Christopher II (Christoffer 2.) 25 January 1320 – 1326 (deposed) 29 September 1276 second son of Eric V and Agnes of Brandenburg: Euphemia of Pomerania c. 1300 six children 2 August 1332 Nykøbing Castle aged 55 Eric (Erik Christoffersen) 1321–1326 (deposed) c. 1307 eldest son of Christopher II and Euphemia of Pomerania: Elizabeth of ...
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
This page was last edited on 30 August 2018, at 20:00. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply.
- 18th Century Merchant Flag
- 18th Century Naval Ensign
- Original Flag, Based on An Illustration
Among the independent nations recognised by the UN, the Danish flag is generally considered as the oldest continuously used national flag in the world. Regions, counts, kings and the like have had flags or banners older than Dannebrog, but no sovereign nation has used the same flag as long as Denmark. Dennis Nielsen,18 April 2001 Legend relates that the "Dannebrog" fell from the skies on 15 June 1219, the day in which King Waldemar II defeated the Estonians in battle. The cross represents, unsurprisingly, Christianity. Legend aside, there is a small controversy around the idea that the design was linked somehow to an ensign of the Holy Roman Empire. A white cross on a red background was used by the Empire in many of its provinces. A problem with this hypothesis exists in the fact that Denmark was never a province of the Holy Roman Empire. This question remains unresolved. The Danish flag has changed its proportions over the years. The 'splitflag' was first specified in 1696 and chan...
As illustrated inNational Geographic (1917), used in 1705 byŽeljko Heimer The modern national (so also the merchant) flag was defined in 1748. Before that this was the usual form of the flag, apparently, with the cross centered. That such flags were actually used confirms this historic event explainedhereregarding the defacing of the naval flags for use in the Mediterranean: Željko Heimer, 3 June 2004
As illustrated inNational Geographic (1917), used in 1705 byŽeljko Heimer Chris writes that "the 'splitflag' was first specified in 1696 and changed in 1856". Now, 1696 and 1705may be a bit too close for a flag chart of the period to be updated,so probably what we see here is the pre-1696 variant. Notice how theindentation is triangular rather than like in the modern shape(however, this may be a flag chart manufacturer's error also!) Željko Heimer, 3 June 2004 The information concerning the dates given was taken from Henning, Henningsen (1969) pp.29-31 (of which I have an extract), and was confirmed by "The National Flag" issued by the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 16-10-99. I have no note of any legislation or Decree of 1927, with both sources giving only 1856 for the current dimensions. The only other legislation I have concerning the 'splitflag' is the text of a Royal Decree dated 25 October 1939 which states that (at least I think that it does) 'The Naval Ensign is the s...
The civil ensign of Malta is (still, even if not used continuously) indeed the same red flag with the white cross throughout. The picture in the Gerle Armorial (1370-86), which is considered to be the oldest representation of the Dannebrog actually shows a short flag with centered cross throughout (see the reprint in Smith (1975)p. 64). I have resketched this flag: byŽeljko Heimer, 3 June 2004
People also ask
Where is the original flag of Denmark?
Who is the Crown Princess of Denmark?
Who was Christian IV of Denmark?
What did the paupers do in Denmark?
Valdemar II (9 May 1170 – 28 March 1241), called Valdemar the Victorious or Valdemar the Conqueror (Valdemar Sejr), was the King of Denmark from 1202 until his death in 1241. The nickname Sejr is a later invention and was not used during the King's own lifetime.
In the case of Denmark, the coat of arms of the House of Estridsen with the extinction of the dynasty became the "coat of arms of Denmark". Olaf II of Denmark (and IV of Norway) succeeded his maternal grandfather Valdemar IV in 1376. He was the first king to rule Norway and Denmark in personal union.
- from Vikings to Lutheranism
- War with Sweden, Allied to Napoleon, The Road to Democracy
- Denmark and Germany, More Social Reform
- Blossoming of Culture
- World War II and Post-War Culture
- Denmark and The EU
- Timeline: Danish History
Denmark's place in European history essentially began with the Viking Age, around 800 AD, when the Danes became notorious for plundering churches and monasteries. By 878 the Danes had conquered northern and eastern England, and by the 11th century King Canute (1014-35) ruled over a vast kingdom that included present-day Denmark, England, Norway, southern Sweden, and parts of Finland. Christianity was introduced to Denmark in 826 and became widespread during Canute's reign. After his death, Canute's empire disintegrated. During the 13th century, Waldemar II (1202-41) conquered present-day Schleswig-Holstein, Pomerania, Mecklenburg, and Estonia and re-established the nation as a great power in Northern Europe. A civil war, however, later broke out between the nobles and the king as each vied for control of the country. Christopher II (1320-32) was forced to make major concessions to the nobles and clergy at the expense of royal power, which was also eroded by the influence of the Germ...
