcare systems may experience a surge in calls or walk-in visits for care, advice, and information. In fact, call volumes or walk-in visits could reach the point of overwhelming the 9-1-1 and healthcare systems, rendering them unable to respond to other emergencies in an efficient and effective manner. In those instances, community planners should take steps to divert unnecessary calls away from the community 9-1-1 system and non-critically ill patients away from the healthcare system to reserve both for actual emergency situations. This implementation tool provides a step-by-step approach to achieving this objective by focusing on alternative call center resources.

    The process for managing calls and call centers is not an exact science. It is not a one-size-fits-all process. Each community varies in size, capacities, and capabilities. Some communities have a wealth of resources at their disposal; others do not. This tool is provided under the premise that each community will work with the resources and tools currently available to it. It is not the intent of this tool to dictate that a community develops a new and perhaps costly process or system. Instead, this tool is intended to encourage a community to examine existing resources that might not have otherwise been considered. However, those communities with very limited resources may need to contact their state agencies (e.g., public health and emergency management) for assistance.

    The first step to managing calls and call centers is to bring together a team of key partners to help you work through this step-by-step process. Your key partners will be your subject matter experts. They should be able to guide you on the logistical, operational, technological, and legal aspects of managing calls and call centers. Your key partners will be representatives from your local public health department, emergency management agency, 9-1-1 authority, 9-1-1 call center, Emergency Medical Services (EMS), N-1-1 call centers (such as 2-1-1 or 3-1-1), healthcare agencies, and pertinent government officials. The desired representation from these agencies is shown in Table 1. (For those communities with limited resources, equivalent representation from state agencies may be needed.) Note: This list is not all inclusive. As you discuss your objectives and tasks with your key partners, the need for bringing in other partners may be identified.

    Once you have assembled your key partners, you will need to discuss your objective, which is to divert unnecessary calls away from the community 9-1-1 system and non-critically ill patients away from the healthcare system to reserve both for actual emergency situations. Your discussion will focus on three probable courses of action to achieve this objective: 1. Route non-emergency calls to call centers that are adequately staffed and equipped to manage them. 2. Accurately triage people with medical needs to direct them to the healthcare setting that is best equipped to care for them, thus reducing surge on the healthcare system. 3. Disseminate information to the public to direct them not to call 9-1-1 unless it is an emergency and also to direct them on other actions to take or not to take (e.g., Don’t go to a hospital until you have called a medical advice/treatment line.). Also, provide the public with information in advance so that they will not need to call to ask for it. Your k...

    Your community’s response to a large-scale influenza outbreak (or other public health emergency) will operate under the framework of its Incident Command System (ICS). As such, your management of calls and call centers (i.e., your call center system) also will operate within this framework. With the assistance of your key partners, you need to identify four key points that will determine your concept of operations: 1. Trigger(s)– What set of circumstances during a large-scale public health emergency causes ICS to be activated? What set of circumstances causes your call center system to be activated? 2. Chain of Command– Who activates your community’s ICS? Who is the Incident Commander? Who activates your call center system? Who is the "Call Center Commander?" 3. Operations– How does your call center system get activated (i.e., how do its parts get set into motion)? How does it get scaled down as the public health threat subsides? 4. Liaison(s)– Who will represent the call center sys...

    Single Entry Point

    The most effective approach to directing non-emergency calls to other call centers is to use a "single-entry-point approach," or, in other words, provide a single dial-in number to a system that can route the call to the appropriate call center. As you know, people are very familiar with the single number 9-1-1; they also can be familiarized with a second number. Additionally, using an existing call center as a single entry point is desirable because setting up a dedicated line or new call ce...

    Routing Calls Manually

    The calls coming into your single entry point will be from people seeking medical advice/treatment or general information. A simple set of questions (such as "Do you need medical treatment?") can help the call screener route the call to the appropriate call center. Therefore, you will need to provide the call screener with questions to ask to assist them in determining where to direct the call. Your key partners can help in the development of these questions. Additionally, the involvement of...

