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  1. Cinema - Wikipedia › wiki › Cinema

    Cinematography, the art of motion-picture photography. Film or movie, a series of still images that create the illusion of a moving image. Film industry, the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking. Filmmaking, the process of making a film. Movie theater (also called a cinema), a building in which films are shown.

  2. Cinema Cinema - Wikipedia › wiki › Cinema_Cinema

    Cinema Cinema was released 27 July 1979 in India and October 1979 in the US. The documentary features original interviews with notable Indian film stars, including Zeenat Aman, Amitabh Bachchan, Dharmendra, and Hema Malini. The narrative is staged to present the history of Hindi -language cinema while exploring various political themes of the ...

  3. Movie theater - Wikipedia › wiki › Movie_theater
    • Terminology
    • History
    • Design
    • Programming
    • Presentation
    • Pricing and Admission
    • Controversies
    • Cinema and Movie Theater Chains
    • External Links

    A movie theater may also be referred to as a movie house, film house, film theater, cinema or picture house. In the US, theater has long been the preferred spelling, while in the UK, Australia, Canada and elsewhere it's theatre. However, some US theaters opt to use the British spelling in their own names, a practice supported by the National Association of Theatre Owners, while apart from Anglophone North America most English-speaking countries use the term cinema /ˈsɪnɪmə/, alternatively spelled and pronounced kinema /ˈkɪnɪmə/.The latter terms, as well as their derivative adjectives "cinematic" and "kinematic", ultimately derive from Greek κινῆμα, κινήματος (kinema, kinematos)—"movement", "motion". In the countries where those terms are used, the word "theatre" is usually reserved for live performance venues. Colloquial expressions, mostly applied to motion pictures and motion picture theaters collectively, include the silver screen (formerly sometimes sheet) and the big screen (co...


    Movie theatres stand in a long tradition of theaters that could house all kinds of entertainment. Some forms of theatrical entertainment would involve the screening of moving images and can be regarded as precursors of film. In 1799, Étienne-Gaspard "Robertson" Robert moved his Phantasmagorie show to an abandoned cloister near the Place Vendômein Paris. The eerie surroundings, with a graveyard and ruins, formed an ideal location for his ghostraising spectacle. When it opened in 1838, The Roya...

    Earliest motion picture screening venues

    The earliest public film screenings took place in existing (vaudeville) theatres and other venues that could be darkened and comfortably house an audience. Émile Reynaud screened his Pantomimes Lumineuses animated movies from 28 October 1892 to March 1900 at the Musée Grévin in Paris, with his Théâtre Optique system. He gave over 12,800 shows to a total of over 500,000 visitors, with programs including Pauvre Pierrot and Autour d'une cabine. Thomas Edison initially believed film screening wou...

    Early dedicated movie theatres

    During the first decade of motion pictures, the demand for movies, the amount of new productions, and the average runtime of movies, all kept increasing, and at some stage it was viable to have theatres that would no longer program live acts, but only movies. Claimants for the title of the earliest movie theatre include the Eden Theatre in La Ciotat, where L'Arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat was screened on 21 March 1899. The theatre closed in 1995 but re-opened in 2013. L'Idéal Cinéma...

    Traditionally a movie theater, like a stage theater, consists of a single auditorium with rows of comfortable padded seats, as well as a foyer area containing a box office for buying tickets. Movie theaters also often have a concession stand for buying snacks and drinks within the theater's lobby. Other features included are film posters, arcade games and washrooms. Stage theaters are sometimes converted into movie theaters by placing a screen in front of the stage and adding a projector; this conversion may be permanent, or temporary for purposes such as showing arthouse fare to an audience accustomed to plays. The familiar characteristics of relatively low admission and open seating can be traced to Samuel Roxy Rothafel, an early movie theater impresario. Many of these early theaters contain a balcony, an elevated level across the auditorium above the theater's rearmost seats. The rearward main floor "loge" seats were sometimes larger, softer, and more widely spaced and sold for a...

