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  1. Paradiso (Dante) - Wikipedia

    Dante meets Charles Martel of Anjou, who was known to him, and who points out that a properly functioning society requires people of many different kinds. Such differences are illustrated by Cunizza da Romano (lover of Sordello ), who is here in Heaven, while her brother Ezzelino III da Romano is in Hell , among the violent of the seventh circle.

  2. Joanna I of Naples - Wikipediaò

    Joanna's elder sister, Louise, had died in January 1326, and her only brother, Charles Martel, lived only eight days in April 1327. Charles of Calabria died unexpectedly on 9 November 1328. With his death, his father faced the problem of succession, because Charles' posthumous child was also a daughter, Maria.

    • 28 August 1344 (alone), 27 May 1352 (with Louis I)
    • Robert
    • 20 January 1343 – 12 May 1382
    • Charles III
  3. Divine Comedy - Wikipedia

    The Divine Comedy (Italian: Divina Commedia [diˈviːna komˈmɛːdja]) is a long Italian narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321. It is widely considered to be the pre-eminent work in Italian literature [1] and one of the greatest works of world literature . [2]

  4. Joanna I of Naples | Military Wiki | Fandom
    • Birth and Early Years
    • Accession to The Throne
    • Reign of Louis of Taranto
    • Personal Government
    • The Western Schism

    Most sources indicate that she was born in March 1328, although some indicate 1326 as the year of her birth. Joanna was the fourth but eldest surviving child of Charles, Duke of Calabria (eldest son of King Robert the Wise of Naples), and Marie of Valois (sister of King Philip VI of France). Her two older sisters: Eloisa (January or February 1325 – 27 December 1325) and Maria (April 1326 – 1328), and only brother: Charles Martel (13 April 1327 – 21 April 1327) had predeceased her, so at birth Joanna was the second in line to the throne after her father, who died on 9 November 1328, leaving his wife pregnant with their fifth child, a daughter named Maria, who was born in May 1329. Two years later, on 23 October 1331, Marie of Valois died during a pilgrimage to Bari. With the death of the Duke of Calabria, King Robert faced the serious problem of his succession (his second son Louis, was already dead in 1310): he had to choose between his eldest granddaughter or his nephews. Because t...

    Murder of Andrew of Hungary

    Almost immediately, the court was involved in violent political struggles among the members of the Angevinhouse, especially the closest relatives of King Robert's three brothers: 1. Charles Robert, from the Hungarian branch, son of Charles Martel of Anjou, king's elder brother. 2. Philip I, Prince of Taranto, the King's younger brother, whose 2nd wife was Catherine of Valois. 3. Charles, Duke of Durazzo son of John, Duke of Durazzo, the King's youngest brother, husband of Agnes of Périgord, s...

    War in the Piedmont

    When Joanna took the throne, several lords in northern Italy saw this as an opportunity to expand their territory at her expense. In 1344 John II, Marquess of Montferrat led attacks which conquered her cities of Alessandria, Asti, Tortona, Bra, and Alba. She sent her seneschal, Reforce d'Agoult, to deal with it. He engaged the invaders on 23 April 1345 at the Battle of Gamenario, but was soundly defeated and killed. Montferrat then went on to capture Chieri, within the lands of James of Piedm...

    Second marriage

    When she made public her plans to marry one of her Taranto cousins and not Andrew's younger brother Stephen, the Hungarians openly accused her of the murder. Louis of Taranto was a seasoned warrior, who understood Neapolitan politics from his lifetime experiences, raised at the court of Catherine of Valois, Joanna's aunt. After Joanna stated her intention to marry him, his brother Robertbanded together with his cousin (and erstwhile rival) Charles of Durazzo against them. Some of Joanna's cou...

    From early 1349 onwards, all documents for the Kingdom were issued in the names of both husband and wife, and Louis was indisputably in control of military fortresses. On coins issued during their joint reign, Louis' name always preceded Joanna's.Although he was not officially recognised by Clement as king and co-ruler until 1352, it is likely that Neapolitans considered him their monarch from the moment he started acting as such. Louis took advantage of the turmoil caused by yet another Hungarian attack to wrest complete royal authority from his wife. He purged the court of her supporters, and struck down her favourite, Enrico Caracciolo, whom he accused of adultery in April 1349 and very likely had executed.Two months later, on 8 June 1349, Catherine, Joanna and Louis' daughter, died aged 1. After another Hungarian offensive which led to the walls of Naples in 1350, Pope Clement VI sent a Legate, Raymond Saquet, Bishop of Saint-Omer, with a fleet commanded by Hugues des Baux.Follo...

    Third marriage

    The death of Louis of Taranto, a brutal and authoritarian husband, finally gave Joanna the opportunity to take back the power she had been denied. During the next three years, the Queen would take a series of measures that made her popular: she granted a pardon to Raymond des Baux on 20 March 1363, replaced Roger of San Severino by Fouques d'Agoult as Seneschal of Provence, and promulgated various edicts to prevent internal disorders. On 14 December 1362, Joanna contracted by proxy her third...