    Routing Calls Technologically

    Using a single-entry-point approach, calls can be routed technologically through: 1. Interactive Voice Response (IVR) – An automated phone system that allows a caller to make a selection from a voice menu using either the telephone’s keypad or through a voice response. The system plays voice prompts that lead the caller through a series of menu options (e.g., Press or say 1 for Customer Service) to direct the call to the appropriate endpoint. IVR also allows the caller to listen to prerecorde...

    The current wave of H1N1 is not as severe as previously expected or anticipated in prior community public health planning. However, future waves of the virus or new viruses may be more severe than what is being seen today which will result in even higher call volumes to a community’s 9-1-1 system. In addition, many calls requiring medical triage or clinical guidance—as opposed to general information—can be expected. As a result, to prepare for the next wave, communities should continue looking at ways to manage calls and call centers with an eventual goal being to develop a coordinated call center system, for which future implementation guidance may be forthcoming. In the interim, it would be helpful to look at what other communities have done with regard to coordinating call centers to find out how they accomplished the task and what lessons they learned from it. It also would be helpful to bring in more key partners to discuss call center capacities, capabilities, and technologies...

  2. CDC H1N1 Flu - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention › h1n1flu › cphp_onlinetraining
    • Alabama/Louisiana
    • California
    • Florida
    • Iowa/Upper Midwest
    • Michigan
    • Minnesota
    • North Carolina
    • Washington

    South Central Center for Public Health Preparedness

    This course will introduce participants to basic concepts and terminology of infectious diseases. Topics include: transmission dynamics of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases; various factors that contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of key infectious diseases; steps and decision points in managing an outbreak; specific intervention and prevention strategies, including those relating to the protection of public health workers; and the role of state health departments vis-à-vi...

    Berkeley Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness at University of California at Berkeley School of Public Health

    In an era of heightened focus of the effects of healthcare-associated infections, antibiotic-resistant organisms, nationwide food borne outbreaks, and a looming threat of pandemic influenza, hand hygiene (or the lack thereof) is also entering the national awareness. Are you wondering how one could talk about hand hygiene for 90 minutes? Check it out. This workshop will review the whos, whats, whys, and hows of hand hygiene. Practical knowledge and references will be provided. How much do you...

    Florida Center for Public Health Preparedness University of South Florida College of Public Health

    Understand common communicable and infectious disease terms. The Florida Center for Public Health Preparedness: Basic Epidemiology Overview Understand methods for developing/writing/testing field questionnaires. The Florida Center for Public Health Preparedness: Field Questionnaire Methodology Increase awareness of interview techniques & strategies. The Florida Center for Public Health Preparedness: Basic Interview Techniques Understand the steps of contact investigation & strategies to emplo...

    Upper Midwest Center for Public Health Preparedness

    This course is intended for laboratorians who handle biological and microbiological samples in clinical, reference, public health, animal, research or teaching laboratories. Prepare Iowa: Avoiding Laboratory Acquired Infections Video archive of Grand Rounds presentation, November 13, 2007. University Of Iowa College of Public Health: Pigs and Public Health: An Overview of Zoonotic Diseases of Swine Contact: Angela Harding Phone: (319) 335-8451 Email:

    Michigan Center for Public Health Preparedness at the University of Michigan School of Public Health

    This is a ten-module course that explains the role of federal quarantine stations, as well as other agencies and partners, in communicable disease control at airports, seaports and land borders. The role of public health professionals, acting as surge capacity personnel, to support quarantine station personnel is described. Information about screening, detecting and intervening with passengers ill or at risk for serious communicable diseases is explained. Each module may be taken by itself. U...

    University of Minnesota Center for Public Health Preparedness at University of Minnesota School of Public Health

    This training defines traditional and syndromic surveillance methods and explains how disease outbreaks are detected and investigated. University of Minnesota: Mass Dispensing Sites: A Primer for Volunteers Contact: Sue Larson Phone: (612) 626-4525 Email:

    North Carolina Center for Public Health Preparedness at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Public Health

    This training is an overview of Avian Influenza. On-line module (1/2 hour). University of North Carolina: Avian Influenza

    Northwest Center for Public Health Preparedness University of Washington School of Public Health

    This module outlines specific steps to take in determining if you have an outbreak on your hands, who should be involved in the investigation, the science behind it all, and how to communicate your findings to the public via the media. University of Washington: Introduction to Outbreak Investigation Contact: Luann D'Ambrosio Phone: (206) 543-2659 Email:

  3. People also ask

    Can a 1918-like H1N1 virus re-emerge?