    Movie theaters may be classified by the type of movies they show or when in a film's release process they are shown: 1. First-run theater: A theater that runs primarily mainstream film fare from the major film companies and distributors, during the initial new release period of each film. 2. Second-run or discount theater: A theater that runs films that have already shown in the first-run theaters and presented at a lower ticket price. (These are sometimes known as dollar theaters or "cheap seats".) This form of cinema is diminishing in viability owing to the increasingly shortened intervals before the films' home videorelease, called the "video window". 3. Repertoire/repertory theater or arthouse: A theater that presents more alternative and art filmsas well as second-run and classic films (often known as an "independent cinema" in the UK). 4. An adult movie theater or sex theater specializes in showing pornographic movies. Such movies are rarely shown in other theaters. See also G...

    Usually in the 2010s, an admission is for one feature film. Sometimes two feature films are sold as one admission (double feature), with a break in between. Separate admission for a short subject is rare; it is either an extra before a feature film or part of a series of short films sold as one admission (this mainly occurs at film festivals). (See also anthology film.) In the early decades of "talkie" films, many movie theaters presented a number of shorter items in addition to the feature film. This might include a newsreel, live-action comedy short films, documentary short films, musical short films, or cartoon shorts (many classic cartoons series such as the Looney Tunes and Mickey Mouse shorts were created for this purpose). Examples of this kind of programming are available on certain DVD releases of two of the most famous films starring Errol Flynn as a special feature arrangement designed to recreate that kind of filmgoing experience while the PBS series, Matinee at the Bijo...

    In order to obtain admission to a movie theater, the prospective theater-goer must usually purchase a ticket from the box office, which may be for an arbitrary seat ("open" or "free" seating, first-come, first-served) or for a specific one (allocated seating).As of 2015, some theaters sell tickets online or at automated kiosks in the theater lobby. Movie theaters in North America generally have open seating. Cinemas in Europe can have free seating or numbered seating. Some theaters in Mexico offer numbered seating, in particular, Cinepolis VIP. In the case of numbered seating systems the attendee can often pick seats from a video screen. Sometimes the attendee cannot see the screen and has to make a choice based on a verbal description of the still available seats. In the case of free seats, already seated customers may be asked by staff to move one or more places for the benefit of an arriving couple or group wanting to sit together. For 2013, the average price for a movie ticket i...

    Advertising: Some moviegoers complain about commercial advertising shorts played before films, arguing that their absence used to be one of the main advantages of going to a movie theater. Other cr...
    Loudness: Another major recent concern is that the dramatic improvements in stereo sound systems and in subwoofer systems have led to cinemas playing the soundtracks of films at unacceptably high v...
    Copyright piracy: In recent years, cinemas have started to show warnings before the movie starts against using cameras and camcorders during the movie (camming). Some patrons record the movie in or...

    In Africa, Ster-Kinekor has the largest market share in South Africa. Nu Metro Cinemasis another cinema chain in South Africa. In North America, the National Association of Theatre Owners (NATO) is the largest exhibition trade organization in the world. According to their figures, the top four chains represent almost half of the theater screens in North America. In Canada, Cineplex Entertainmentis by far the largest player with 161 locations and 1,635 screens. In the United States, the studios once controlled many theaters, but after the appearance of Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, Congress passed the Neely Anti-Block Booking Act, which eventually broke the link between the studios and the theaters. Now, the top three chains in the U.S. are Regal Entertainment Group, AMC Entertainment Inc and Cinemark Theatres. In 1995, Carmike was the largest chain in the United States- now, the major chains include AMC Entertainment Inc – 5,206 screens in 346 theaters, Cinemark Theatres – 4,457 scr...

  4. Cinéma — Wikipédia › wiki › Cinéma

    « The cinema, as we know it today, began with the invention of the Kinetograph and Kinetoscope. These two instruments represent the first practical method of cinematography » (Le cinéma, tel que nous le connaissons aujourd'hui, commença avec l'invention du kinétographe et du kinétoscope.

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  6. Cinema of France - Wikipedia › wiki › Cinema_of_France
    • Overview
    • History
    • Government support
    • Film distribution and production companies

    Several important cinematic movements, including the Nouvelle Vague, began in the country. It is noted for having a particularly strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by the French government. Apart from its strong and innovative film tradition, France has also been a gathering spot for artists from across Europe and the world. For this reason, French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations. Directors from nations such as Poland, Argentina, Russia,

    Les frères Lumière released the first projection with the Cinematograph, in Paris on 28 December 1895. The French film industry in the late 19th century and early 20th century was the world's most important. Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinématographe and their L'Arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat in Paris in 1895 is considered by many historians as the official birth of cinematography. French films during this period catered to a growing middle class and were mostly ...

