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      • The First Cholera Pandemic The first cholera pandemic emerged out of the Ganges Delta with an outbreak in Jessore , India, in 1817, stemming from contaminated rice. The disease quickly spread throughout most of India, modern-day Myanmar, and modern-day Sri Lanka by traveling along trade routes established by Europeans.
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  2. Cholera outbreaks and pandemics - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera_outbreaks_and...

    Seven cholera pandemics have occurred in the past 200 years, with the first pandemic originating in India in 1817. Additionally, there have been many documented cholera outbreaks , such as a 1991–1994 outbreak in South America and, more recently, the 2016–20 Yemen cholera outbreak .

  3. Cholera - HISTORY

    www.history.com/topics/inventions/history-of-cholera

    Mar 24, 2020 · The First Cholera Pandemic The first cholera pandemic emerged out of the Ganges Delta with an outbreak in Jessore, India, in 1817, stemming from contaminated rice. The disease quickly spread...

    • 3 min
  4. WHO | Cholera: The Forgotten Pandemic

    www.who.int/cholera/the-forgotten-pandemic/en

    Oct 22, 2018 · Cholera: The Forgotten Pandemic . Updated 22 October 2018. Many people think of cholera as a 19th century disease. This is true for high-income countries. But elsewhere, cholera never went away. The current pandemic - the 7th that has been recorded - has been ongoing since 1961. It is the world’s longest running pandemic.

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  5. Cholera - Cholera through history | Britannica

    www.britannica.com/science/cholera/Cholera...

    Cholera did not spread widely again until 1961, the beginning of the seventh pandemic. Unlike earlier pandemics, which began in the general area of the delta region of the Ganges River, this pandemic began on the island of Celebes in Indonesia. The seventh pandemic spread throughout Asia during the 1960s.

  6. General Information | Cholera | CDC

    www.cdc.gov/cholera/general

    A person can get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. In an epidemic, the source of the contamination is usually the feces of an infected person that contaminates water and/or food. The disease can spread rapidly in areas with inadequate treatment of sewage and drinking water.

  7. Cholera - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic

    www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cholera/...
    • Overview
    • Symptoms
    • Causes
    • Risk Factors
    • Complications
    • Prevention

    Cholera is a bacterial disease usually spread through contaminated water. Cholera causes severe diarrhea and dehydration. Left untreated, cholera can be fatal in a matter of hours, even in previously healthy people.Modern sewage and water treatment have virtually eliminated cholera in industrialized countries. The last major outbreak in the United States occurred in 1911. But cholera is still present in Africa, Southeast Asia and Haiti. The risk of cholera epidemic is highest when poverty, wa...

    Most people exposed to the cholera bacterium (Vibrio cholerae) don't become ill and never know they've been infected. Yet because they shed cholera bacteria in their stool for seven to 14 days, they can still infect others through contaminated water. Most symptomatic cases of cholera cause mild or moderate diarrhea that's often hard to distinguish from diarrhea caused by other problems.Only about 1 in 10 infected people develops more-serious signs and symptoms of cholera, usually within a few...

    A bacterium called Vibrio cholerae causes cholera infection. However, the deadly effects of the disease are the result of a potent toxin called CTX that the bacterium produce in the small intestine. CTX binds to the intestinal walls, where it interferes with the normal flow of sodium and chloride. This causes the body to secrete enormous amounts of water, leading to diarrhea and a rapid loss of fluids and salts (electrolytes).Contaminated water supplies are the main source of cholera infectio...

    Everyone is susceptible to cholera, with the exception of infants who derive immunity from nursing mothers who have previously had cholera. Still, certain factors can make you more vulnerable to the disease or more likely to experience severe signs and symptoms. Risk factors for cholera include: 1. Poor sanitary conditions. Cholera is more likely to flourish in situations where a sanitary environment — including a safe water supply — is difficult to maintain. Such conditions are common to ref...

    Cholera can quickly become fatal. In the most severe cases, the rapid loss of large amounts of fluids and electrolytes can lead to death within two to three hours. In less extreme situations, people who don't receive treatment may die of dehydration and shock hours to days after cholera symptoms first appear.Although shock and severe dehydration are the most devastating complications of cholera, other problems can occur, such as: 1. Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Dangerously low levels of bl...

    Cholera is rare in the United States with the few cases related to travel outside the U.S. or to contaminated and improperly cooked seafood from the Gulf Coast waters.If you're traveling to cholera-endemic areas, your risk of contracting the disease is extremely low if you follow these precautions: 1. Wash hands with soap and water frequently, especially after using the toilet and before handling food. Rub soapy, wet hands together for at least 15 seconds before rinsing. If soap and water are...

  8. Cholera - World Health Organization

    www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cholera
    • Symptoms
    • History
    • Vibrio cholerae Strains
    • Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Disease Burden
    • Prevention and Control
    • Surveillance
    • Water and Sanitation Interventions
    • Treatment
    • Hygiene Promotion and Social Mobilisation
    • Oral Cholera Vaccines
    • Who Response
    • References

    Cholera is an extremely virulent disease that can cause severe acute watery diarrhoea. It takes between 12 hours and 5 days for a person to show symptoms after ingesting contaminated food or water (2). Cholera affects both children and adults and can kill within hours if untreated. Most people infected with V. cholerae do not develop any symptoms, although the bacteria are present in their faeces for 1-10 days after infection and are shed back into the environment, potentially infecting other...