    Is there an outbreak of H1N1 in China?

    How did H1N1 spread to the United States?

    Why was BSL-3 used for work on 1918 influenza pandemic?

  4. Dec 07, 2012 · The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.

  5. Feb 24, 2021 · Seasonal Influenza H1N1. Back. . 12. Updated Vaccine Guideline as on 24.02.2021 [147 KB] Technical Guidelines for H1N1. IEC on Seasonal FLU: for General Public [755 KB] State/UT - wise, Year-wise number of cases and deaths from 2016-2020 [204 KB] State/UT - wise, Year-wise number of cases and deaths from 2010-2015 [582 KB]

    • Background on The Research
    • Biosafety Precautions
    • Biosecurity Issues

    This report describes the successful reconstruction of the influenza A(H1N1) virus responsible for the 1918 “Spanish flu” pandemic and provides new information about the properties that contributed to its exceptional virulence. This information is critical to evaluating the effectiveness of current and future public health interventions, which could be used in the event that a 1918-like virus reemerges. The knowledge from this work may also shed light on the pathogenesis of contemporary human influenza viruses with pandemic potential. The natural emergence of another pandemic virus is considered highly likely by many experts, and therefore insights into pathogenic mechanisms can and are contributing to the development of prophylactic and therapeutic interventions needed to prepare for future pandemic viruses. The influenza pandemic of 1918-19 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, many more than the subsequent pandemics of the 20th century. The biological properties that c...

    The work described in this report was done using stringent biosafety and biosecurity precautions that are designed to protect workers and the public from possible exposure to this virus (for example, from accidental release of the virus into the environment). The 1918 virus used in these experiments has since been destroyed at CDC and does not pose any ongoing risk to the public. Before the experiments were begun, two tiers of internal CDC approval were conducted: an Institutional Biosafety Committee review and an Animal Care and Use Committee review. All viruses containing one or more gene segments from the 1918 influenza virus were generated and handled in accordance with biosafety guidelines of the Interim CDC-NIH Recommendation for Raising the Biosafety Level Laboratory Work Involving Noncontemporary Human Influenza Viruses. Although the 1918 virus was not designated as a select agent at the time this work was performed, all procedures were carried out using the heightened biose...

    No. Article I of the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) specifically allows for microbiological research for prophylactic, protective, or other peaceful purposes. Article X of the BWC encourages the “fullest possible exchange of…scientific and technological information” for the use of biological agents for the prevention of disease and other peaceful purposes. Further, Article X of the BWC provides that the BWC should not hamper technological development in the field of peaceful bacteriological activities. Because the emergence of another pandemic virus is considered likely, if not inevitable, characterization of the 1918 virus may enable us to recognize the potential threat posed by new influenza virus strains, and it will shed light on the prophylactic and therapeutic countermeasures that will be needed to control pandemic viruses. No. This report does not provide the blueprint for bioterrorist to develop a pandemic influenza strain. The reverse genetics system that was used to g...

  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention : H1N1 Flu ... › item › lcwaN0022325

    Centers for Disease Control, R.O.C. (Taiwan) Website detailing the incidence of and response to H1N1 (swine flu) in Taiwan. Archived pages appear in Chinese, however, the English version is accessible by clicking on the "English" tab in the...

  7. On the basis of these guidelines, the Shanghai Bureau of Health issued a working document for prevention and control of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Shanghai. Briefly, ill persons with a temperature > 37.5°C were asked to visit fever clinics in local general hospitals.

  8. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. Linking to a non-federal Website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.

  9. Aug 20, 2013 · After influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was identified in April 2009 (), it spread rapidly, largely through air travel by infected passengers ().On May 2, 2009, China implemented intensive screening of arriving air passengers by using thermal cameras to detect fever and a short questionnaire about existing respiratory symptoms and fever; passengers were advised to seek medical consultation if fever ...

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