Civil resistance is political action that relies on the use of nonviolent resistance by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime. Civil resistance operates through appeals to the adversary, pressure and coercion: it can involve systematic attempts to undermine or expose the adversary's sources of power, both domestic and international.
Nonviolent resistance (NVR), or nonviolent action, is the practice of achieving goals such as social change through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha, or other methods, while being nonviolent. This type of action highlights the desires of an individual or group that feels that something ...
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The strategy of public education, legislative lobbying, and litigation that had typified the civil rights movement during the first half of the 20th century broadened after Brown to a strategy that emphasized "direct action": boycotts, sit-ins, Freedom Rides, marches or walks, and similar tactics that relied on mass mobilization, nonviolent ...
- United States
- Rulings by federal judiciary:, "Separate but equal" doctrine overturned by Brown v. Board of Education (1954), Bus segregation ruled unconstitutional by Browder v. Gayle (1956), Interracial marriages legalized by Loving v. Virginia (1967), Passage of federal laws:, Civil Rights Act of 1957, Civil Rights Act of 1960, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965, Civil Rights Act of 1968 (Fair Housing Act), Ratification of a federal constitutional amendment:, 24th Amendment (1964), Formation of federal agencies:, Civil Rights Division within US Department of Justice (1957), US Commission on Civil Rights (1957), Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (1965), Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity within US Department of Housing and Urban Development (1968)
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1. Either of two similarly named but otherwise unrelated comic book series, both published by Wildstorm: 1.1. Resistance (comics), based on the video game of the same title 1.2. The Resistance (comics), by Justin Gray, Jimmy Palmiotti, and Juan Santacruz 2. Resistance: Book One, graphic novel series by Carla Jablonski with art by Leland Purvis and published by First Second Books
1. Resistance (Star Wars), the primary protagonist organization in the Star Wars sequel trilogy 2. The Resistance, one of two factions in Ingress
1. Resistance (1945 film), a 1945 French film 2. Resistance (1992 film), a 1992 Australian film 3. Resistance (2003 film), a 2003 war film, with Bill Paxton 4. Resistance (2011 film), a 2011 war film, with Michael Sheen 5. Resistance (2020 film), a 2020 war film, with Jesse Eisenberg 6. The Resistance (film), a 2011 Chinese war film 7. The Resistance Banker(2018), a Dutch drama filmHMS Resistance, the name of four ships of the Royal Navy, and one planned one
Botany and horticulture
1. Disease resistance in fruit and vegetables 2. Pesticide resistance 3. Plant disease resistance
1. Resistance (ecology)
1. Disease resistance, the ability of an organism to resist diseases it is susceptible to 2. Airway resistance, a concept in respiratory physiology 3. Antibiotic resistance, used for bacteria resistant to antibiotics 4. Drug resistance, the reduction in effectiveness of a drug 5. Psychological resistance, the forces that counteract progress in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy 6. Response based therapy, counselling involving discussion of victims' acts of resistance to violence
Resistants, a fictional supervillain group appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics
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In April 2021, President Iván Duque proposed increased taxes at a time when the COVID-19 pandemic in Colombia was beginning to worsen as various healthcare systems were failing throughout the country.The pandemic had also hurt the Colombian economy, with 42% of Colombians earning less than US$90 per month, and with one in four Colombians under the age of 28 unemployed. Ingreso Solidario, a universal basic income social program introduced by the Duque government during the pandemic, had already provided at the time thirteen monthly payments of around US$43 to low-income populations since April 2020. Three million of about fifty million Colombians were eligible for Ingreso Solidario payments, with the program being at a smaller scale when compared to other Latin American countries. According to Merike Blofield, director of the German Institute for Global and Area Studies' Latin American division, "Compared to other countries in the region, the coverage that Ingreso Solidario offers is...
In preparation for protests, Judge Nelly Yolanda Villamizar de Peñaranda of the Administrative Court of Cundinamarca ruled on 27 April that permits to demonstrate in cities across the country be annulled, banning public demonstrations due to health risks related to COVID-19.Disgruntled citizens, however, ignored the public bans on protests. Tens of thousands of protesters began demonstrating on 28 April 2021, with strong protests occurring in Cali where the statue of Spanish conquistador Sebastián de Belalcázar was torn down by Misak protesters. In Bogotá, tens of thousands protested and clashes with authorities began later in the day, with four thousand protesters maintaining their activities throughout the night.Two were killed on the first day of protests. Police presence increased on 29 April when General Eliecer Camacho of the Metropolitan Police of Bogotá announced that 5,800 police would be deployed during the demonstrations. Some TransMilenio stations were also closed prior...
Although the majority of protests were peaceful, several acts of vandalism occurred, mainly in Cali and Bogotá. In Cali, several buses and stations of the mass transit system MIO were vandalized and burned.About sixty percent of the MIO network was destroyed during protests. On 1 May, Ombudsman of Colombia Carlos Camargo said that six had died during protests during the week, including five civilians and one police officer, and that 179 civilians and 216 police officers were injured. Human rights groups at the time provided different numbers, saying that at least fourteen were killed during the protests. By 3 May, the ombudsman reported nineteen deaths related to the protests, while the non-governmental organizationTemblores reported twenty-one dead and the Colombian Federation of Education Workers (Fecode), which helped lead protests, reported twenty-seven deaths. During the night and early morning of 3 May, in the city of Cali, 5 people died and 33 were injured due to clashes betw...
Allegations of censorship
In Colombia, some in the media have called for internet censorship to prevent unrest, though the majority have called for the preservation of internet freedom. Internet connection is reported to have been cut off in Cali as of 4 May 2021 16:30 local time. The Siloe neighborhood was the most affected during an unexpected internet crash, which occurred twice on 4 and 5 May. After the reports and complaints, Emcali explained that "Our fixed internet access service has been working in optimal con...
Allegations of disinformation
Caracol and RCN have been criticized for instilling fear against protests and mainly showing and reporting vandalism.Protesters tried to enter RCN facilities on 28 April due to negativity towards the channel. On 30 April, the day President Duque announced changes to the tax reform, in its last broadcast of the evening news, Noticias RCN showed some videos of protesters in the streets of Cali, while a journalist said: "With harangues and singing the anthem of Colombia and the city at different...
Several people have used social media to invite people to protest, as well as to denounce acts of repression and attacks by some protesters and members of the public force. On Twitter, #LaVozDeUribeSomosTodos, which began as a trend used by Uribe followers due to the removal of a controversial tweet by former president Álvaro Uribe that Twitter removed for "glorifying violence", ended up being used by some followers of K-pop in Colombia to publish content related to this type of musical genre...
Various individuals were in favor of the protests, such as senator and former presidential candidate Gustavo Petro, who invited Colombians to participate in the strike, as well as the senator Gustavo Bolívar. In addition, the actresses Lina Tejeiro and Esperanza Gómez, the comedian Alejandro Riaño, the actor Julián Román, the singers Adriana Lucía, Mario Muñoz, Karol G and other influencers supported protests. In the same way, Colombian artists such as Shakira, Juanes, J Balvin, Maluma as wel...
Civil resistance is a type of non-violent action. It involves a range of widespread and sustained activities against a particular power, force, policy or regime – hence the term 'resistance'. The adjective 'civil' in this context denotes that which pertains to a citizen or society (often implying that a movement's goals are 'civil' in the ...
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (/ ˌ tʃ ɛ k oʊ s l oʊ ˈ v æ k i ə,-k ə-,-s l ə-,-ˈ v ɑː-/; Czech and Slovak: Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe, created in October 1918, when it declared its independence from Austria-Hungary.