    During the 19th century, cholera spread across the world from its original reservoir in the Ganges delta in India. Six subsequent pandemics killed millions of people across all continents. The current (seventh) pandemic started in South Asia in 1961, and reached Africa in 1971 and the Americas in 1991. Cholera is now endemic in many countries.

    There are many serogroups of V. cholerae, but only two – O1 and O139 – cause outbreaks. V. cholerae O1 has caused all recent outbreaks. V. cholerae O139 – first identified in Bangladesh in 1992 – caused outbreaks in the past, but recently has only been identified in sporadic cases. It has never been identified outside Asia. There is no difference in the illness caused by the two serogroups.

    Cholera can be endemic or epidemic. A cholera-endemic area is an area where confirmed cholera cases were detected during the last 3 years with evidence of local transmission (meaning the cases are not imported from elsewhere). A cholera outbreak/epidemic can occur in both endemic countries and in countries where cholera does not regularly occur.In cholera endemic countries an outbreak can be seasonal or sporadic and represents a greater than expected number of cases. In a country where choler...

    A multifaceted approach is key to control cholera, and to reduce deaths. A combination of surveillance, water, sanitation and hygiene, social mobilisation, treatment, and oral cholera vaccines are used.

    Cholera surveillance should be part of an integrated disease surveillance system that includes feedback at the local level and information-sharing at the global level.Cholera cases are detected based on clinical suspicion in patients who present with severe acute watery diarrhoea. The suspicion is then confirmed by identifying V. cholerae in stool samples from affected patients. Detection can be facilitated using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), where one or more positive samples triggers a cho...

    The long-term solution for cholera control lies in economic development and universal access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation. Actions targeting environmental conditions include the iimplementation of adapted long-term sustainable WASH solutions to ensure use of safe water, basic sanitation and good hygiene practices in cholera hotspots. In addition to cholera, such interventions prevent a wide range of other water-borne illnesses, as well as contributing to achieving goals rela...

    Cholera is an easily treatable disease. The majority of people can be treated successfully through prompt administration of oral rehydration solution (ORS). The WHO/UNICEF ORS standard sachet is dissolved in 1 litre (L) of clean water. Adult patients may require up to 6 L of ORS to treat moderate dehydration on the first day. Severely dehydrated patients are at risk of shock and require the rapid administration of intravenous fluids. These patients are also given appropriate antibiotics to di...

    Health education campaigns, adapted to local culture and beliefs, should promote the adoption of appropriate hygiene practices such as hand-washing with soap, safe preparation and storage of food and safe disposal of the faeces of children. Funeral practices for individuals who die from cholera must be adapted to prevent infection among attendees.Further, awareness campaigns should be organised during outbreaks, and information should be provided to the community about the potential risks and...

    Currently there are three WHO pre-qualified oral cholera vaccines (OCV): Dukoral®, Shanchol™, and Euvichol-Plus®. All three vaccines require two doses for full protection. Dukoral® is administered with a buffer solution that, for adults, requires 150 ml of clean water. Dukoral can be given to all individuals over the age of 2 years. There must be a minimum of 7 days, and no more than 6 weeks, delay between each dose. Children aged 2 -5 require a third dose. Dukoral® is mainly used for travell...

    In 2014 the Global Task Force on Cholera Control (GTFCC), with its Secretariat based at WHO, was revitalised. The GTFCC is a network of more than 50 partners active in cholera control globally, including academic institutions, non-governmental organisations and United Nations agencies. Through the GTFCC and with support from donors, WHO works to: 1. promote the design and implementation of global strategies to contribute to capacity development for cholera prevention and control globally; 2....

    (1) Updated global burden of cholera in endemic countries.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4455997/ Ali M, Nelson AR, Lopez AL, Sack D. (2015). PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9(6): e0003832. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003832. (2) The incubation period of cholera: a systematic review.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23201968Azman AS, Rudolph KE, Cummings DA, Lessler J. J Infect. 2013;66(5):432-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2012.11.013. PubMed PMID: 23201968; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3677557.(3) Cho...

  9. Cholera: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention

    www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/cholera-faq

    Cholera is an infectious disease that causes severe watery diarrhea, which can lead to dehydration and even death if untreated. It is caused by eating food or drinking water contaminated with a...

    • Mary Anne Dunkin
    • 1 min
  10. The Worst Outbreaks in U.S. History - Healthline

    www.healthline.com/health/worst-disease...
    • 1633-1634: Smallpox from European settlers. Smallpox came to North America in the 1600s. Symptoms included high fever, chills, severe back pain, and rashes.
    • 1793: Yellow fever from the Caribbean. One humid summer, refugees fleeing a yellow fever epidemic in the Caribbean Islands sailed into Philadelphia, carrying the virus with them.
    • 1832-1866: Cholera in three waves. The United States had three serious waves of cholera, an infection of the intestines, between 1832 and 1866. The pandemic began in India and swiftly spread across the globe through trade routes.
    • 1858: Scarlet fever also came in waves. Scarlet fever is a bacterial infection that can occur after strep throat. Like cholera, scarlet fever epidemics came in waves.