Civil resistance is political action that relies on the use of nonviolent resistance by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime. Civil resistance operates through appeals to the adversary, pressure and coercion: it can involve systematic attempts to undermine or expose the adversary's sources of power, both domestic and international. Forms of action have included demonstrations, vigils and petitions; strikes, go-slows, boycotts and emigration movements; and sit-ins
A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability. It may seek to achieve its objectives through either the use of nonviolent resistance, or the use of force, whether armed or unarmed. In many cases, as for example in the United States during the American Revolution, or in Norway in the Second World War, a resistance movement may employ bo
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German resistance to Nazism (German: Widerstand gegen den Nationalsozialismus) included opposition by individuals and groups in Germany to the Nazi regime between 1933 and 1945, most of which engaged in active resistance, including attempts to remove Adolf Hitler from power by assassination or by overthrowing his established regime.
Civil resistance is a way for ordinary people to fight for their rights, freedom and justice without using violence. People engaged in civil resistance use ...
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Wikipedia's IPA conventions require indicating /r/ even in British English although only some British English speakers pronounce r at the end of syllables. As John Wells explains, the English spellings of both Myanmar and Burma assume a non-rhotic variety of English, in which the letter r before a consonant or finally serves merely to indicate ...
- Early Life and Education
- Evolving Affiliations
- Influence on The Civil Rights Movement
- Death and Beliefs
- See Also
- External Links
Rustin was born in West Chester, Pennsylvania, to Florence Rustin and Archie Hopkins, but raised by his maternal grandparents, Julia (Davis) and Janifer Rustin, as the ninth of their twelve children; growing up he believed his biological mother was his older sister. His grandparents were relatively wealthy local caterers who raised Rustin in a large house. Julia Rustin was a Quaker, although she attended her husband's African Methodist Episcopal Church. She was also a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). NAACP leaders such as W.E.B. Du Bois and James Weldon Johnson were frequent guests in the Rustin home. With these influences in his early life, in his youth Rustin campaigned against racially discriminatory Jim Crow laws. One of the first documented realizations Rustin had of his sexuality was when he mentioned to his grandmother that he preferred to spend time with males rather than females. She responded, "I suppose that's what you need...
At the direction of the Soviet Union, the Communist Party USA (CPUSA) and its members were active in the civil rights movement for African Americans. The CPUSA, at the time following Stalin's "theory of nationalism", favored the creation of a separate nation for African Americans to be located in the American Southeast where the greatest proportion of the black population was concentrated. In 1941, after Germany invaded the Soviet Union, Communist International ordered the CPUSA to abandon civil rights work and focus on supporting U.S. entry into World War II. Disillusioned, Rustin began working with members of the Socialist Party of Norman Thomas, particularly A. Philip Randolph, the head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; another socialist mentor was the pacifist A. J. Muste, leader of the Fellowship of Reconciliation(FOR). FOR hired Rustin as a race relation secretary in the late summer of 1941. The three of them proposed a march on Washington, D.C. in 1...
Rustin and Houser organized the Journey of Reconciliation in 1947. This was the first of the Freedom Rides to test the ruling of the Supreme Court of the United States in Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia that banned racial discrimination in interstate travel as unconstitutional. Rustin and CORE executive secretary George Houser recruited a team of fourteen men, divided equally by race, to ride in pairs through Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Kentucky. The NAACP opposed CORE's Gandhian tactics as too meek. Participants in the Journey of Reconciliation were arrested several times. Arrested with Jewish activist Igal Roodenko, Rustin served twenty-two days on a chain gang in North Carolina for violating state Jim Crowlaws regarding segregated seating on public transportation. In 1948, Rustin traveled to India to learn techniques of nonviolent civil resistance directly from the leaders of the Gandhian movement. The conference had been organized before Gandhi's assassination ea...
Rustin died on August 24, 1987, of a perforated appendix. An obituary in The New York Times reported, "Looking back at his career, Mr. Rustin, a Quaker, once wrote: 'The principal factors which influenced my life are 1) nonviolent tactics; 2) constitutional means; 3) democratic procedures; 4) respect for human personality; 5) a belief that all people are one.'"Rustin was survived by Walter Naegle, his partner of ten years. Rustin's personal philosophy is said to have been inspired by combining Quaker pacifism with socialism (as taught by A. Philip Randolph), and the theory of non-violent protest popularized by Mahatma Gandhi. President Ronald Reaganissued a statement on Rustin's death, praising his work for civil rights and "for human rights throughout the world". He added that Rustin "was denounced by former friends, because he never gave up his conviction that minorities in America could and would succeed based on their individual merit."
