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  1. The Chaldean dynasty, also known as the Neo-Babylonian dynasty and enumerated as Dynasty X of Babylon, was the ruling dynasty of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, ruling as kings of Babylon from the ascent of Nabopolassar in 626 BC to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC. The dynasty, as connected to Nabopolassar through descent, was deposed in 560 BC by the Aramean official Neriglissar, though he was connected to the Chaldean kings through marriage and his son and successor, Labashi-Marduk, might have reintr

    • 560 or 556 BC, (bloodline), 539 BC, (through marriage?)
    • Babylonia
  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › ChaldeaChaldea - Wikipedia

    From 626 BC to 539 BC, a ruling family referred to as the Chaldean dynasty, named after their possible Chaldean origin, ruled the kingdom at its height under the Neo-Babylonian Empire, although the final ruler of this empire, Nabonidus (556-539 BC) (and his son and regent Belshazzar) was a usurper of Assyrian ancestry.

  3. Sep 01, 2018 · Updated on September 01, 2018. The Chaldeans were an ethnic group that lived in Mesopotamia in the first millennium B.C. The Chaldean tribes started to migrate—from exactly where scholars aren't sure—into the south of Mesopotamia in the ninth century B.C. At this time, they began to take over the areas around Babylon, notes scholar Marc van de Mieroop in his A History of the Ancient Near East, along with another people called the Arameans.

    • Ancient History Expert
    • Background
    • Origins
    • Nabopolassar
    • Nebuchadnezzar II
    • Decline of Neo-Babylonia
    • Nerglissar
    • Achaemenid Empire
    • Sources

    Around 1000 BCE the civilization of Babyloniaexperienced a period of anarchy and instability which allowed nomadic tribes to settle down near its borders. One of these nomadic groups of people that settled down became the civilization of Chaldea. Chaldea Map - Chaldea (1874) The civilization of Chaldea would later become assimilated by Babylonia around 600 BCE when a Chaldean leader named Nabopolassar took control over Babylonia and both him and his son Nebuchadnezzar II oversaw the destruction of the Assyrian Empire.

    The original Semitic people of Chaldea settled down in the marshes in the southeastern corner of Mesopotamia on the right bank of the Euphrates River during the period of chaos in Babyloniabetween 1026 BCE and 911 BCE. They had arrived there from the Levant and took advantage of the power vacuum that occurred in the region to establish their own kingdom. They lived in the extremely infertile lands that connected the major river systems to the Persian Gulf. Ever since the times of Sumerthis soil has been plagued by a high level salinity which makes growing crops difficult. The northern area of the fertile crescent does not have this problem and therefore a wealth inequality gap was always present. Not only did this breed social discontent between the various populations of Mesopotamia but it was also a primary cause of the wars of conquest and empire in order to obtain access to the scarce natural resources required to build civilization in the desert. The Chaldeans at some point wer...

    Under Nabopolassar, Chaldea was able to take control of Babylonia and actually renamed it all Chaldea. This name did not stick as the Chaldean Dynasty of Babylonia was short lived yet it allowed the Chaldeans to assimilate into Babylonia culture. With the Assyrian Empire experiencing a period of instability, Nabopolassar took advantage of the situation and formed an alliance with Cyaxares of Mediaalong with many different groups of people including in order to overthrow the last remnants of t...

    With the collapse of the Assyrian Empire a new, Neo-Babylonia was created and Nabopolassar's son Nebuchadnezzar IIoversaw a golden age in Babylon. During this period many of the great wonders were constructed in Babylon that would later astonish the Greeks and other travelers from around the world. Mesopotamian Empires (600 BCE) - Historical Atlas (1923) Nebuchadnezzar II would also launch successful campaigns that would place the former territories of the Assyrian Empire including Aram, Phoenicia, Kingdom of Israel, Kingdom of Judah, and Philistia. and others in Asia minor and Arabia.

    Nebuchadnezzar would share power with his son Amel-Marduk (562-560 BCE) in his final year before dying in 562 BCE. Amel-Marduk would remain in power for two years before he was deposed in 560 BCE. He was succeeded by a man named Nerglissarwho may or may not have been Chaldean. If he was not Chaldean and in fact a Babylonian noble then this is where the Chaldean influence over Babylonia ends. While it was short lived, the Chaldean influence over Babylonia is immense in terms of culture and inf...

    Nerglissar (560-556 BCE) is known to have waged war against Greek settlers who began moving into the territories of the collapsed Hittite civilization. He only reigned for four years before being replaced by Labashi-Marduk (556 BCE) in 556 BCE. It is not clear weather he is a Chaldean or not as well. Labashi-Marduk was in power only a few months before he was replaced by an Assyrian known as Nabonidus. In fact it is ironic that he was from Harran the last Assyrian territory that the previous Chaldean dynasty had conquered in 608 BCE. Nabonidus was the final native king of Mesopotamia when the territory was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great.

