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  1. Nov 09, 2021 · About Charles V of France. King of France from 1364 to 1380 who helped reclaim many territories lost to the British in the 100 Years' War. However, his son Charles VI succeeded him, and he lost most of the area that his father had reclaimed. Charles V of France before fame. Because of his short stature, he stood in stark contrast to his father.

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    Thomas Wolsey was born about 1473, the son of Robert Wolsey of Ipswich and his wife Joan Daundy. Widespread traditions identify his father as a butcher; his modest origin became a topic of criticism later, when he amassed wealth and power critics thought more befitting a member of the high nobility. Wolsey attended Ipswich School and Magdalen College School before studying theology at Magdalen College, Oxford. On 10 March 1498 he was ordained as a priest in Marlborough, Wiltshire, and remained in Oxford, first as the Master of Magdalen College School, and soon the dean of divinity. From 1500 to 1509 Wolsey held a living as rector of St Mary's church, Limington, in Somerset. In 1502, he became a chaplain to Henry Deane, archbishop of Canterbury, who died the following year. He was then taken into the household of Sir Richard Nanfan, who made Wolsey executor of his estate. After Nanfan's death in 1507, Wolsey entered the service of King Henry VII. Wolsey benefited from Henry VII's int...

    War with France

    The Anglo-French War (1512–14) gave Wolsey a significant opportunity to demonstrate his talents in foreign policy. A convenient justification for going to war came in 1511 in the form of a plea for help from Pope Julius II, who was beginning to feel threatened by France. England formed an alliance with Julius, King Ferdinand V of Spain, and Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor against King Louis XII of France. The first English campaign against France proved unsuccessful, partly due to the unreli...

    Papal legate

    The 1516 death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, Henry VIII's father-in-law and England's closest ally, was a further blow. Ferdinand was succeeded by Charles V, who immediately proposed peace with France. After Maximilian I's death in 1519, Charles was elected in his stead; thus Charles ruled a substantial portion of Europe and English influence became limited on the continent. But Wolsey managed to assert English influence by other means. In 1517, Pope Leo X sought peace in Europe to form a crusad...

    Field of the Cloth of Gold

    Another of Wolsey's diplomatic triumphs was the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520.Wolsey organised much of this grandiose meeting between Francis I and Henry VIII, accompanied by 5,000 followers and involving court activities more than military discussion. Though it seemed to open the door to peaceful negotiations with France if the king wished, it was also a chance for a lavish display of English wealth and power before the rest of Europe, through flamboyant celebrations and events such as...

    During his 14 years as chancellor, Wolsey had more power than any other Crown servant in English history. This led to his being hated by much of the nobility, who thought they should have the power. The king protected him from being attacked. Sara Nair James, a professor at Mary Baldwin College, says that in 1515–1529 Wolsey "would be the most powerful man in England except, possibly, for the king". As long as he was in the king's favour, Wolsey had great freedom in domestic matters, and had his hand in nearly every aspect of them. For much of the time, Henry VIII had complete confidence in him, and as Henry's interests inclined more towards foreign policy, he was willing to give Wolsey free rein in reforming the management of domestic affairs, for which Wolsey had grand plans. Historian John Guyexplains Wolsey's methods: Operating with the king's firm support, and with special powers over the church given by the Pope as legate, Wolsey dominated civic affairs, administration, the la...

    In spite of having many enemies, Wolsey retained Henry VIII's confidence until Henry decided to seek an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. Wolsey's failure to secure the annulment directly caused his downfall and arrest. It was rumoured that Anne Boleyn and her faction convinced Henry that Wolsey was deliberately slowing proceedings; as a result, he was arrested in 1529, and the Pope decided that the official decision should be made in Rome, not England. In 1529 Wolsey was stripped of his government office and property, including his magnificently expanded residence of Hampton Court, which Henry took to replace the Palace of Westminster as his own main London residence. Wolsey was permitted to remain Archbishop of York. He travelled to Yorkshire for the first time in his career, but at Cawood in North Yorkshire, he was accused of treason and ordered to London by Henry Percy, 6th Earl of Northumberland. In great distress, he set out f...