    As the advent of television threatened the success of cinema, countries were faced with the problem of reviving movie-going. The French cinema market, and more generally the French-speaking market, is smaller than the English-speaking market; one reason being that some major markets, including prominently the United States, are reluctant to generally accept foreign films, especially foreign-language and subtitled productions. As a consequence, French movies have to be amortized on a relatively s

    Notable French film distribution and/or production companies include: 1. Ad Vitam 2. Alfama Films 3. ARP Sélection 4. Bac Films 5. Diaphana Films 6. EuropaCorp 7. Gaumont 8. Haut et Court 9. KMBO 10. Le Pacte 11. Les Films du Losange 12. Mars Films 13. MK2 14. Pan-Européenne 15. Pathé 16. Pyramide Distribution 17. Rezo Films 18. SND Films 19. StudioCanal 20. UGC 21. Wild Bunch

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  7. Cinema of Nigeria - Wikipedia › wiki › Cinema_of_Nigeria

    Cinema of Nigeria. The cinema of Nigeria, often referred to informally as Nollywood, consists of films produced in Nigeria; its history dates back to as early as the late 19th century and into the colonial era in the early 20th century. The history and development of the Nigerian motion picture industry is sometimes generally classified in four ...

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  8. Cinema - Wikipedia › wiki › Cinema
    • Teorie Del Cinema
    • Movimenti E Scuole Cinematografiche
    • Critica Cinematografica
    • Cinefilia
    • La Produzione Cinematografica

    I teorici del cinema cercarono di sviluppare alcuni concetti e studiare il cinema come un'arte. Derivato dalle tecnologie dell'epoca, pur essendo un sintomo o una causa di tale modernità riferita all'epoca nella quale nacque, i suoi principi tecnici come il montaggio o le riprese hanno rivoluzionato le modalità di rappresentazione nelle arti figurative e della letteratura. Per formare e comprendere questa nuova rappresentazione artistica, il cinema aveva bisogno di teorie. In Materia e memoria (Matiére et mèmoire), nel 1896, il filosofo francese Henri-Louis Bergson anticipa lo sviluppo teorico in un'epoca nella quale il cinema era visto soprattutto come opera visionaria. Esprime anche la necessità di riflettere sull'idea del movimento, e quindi inventò il termine «immagine in movimento» e «immagine-tempo». Tuttavia, nel 1907, nel suo saggio L'illusion cinématographique, contenuto in L'Évolution créatrice, egli rifiuta il cinema come esempio di spiritualismo. Molto più tardi, in L'im...

    Un movimento, raggruppato in una corrente, può essere inteso come un modo di classificare l'opera cinematografica. Heinrich Wölfflin inizialmente li definisce «sconvolgimenti del sentimento creativo». Gilles Deleuze rimarca nel suo saggio L'immagine in movimentocome i movimenti cinematografici procedano di pari passo con i movimenti pittorici. Il cinema classico aveva lo scopo di rendere chiare le relazioni tra azione e reazione conseguente, ma nello stesso istante nascono nuovi movimenti. All'inizio degli anni venti l'espressionismo, in pittura, deforma linee e colori per esprimere i sentimenti. Al cinema si esprime principalmente attraverso il metodo recitativo degli attori e con l'opposizione tra ombra e luce nell'immagine. Il cinema espressionista mette a confronto il bene e il male, come avviene nel film Il gabinetto del dottor Caligari diretto nel 1920 da Robert Wiene, uno dei primi film di questa corrente. Questo movimento si sviluppò in Germania, quando il paese si stava rim...

    Un critico cinematografico, detto anche recensore, è la persona che esprime la sua opinione sul film attraverso un mass media come il giornale (quotidiano o settimanale), una rivista specializzata, in radio, nella televisione e su Internet. I critici più popolari e influenti hanno sovente determinato il successo di una pellicola, anche se sovente pubblico e critica non sono sempre andate d'accordo nel decretare il fallimento o meno di un film. Alcuni di loro hanno dato il nome a dei riconoscimenti, come il francese Louis Delluc e gli italiani Francesco Pasinetti, Filippo Sacchi, Pietro Bianchi, Guglielmo Biraghi e Domenico Meccoli; esistono inoltre diverse associazioni di critici che permettono l'assegnazione dei premi. Il mestiere del critico cinematografico è da sempre stato piuttosto controverso: alcuni recensori potevano vedere gratis le pellicole prima della loro uscita nelle sale, nonché ricevere un compenso per scrivere un articolo. Tuttavia, quando il critico esprime un pare...