    When the Babylonia civilization was absorbed into the Persian Empire the term Chaldea lost its meaning in reference to a particular state or people. This process is known as Akkadianizationand occurs when a civilization loses its independent identity and becomes part of the larger Assyrian-Babylonian mixed cultural identity. This meant they would have adopted the culture, religion, customs, language and beliefs of the larger civilization. Achaemenid Empire (500 BCE) - Historical Atlas (1923) This process also occurred with the Amorites, Kassites, Suteans and the Arameans. At this point in history the original people of Chaldea had virtually become assimilated by Babylonia and their histories inseparable. The word Chaldean would become a term that was applied to a specific group of astrologists and astronomers however, which is very interesting to note.

    Secondary Sources

    http://www.gutenberg.org/files/24654/24654-h/24654-h.htm

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    • History
    • Demographics
    • Chaldean Identity
    • Culture
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    Arab conquest

    The Chaldeans initially experienced some periods of religious and cultural freedom interspersed with periods of severe religious and ethnic persecution after Arab Islamic invasion and conquest of the 7th century AD. As heirs to ancient Mesopotamian civilisation, they also contributed hugely to the Arab Islamic Civilization during the Umayyads and the Abbasids by translating works of Greek philosophers to Syriac and afterwards to Arabic. They also excelled in philosophy, science and theology (...

    Mongolian and Turkic rule

    The region came under the control of the Mongol Empire after the fall of Baghdad in 1258. The Mongol khans were sympathetic with Christians and did not harm them. The most prominent among them was probably Isa, a diplomat, astrologer, and head of the Christian affairs in the Yuan Dynasty in East Asia. He spent some time in Persia under the Ilkhans. The 14th century AD massacres of Timur in particular, devastated the Chaldean people. Timur's massacres and pillages of all that was Christian dra...

    From Iranian Safavid to confirmed Ottoman rule

    The Ottomans secured their control over Mesopotamia and Syria in the first half of the 17th century following the Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–39) and the resulting Treaty of Zuhab. Non-Muslims were organised into millets. Syriac Christians, however, were often considered one millet alongside Armenians until the 19th century, when Nestorian, Syriac Orthodox and Chaldeans gained that right as well. A religious schism amongs the Chaldeans took place in the mid to late 16th century. Dissent over th...

    Homeland

    The Chaldeans are considered to be one of the indigenous people in the Middle East. Their homeland was thought to be located in the area around the Tigris and Euphrates. Chaldeans are traditionally from Iraq, south eastern Turkey, north western Iranand north eastern Syria. There is a significant Chaldean population in Syria, where an estimated 877,000 Chaldeans live. In Tur Abdin, known as a homeland for Chaldeans, there are only 3000 left, and an estimated 25,000 in all of Turkey. After the...

    Persecution

    Due to their Christian faith and ethnicity, the Chaldeans have been persecuted since their adoption of Christianity. During the reign of Yazdegerd I, Christians in Persia were viewed with suspicion as potential Roman subversives, resulting in persecutions while at the same time promoting Nestorian Christianity as a buffer between the Churches of Rome and Persia. Persecutions and attempts to impose Zoroastrianism continued during the reign of Yazdegerd II. During the eras of Mongol rule under...

    Chaldean Diaspora

    Since the Chaldean genocide, many Chaldeans have fled their homelands for a more safe and comfortable life in the West. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the Chaldean population in the Middle East has decreased dramatically. As of today there are more Chaldeans in Europe, North America, and Australia than in their naive homeland of Mesopotamia, also known as Iraq, Syria and Southern Turkey. Read more about the Chaldean Diaspora. A total of 550,000 Chaldeans live in Europe. Large Chalde...

    Chaldeans have several churches (see below). They speak, and many can read and write, dialects of Chaldean Neo-Aramaic. In certain areas of the Chaldean homeland, identity within a community depends on a person's village of origin (see List of Chaldean villages) or Christian denomination rather than their Chaldean ethnic commonality, for instance Chaldean Catholic. Neo-Aramaic exhibits remarkably conservative features compared with Imperial Aramaic.

    Chaldean culture is largely influenced by Christianity. Main festivals occur during religious holidays such as Easter and Christmas. There are also secular holidays such as Kha b-Nisan(vernal equinox). People often greet and bid relatives farewell with a kiss on each cheek and by saying "ܫܠܡܐ ܥܠܝܟ" Shlama/Shlomo lokh, which means: "Peace be upon you." Others are greeted with a handshake with the right hand only; according to Middle Eastern customs, the left hand is associated with evil. Similarly, shoes may not be left facing up, one may not have their feet facing anyone directly, whistling at night is thought to waken evil spirits, etc. There are many Chaldean customs that are common in other Middle Eastern cultures. A parent will often place an eye pendant on their baby to prevent "an evil eye being cast upon it".Spitting on anyone or their belongings is seen as a grave insult.

    Chaldeans of Mesopotamia (2015). Native Chaldean People of Mesopotamia Iraq, Syria, Turkey and Iran.

  5. The claims of ancient Chaldean so-called migration to Assyria during the Abbasid Dynasty. Few argue that a migration of ancient Chaldeans occurred during the Abbasid Dynasty rule, which started in AD 750, because of the persecution, killing and destruction of Christian properties in Babylonia.

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