    Disturbance in Provence

    To assert the rights of the Holy Roman Empire over the Kingdom of Arles, Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia crossed Avignon, and was crowned on 4 June 1365 as King of Arles at the Church of St. Trophime, but guaranteed the rights of Joanna over Provence. Louis I, Duke of Anjou, brother of King Charles V of France and Lieutenant of Languedoc, asserted a claim to Provence. With the help of the armies of Bertrand du Guesclin, he launched an attack. Avignon was ransomed, Arles and...

    Administration and court

    After these periods of unrest, Joanna experienced a period of relative calm, thanks to her good relations with the Holy See under Popes Urban V and Gregory XI. Elzéar of Sabran was canonized in 1371. Bridget of Sweden visited Naples in 1372. Through the mediation of Gregory XI, the final peace treaty with Louis I of Anjou was signed on 11 April 1371, under which he gave up his claim over Tarascon. In addition, the Queen recovered her domains in Piedmont thanks to the success of the condottier...

    Fourth marriage

    Without surviving children, Joanna sought a solution to her succession by arranging the marriage in January 1369 between her niece Margaret of Durazzo (youngest daughter of her sister Maria and her first husband Charles, Duke of Durazzo), and her first-cousin Charles of Durazzo (in turn Joanna's second cousin; son of Louis, Count of Gravina). This wedding was opposed by her former brother-in-law and Margaret's stepfather Philip II, Prince of Taranto. During a near fatal illness in November 13...

    Louis of Anjou, heir of Naples

    During this time, the Western Schism developed, one of the largest fractures of Christianity in the Middle Ages. Two Popes were elected: Bartolomeo Prignano, Archbishop of Bari (who took the name of Urban VI) and Robert, Cardinal of Geneva (who became Clement VII). The first lived in Rome, the second in Avignon. After some hesitation, Joanna decided for Clement VII and supported him with 50,000 florins. Urban VI for his part encouraged the enemies of Joanna: the King of Hungary, the Duke of A...


    Louis I of Anjou finally decided to act and went to Avignon at the head of a powerful army on 31 May 1382 in order to rescue Joanna. He passed through Turin and Milan. Towards the beginning of September, he was in Amatrice, near Rome. But by that time the Queen was already dead. Charles of Durazzo, thinking that he couldn't resist Louis I of Anjou, had transferred Joanna at the fortress of San Fele, near Muro Lucano, where she was killed on 27 July 1382, aged 54. In his official statement, Ch...

    • March 1328 Naples
    • Robert
    • 27 July 1382 (aged 54) San Fele
    • Charles III
  5. Venus: (love) - Dante's Paradise

    Charles Martel (1271-1295): Kin of the Anjou family . Charles (never mentioning himself by name) is the first soul Dante speaks with in this sphere. Visited Florence before he died. Dante and Martel met during life, when Martel admired Dante’s handwriting and offered him a secretarial job. Celemence (1194-1259): Either the wife or daughter of ...

  6. Aix-en-Provence - Wikipedia

    Aix-en-Provence is situated in the south of France, in a plain overlooking the Arc river, about a mile from the right bank of the river. The city slopes gently from north to south and the Montagne Sainte-Victoire can easily be seen to the east.

  7. Paradiso (Dante) -

    Inferno (Dante) - Purgatorio - Divine Comedy - Beatrice Portinari - Empyrean - Primum Mobile - Charles Martel of Anjou - Celestial spheres - Heaven - Peter Damian - Cunizza da Romano - Justinian I - List of cultural references in the Divine Comedy - Cacciaguida - Siger of Brabant - Bede - Godfrey of Bouillon - Dante Alighieri and the Divine Comedy in popular culture - Charlemagne - Paradise ...

  8. Minos - Wikipedia

    Minos appears in Greek literature as the king of Knossos as early as Homer's Iliad and Odyssey. Thucydides tells us Minos was the most ancient man known to build a navy. He reigned over Crete and the islands of the Aegean Sea three generations before the Trojan War.

  9. 10+ Best merovingian images | merovingian, history, carolingian

    Nov 10, 2016 - Explore X. Hill's board "merovingian" on Pinterest. See more ideas about Merovingian, History, Carolingian.

  10. Paul I Šubić of BribirŠubić_of_Bribir

    Ban of Croatia - Battle of Bliska - George I Šubić of Bribir - Mladen I Šubić of Bribir - Charles I of Hungary - Mladen II Šubić of Bribir - George II Šubić of Bribir - Skradin - Andrew III of Hungary - Croatia in union with Hungary - Šubić family - List of rulers of Bosnia - Croatia - Franciscans - Capetian House of Anjou - Republic of Venice - Coin - Nelipić family - Dalmatia ...