    La cinefilia è un termine il cui significato comune è «amore per il cinema». Ai nostri giorni, l'espressione di questa passione per il cinema può essere molteplice; in ogni caso, il termine è stato utilizzato originariamente per descrivere un movimento culturale e intellettuale francese che si è sviluppato tra la metà degli anni quaranta e la fine degli anni sessanta. Comunemente, si definisce cinefilo la persona che dedica una parte importante del suo tempo a guardare film e a studiare l'arte cinematografica. Inoltre, un appassionato di cinema può anche fare raccolta e collezionare manifesti, locandine, riviste inerenti al cinema e altri oggetti collaterali. In ragione del suo carattere potenzialmente coinvolgente, la cinefilia è paragonata da André Habiba «una vera e propria malattia, ferocemente infettiva, della quale non si può sbarazzarsi facilmente». L'evoluzione del fenomeno della cinefilia è andato di pari passo con l'evoluzione del cinema. C'è stato un tempo in cui, una vol...

    Se la proiezione di un film è una cosa tutto sommato semplice ed economica, la sua creazione invece è una vera e propria impresa che in generale richiede la coordinazione di una troupedi centinaia di persone, l'impiego di macchinari e attrezzature molto costose, la pianificazione di molte attività diverse, a volte contemporanee, e l'investimento di grosse somme di denaro: girare (creare) un film in modo professionale, anche in economia, costa comunque cifre dell'ordine del milione di euro. A fronte di questi costi e di queste difficoltà un film riuscito, che ha successo, può rendere cifre straordinarie. D'altra parte, se il film non piace, la perdita è molto grave. Bisogna dire che con l'avvento del digitale però l'abbattimento dei costi di realizzazione dei film è notevole, ed è possibile girare film con piccole troupe, a volte anche composte da sei o sette persone. In generale, le fasi della produzione sono: lo sviluppo del progetto, la pre-produzione, la lavorazione e la post-pro...

  9. Cinema – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre › wiki › Cinema
    • Origens
    • Cinematografia
    • Inovações

    A origem da palavra "cinema" deve-se à circunstância de ter sido o cinematógrafo o primeiro equipamento utilizado para filmar e projetar. Por metonímia, a palavra também se refere à sala onde são projetadas obras cinematográficas. O uso da película para a produção de filmes encontra-se em recessão. O cinema digital está em plena expansão desde meados da primeira década do séc. XXI, tanto na tomada de vistas como na projeção. O digital permite, além disso, que os filmes circulem fora dos circuitos tradicionais de distribuição, entre particulares e instituições. A invenção da fotografia, e sobretudo a da fotografia animada, foram momentos cruciais para o desenvolvimento não só das artes como da ciência, em particular no campo da antropologia visual.

    O cinema existe graças à invenção do cinematógrafo, inventado pelos Irmãos Lumière no fim do século XIX. Em 28 de dezembro de 1895, na cave do Grand Café, em Paris, realizaram os dois engenhosos irmãos a primeira exibição pública e paga da arte do cinema: uma série de dez filmes, com duração de 40 a 50 segundos cada (os primeiros rolos de película tinham apenas quinze metros de comprimento). Os filmes até hoje mais conhecidos desta primeira sessão chamavam-se "A saída dos operários da Fábrica Lumière" e "A chegada do trem à Estação Ciotat", cujos títulos exprimem bem o seu conteúdo. Apesar de também existirem notícias de projeções um pouco anteriores, de outros inventores (como os irmãos Max e Emil Skladanowsky [6] [7] na Alemanha), a sessão dos Lumière é aceita pela grande maioria da literatura cinematográfica como o marco inicial da nova arte. O cinema expandiu-se a partir de então pela França, por toda a Europa e Estados Unidos, por intermédio de cinegrafistas enviados pelos irmã...