Rustin "faded from the shortlist of well-known civil rights lions", in part because he was active behind the scenes, and also because of public discomfort with his sexual orientation and former communist membership. In addition, Rustin's tilt toward neo-conservatism in the late 1960s led him into disagreement with most civil rights leaders. But, the 2003 documentary film Brother Outsider: The Life of Bayard Rustin, a Sundance Festival Grand Jury Prize nominee,and the March 2012 centennial of Rustin's birth have contributed to renewed recognition of his extensive contributions. Rustin served as chairman of Social Democrats, USA, which, The Washington Post wrote in 2013, "was a breeding ground for many neoconservatives". In the 1970s, he was among the second-age neoconservatives, and in 1979, was elevated to vice-chair of the Coalition for a Democratic Majority, an organization that helped revive the Committee on the Present Danger. According to Daniel Richman, former clerk for United...Interracial primer, New York: Fellowship of Reconciliation, 1943Interracial workshop: progress report, New York: Sponsored by Congress of Racial Equality and Fellowship of Reconciliation, 1947Journey of reconciliation: report, New York : Fellowship of Reconciliation, Congress of Racial Equality, 1947We challenged Jim Crow! a report on the journey of reconciliation, April 9–23, 1947, New York : Fellowship of Reconciliation, Congress of Racial Equality, 1947
1. Anderson, Jervis. Bayard Rustin: Troubles I've Seen(New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1997). 2. Bennett, Scott H. Radical Pacifism: The War Resisters League and Gandhian Nonviolence in America, 1915–1963 (Syracuse Univ. Press, 2003). ISBN 0-8156-3028-X. 3. Branch, Taylor. Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954–63(New York: Touchstone, 1989). 4. Carbado, Devon W. and Donald Weise, editors. Time on Two Crosses: The Collected Writings of Bayard Rustin (San Francisco: Cleis Pres...
To give effective leadership to a civil resistance movement, an organizer must be able to strategically organize and plan, visualize a future that the moveme...
- Geographies of Resistance
- Controversy Regarding Definition
- Freedom Fighter
- Common Weapons
- Examples of Resistance Movements
The Oxford English Dictionary records use of the word "resistance" in the sense of organised opposition to an invader from 1862.The modern usage of the term "Resistance" became widespread from the self-designation of many movements during World War II, especially the French Resistance. The term is still strongly linked[by whom?] to the context of the events of 1939–45, and particularly to opposition movements in Axis-occupied countries. Using the term "resistance" to designate a movement meeting the definition prior to World War II might be considered by some[who?] to be an anachronism. However, such movements existed prior to World War II (albeit often called by different names), and there have been many after it – for example in struggles against colonialism and foreign military occupations. "Resistance" has become[when?]a generic term that has been used to designate underground resistance movements in an...
Resistance movements can include any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. This frequently includes groups that consider themselves to be resisting tyranny or dictatorship. Some resistance movements are underground organizations engaged in a struggle for national liberation in a country under military occupation or totalitarian domination. Tactics of resistance movements against a constituted authority range from nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience, to guerrilla warfare and terrorism, or even conventional warfare if the resistance movement is strong enough. Any government facing violent acts from a resistance movement usually condemns such acts as terrorism, even when such attacks target only the military or security forces. Resistance during World War II was mainly dedicated to fighting the Axis...
When geographies of resistance are discussed, it is often taken for granted that resistance takes place where domination, power, or oppression occurs and so resistance is often understood as something that always opposes to power or domination. However, some scholars believe and argue that looking at resistance in relation to only power and domination does not provide a full understanding of the actual nature of resistance. Not all power, domination, or oppression leads to resistance, and not all cases of resistance are against or to oppose what is categorizd as "power". In fact, they believe that resistance has its own characteristics and spatialities. In Steve Pile's (1997) "Opposition, Political Identities and Spaces of Resistance," geographies of resistance show: We can better understand resistance by accounting different perspectives and by breaking the presumptions that resistance...
Some definitions of resistance movement have proved controversial. According to Joint Publication 1-02, the United States Department of Defense defines a resistance movement as "an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to resist the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability". In strict military terminology, a resistance movement is simply that; it seeks to resist (change) the policies of a government or occupying power. This may be accomplished through violent or non-violent means. In this view, a resistance movement is specifically limited to changing the nature of current power, not to overthrow it; and the correct[according to whom?] military term for removing or overthrowing a government is an insurgency. However, in reality many resistance movements have aimed to displace a particular ruler, especiall...
Freedom fighter is another term for those engaged in a struggle to achieve political freedom for themselves or obtain freedom for others. Though the literal meaning of the words could include "anyone who fights for the cause of freedom", in common use it may be restricted to those who are actively involved in an armedrebellion, rather than those who campaign for freedom by peaceful means, or those who fight violently for the freedom of others outside the context of an uprising (though this title may be applied in its literal sense) Generally speaking, freedom fighters are people who use physical force to cause a change in the political and or social order. Notable examples include Umkhonto we Sizwe in South Africa, the Sons of Liberty in the American Revolution, the Eritrean People's Liberation Front, and the National Resistance Army in Uganda, which were considered freedom fighters by supporters. However, a per...
Partisans often use captured weapons taken from their enemies, or weapons that have been stolen or smuggled in. During the Cold War, partisans often received arms from either NATO or Warsaw Pact member states. Where partisan resources are stretched, improvised weaponsare also deployed.
The following examples are of groups that have been considered or would identify themselves as groups. These are mostly, but not exclusively, of armed resistance movements. For movements and phases of activity involving non-violent methods, see civil resistance and nonviolent resistance.Gardam, Judith Gail (1993). Non-combatant Immunity as a Norm of International Humanitarian, Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 0-7923-2245-2.Ticehurst, Rupert. The Martens Clause and the Laws of Armed Conflict 30 April 1997, International Review of the Red Cross no. 317, pp. 125–34. ISSN 1560-7755
Cuatro años después de la odisea de Nathan Hale nos llega la conclusión al épico conflicto entre la Humanidad y las Quimeras. Joseph Capelli, personaje prese...