King Christian IV ruled for the first half of the 17th century, and squandered fabulous wealth by leading his subjects into the disastrous Thirty Years War with Sweden. In the process, Denmark lost both territory and money, and the king an eye. Even more disastrous were the losses to Sweden incurred some decades later by Christian's successor, King Frederick III. The series of wars with Sweden resulted in territorial losses, but the Great Northern War (1700-21) brought some restoration of Danish power in the Baltic. The 18th century was otherwise a period of internal reform, which included the abolition of serfdom and land reforms. In 1814, Denmark, which had sided with Napoleonic France after British attacks on Copenhagen in 1801 and 1807, was forced to cede Norway to Sweden and Helgoland to England. In 1848, a Prussian-inspired revolt in Schleswig-Holstein ended without a victor, but in 1864, Schleswig-Holstein and Lauenburg were lost in a new war with Prussia. Despite these major...
Denmark's relations with its southern neighbours, particularly Prussia, have played a decisive role in constitutional developments. In 1866 a new Constitution was adopted for the dramatically reduced area of Denmark after its defeat at the hands of Prussia in 1864. The 1866 Constitution included strict limits on the almost universal male suffrage that had been recognised by the 1849 Constitution. In 1915, during the First World War (in which Denmark remained neutral), broad agreement was reached on constitutional reform. Universal suffrage was introduced, so that women and servants could also vote. While since 1849 there had been elections by majority vote in single constituencies, in 1918 an electoral system was introduced combining proportional representation with elections in individual constituencies. Although since the beginning of the century there had been a desire to introduce referenda, partly by the Social Democrats and partly the Radical Liberals, which were in power duri...
In the post-war period, Danish culture continued to prosper. Internationally, the best-known Danish film director was Carl Dreyer (1889-1968), who directed numerous films, including the 1928 masterpiece "La Passion de Jeanne d'Arc", which was acclaimed for its rich visual textures and innovative use of close-up. Carl Nielsen, Demark's greatest composer, wrote over 100 works, ranging from string quartets to opera; he is the author of the utterly charming choral work "Springtime in Funen" (Funen was Nielsen's birthplace); a clarinet concerto, arguably the finest of the 20th century; and six symphonies, of which the fourth, "The Inextinguishable", and the fifth, are the best known. On the political front, in 1933 (as Hitler rose to power in Germany) the Great Social Reforms were introduced in Denmark, essentially laying the foundations for the country's modern welfare state.
At the beginning of World War II, despite a declaration of neutrality, Denmark was occupied by Germany (Apr. 9, 1940). On May 5, 1945, the Germans capitulated, and the country was liberated. Iceland had become fully independent in 1944. The Faeroe Islands received home rule in 1948, and Greenland became an integral part of Denmark under the new constitution of 1953 and received home rule in 1979. In the modern era, Danish culture has continued to move ahead. Danish cinema has attracted attention with the wonderful "Babette's Feast", and with the adaptation of Danish author, Martin Andersen Nexø's book "Pelle the Conqueror". Film director Lars von Trier leads the younger generation of Danish film makers on the international film scene. Peter Høeg, famous for "Miss Smilla's Feeling for Snow", is Denmark's most prominent contemporary author. The Royal Danish Ballet, which performs in Copenhagen's Royal Theatre from autumn to spring, is regarded as northern Europe's finest. In other cul...
Denmark joined the European Community in 1973. From 1982, under the Conservative Prime Minister, Poul Schlüter, who headed a succession of minority governments, Denmark became increasingly committed to European integration. Danish voters, however, initially rejected the European Community's treaty on the European Union (the Maastrict treaty) on June 2, 1992; but in a new round of voting on May 18, 1993, a referendum approved an amended treaty.
787-1066 The Viking Era. Danish kings Sveyn Forkbeard and Canute the Great rule a North Sea-empire consisting of present-day Denmark, Norway and England. 950 Harald Bluetooth becomes king 965 Harald is baptized and later claims to have converted all Danes to Christianity 1202 Valdemar the victorious: The reign of Valdemar II sees the Danish Kingdom become exceptionally strong, as the frontier expands to the Elbe and the Baltic. 1219 The first use of Dannebrog, the national flag of Denmark, though the flag as it looks today (red background with a white cross) only comes into being 150 years later. 1332-1340 As a result of expensive and failed wars, all taxes have to be handed over to creditors. The Danish Crown has no income and no king is appointed. 1340 Valdemar IV succeeds in restoring royal authority. 1386 The Great Hanseatic War: Seventy-five Hanseatic towns attack Danish castles along the Sound. 1397 The beginning of the Kalmar Union, uniting Norway, Sweden and Denmark. 1495 Th...
…struggle for Icelandic self-government under Denmark. Read More; In flag of Iceland …sanction of the king of Denmark was sought for a local Icelandic flag. Royal approval was available on the condition that the flag be different from any existing flag and always flown subordinate to the national flag of Denmark.
For eight years after Christopher's death, Denmark had no king, and was instead controlled by the counts. After one of them, Gerhard III of Holstein-Rendsburg , was assassinated in 1340, Christopher's son Valdemar was chosen as king, and gradually began to recover the territories, which was finally completed in 1360.