    Nesta mesma época, um mágico ilusionista, chamado Georges Méliès, dono de um teatro nas vizinhanças do local da primeira exibição dos Lumière, quis comprar um cinematógrafo para o utilizar em seus espetáculos. Os Lumière não quiseram vender-lhe o aparelho: o pai dos irmãos inventores argumentava que o cinematógrafo tinha unicamente finalidade científica e que o mágico teria, por certo, prejuízo se gastasse dinheiro com a máquina para fazer entretenimento. Frustrado, Méliès conseguiu no entanto adquirir um aparelho semelhante na Inglaterra, fabricado por Robert William Paul, tornando-se assim o primeiro grande produtor de filmes de ficção, com narrativas sedutoras e truques aliciantes, destinados ao grande público: os primeiros efeitos especiais da história do cinema. Foi ele o criador da fantasiana produção e realização de filmes. Logo depois, nas duas primeiras décadas do século XX, o diretor estadunidense David W. Griffith, um dos pioneiros de Hollywood, realizou filmes que o leva...

  10. Cinema of the United Kingdom - Wikipedia › wiki › Cinema_of_the_United_Kingdom
    • History
    • Art Cinema
    • Film Technology
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Origins and silent films

    The world's first moving picture was shot in Leeds by Louis Le Prince in 1888 and the first moving pictures developed on celluloid film were made in Hyde Park, London in 1889 by British inventor William Friese Greene,who patented the process in 1890. The first people to build and run a working 35 mm camera in Britain were Robert W. Paul and Birt Acres. They made the first British film Incident at Clovelly Cottage in February 1895, shortly before falling out over the camera's patent. Soon seve...

    The Early Sound Period

    Scottish solicitor John Maxwell founded British International Pictures (BIP) in 1927. Based at the former British National Studios in Elstree, the facilities original owners, including producer-director Herbert Wilcox, had run into financial difficulties. One of the company's early films, Alfred Hitchcock's Blackmail (1929), is often regarded as the first British sound feature. It was a part-talkie with a synchronised score and sound effects. Earlier in 1929, the first all-talking British fea...

    Second World War

    Published in The Times on 5 September 1939, two days after Britain declared war on Germany, George Bernard Shaw’s letter protested against a government order to close all places of entertainment, including cinemas. ‘What agent of Chancellor Hitler is it who has suggested that we should all cower in darkness and terror “for the duration”?’. Within two weeks of the order cinemas in the provinces were reopened, followed by central London within a month.In 1940, cinema admissions figures rose, to...

    Although it had been funding British experimental films as early as 1952, the British Film Institute's foundation of a production board in 1964—and a substantial increase in public funding from 1971 onwards—enabled it to become a dominant force in developing British art cinema in the 1970s and 80s: from the first of Bill Douglas's Trilogy My Childhood (1972), and of Terence Davies' Trilogy Childhood (1978), via Peter Greenaway's earliest films (including the surprising commercial success of The Draughtsman's Contract (1982)) and Derek Jarman's championing of the New Queer Cinema. The first full-length feature produced under the BFI's new scheme was Kevin Brownlow and Andrew Mollo's Winstanley (1975), while others included Moon Over the Alley (1975), Requiem for a Village (1975), the openly avant-garde Central Bazaar (1973), Pressure (1975) and A Private Enterprise(1974) – the last two being, respectively, the first British Black and Asian features. The release of Derek Jarman's Jubi...

    In the 1970s and 1980s, British studios established a reputation for great special effects in films such as Superman (1978), Alien (1979), and Batman (1989). Some of this reputation was founded on the core of talent brought together for the filming of 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) who subsequently worked together on series and feature films for Gerry Anderson. Thanks to the Bristol-based Aardman Animations, the UK is still recognised as a world leader in the use of stop-motion animation. British special effects technicians and production designers are known for creating visual effects at a far lower cost than their counterparts in the US, as seen in Time Bandits (1981) and Brazil (1985). This reputation has continued through the 1990s and into the 21st century with films such as the James Bond series, Gladiator (2000) and the Harry Potterfranchise. From the 1990s to the present day, there has been a progressive movement from traditional film opticals to an integrated digital film env...

    British Academy Film Awards, hosted by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, are the British equivalent of the Academy Awards.
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