    Wolsey lived in a "non-canonical" marriage for around a decade with a woman called Joan Larke of Yarmouth, Norfolk. The edict that priests, regardless of their functions or the character of their work, should remain celibate had not been wholeheartedly accepted in England. Wolsey subsequently had two children, both before he was made bishop: a son, Thomas Wynter (born circa 1510), and a daughter, Dorothy (born circa 1512), both of whom lived to adulthood. The son was sent to live with a family in Willesden and tutored in his early years by Maurice Birchinshaw. He later married and had children of his own. Dorothy was adopted by John Clansey, and was in due course placed in the convent at Shaftesbury Abbey. Following the dissolution of the monasteries under Thomas Cromwell she was awarded a pension. Following his rapid promotion, Larke became a source of embarrassment to Wolsey, who arranged for her marriage to George Legh of Adlington, in Cheshire, circa 1519. He provided the dowry....

    Wolsey plays a major role in the early stages of the Autobiography of Henry VIII by Margaret George.
    Wolsey is the primary antagonist of William Shakespeare's Henry VIII, which depicts him as an arrogant power-grabber. Henry Irving, Walter Hampden and John Gielgud were well known for their stage p...
    Wolsey is a minor but important character in Robert Bolt's play A Man for All Seasons; he was played in the two film versions of the play by Orson Welles (1966) and John Gielgud (1988), respectively.
    Wolsey was portrayed somewhat more sympathetically in the film Anne of the Thousand Days (1969), a performance that earned Anthony Quayle an Academy Awardnomination.

    Before Wolsey was removed from power, he planned to make his home town of Ipswich a seat of learning. He built a substantial college, which for two years, 1528–1530, was parent of the Queen Elizabeth School or Ipswich School, which today flourishes on another site. All that remains of Wolsey's structure is the former waterside gate, figured by Francis Grose in his Antiquities, which can still be seen on College Street. In 1930 Wolsey was commemorated in Ipswich with a substantial Pageant Play. He is far from forgotten in the town of Ipswich, an appeal having been launched in October 2009 to erect a statue there as a permanent commemoration. Arising from this project, a more-than-life-sized bronze statue to Cardinal Wolsey, shown seated facing south towards St Peter's Church (the former mediaeval Augustinian Priory Church of St Peter and St Paul, which Wolsey annexed as the chapel of his College of Ipswich), teaching from a book, with a familiar cat at his side, was unveiled from ben...

    Cardinal Wolsey's bust was used in the 1980s above the London Transport roundel on London's busesin west and south-west London as the symbol of the Cardinal bus district, which was named after him and his residence at Hampton Court.

    Thomas Wolsey at Find a Grave
    "Archival material relating to Thomas Wolsey". UK National Archives.
    Portraits of Thomas Wolsey at the National Portrait Gallery, London
  2. Nov 08, 2021 · When Emperor Charles V. possessions were divided among his son and his brother in 1556, Artois was allocated to King Philipp II. of Spain (as part of the now Spanish Netherlands). In 1659 Artois was annexed by France. Separate County From 898 and 1180, Artois was part of the County of Flanders (within the Kingdom of France). Reestablished as a ...

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  4. › wiki › Louis_XIII_of_FranceLouis XIII - Wikipedia

    Nov 16, 2021 · Louis XIII, taciturn and suspicious, relied heavily on his chief ministers, first Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes and then Cardinal Richelieu, to govern the Kingdom of France. The King and the Cardinal are remembered for establishing the Académie française , and ending the revolt of the French nobility .

  5. Nov 24, 2021 · Reflections of an Aryan woman, 52. It is certain that the decision of the young corporal Hitler, of the 16th Bavarian infantry regiment, to ‘become a politician’ [1] —a decision taken at the announcement of the capitulation of November 1918 in the tragic circumstances of which everyone knows [2]—isn’t enough to explain the ...

  6. › wiki › Holy_Roman_EmpireHoly Roman Empire - Wikipedia

    Nov 04, 2021 · Before Charles's reign in the Holy Roman Empire began, in 1517, Martin Luther launched what would later be known as the Reformation. At this time, many local dukes saw it as a chance to oppose the hegemony of Emperor Charles V .

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