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  1. Civil resistance - Wikipedia › wiki › Civil_resistance

    Civil resistance is political action that relies on the use of nonviolent resistance by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime. Civil resistance operates through appeals to the adversary, pressure and coercion: it can involve systematic attempts to undermine or expose the adversary's sources of power, both domestic and international. Forms of action have included demonstrations, vigils and petitions; strikes, go-slows, boycotts and emigration movements; and sit-ins

  2. Resistance movement - Wikipedia › wiki › Resistance_movement

    A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability. It may seek to achieve its objectives through either the use of nonviolent resistance, or the use of force, whether armed or unarmed. In many cases, as for example in the United States during the American Revolution, or in Norway in the Second World War, a resistance movement may employ bo

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  4. German resistance to Nazism - Wikipedia › wiki › German_resistance_to_Nazism

    German resistance to Nazism (German: Widerstand gegen den Nationalsozialismus) included opposition by individuals and groups in Germany to the Nazi regime between 1933 and 1945, most of which engaged in active resistance, including attempts to remove Adolf Hitler from power by assassination or by overthrowing his established regime.

  5. Civil resistance is a way for ordinary people to fight for their rights, freedom and justice without using violence. People engaged in civil resistance use ...

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  6. Myanmar - Wikipedia › wiki › Myanmar

    Wikipedia's IPA conventions require indicating /r/ even in British English although only some British English speakers pronounce r at the end of syllables. As John Wells explains, the English spellings of both Myanmar and Burma assume a non-rhotic variety of English, in which the letter r before a consonant or finally serves merely to indicate ...

  7. Bayard Rustin - Wikipedia › wiki › Bayard_Rustin
    • Early Life and Education
    • Evolving Affiliations
    • Influence on The Civil Rights Movement
    • Death and Beliefs
    • Legacy
    • Publications
    • See Also
    • References
    • External Links

    Rustin was born in West Chester, Pennsylvania, to Florence Rustin and Archie Hopkins, but raised by his maternal grandparents, Julia (Davis) and Janifer Rustin, as the ninth of their twelve children; growing up he believed his biological mother was his older sister. His grandparents were relatively wealthy local caterers who raised Rustin in a large house. Julia Rustin was a Quaker, although she attended her husband's African Methodist Episcopal Church. She was also a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). NAACP leaders such as W.E.B. Du Bois and James Weldon Johnson were frequent guests in the Rustin home. With these influences in his early life, in his youth Rustin campaigned against racially discriminatory Jim Crow laws. One of the first documented realizations Rustin had of his sexuality was when he mentioned to his grandmother that he preferred to spend time with males rather than females. She responded, "I suppose that's what you need...

    At the direction of the Soviet Union, the Communist Party USA (CPUSA) and its members were active in the civil rights movement for African Americans. The CPUSA, at the time following Stalin's "theory of nationalism", favored the creation of a separate nation for African Americans to be located in the American Southeast where the greatest proportion of the black population was concentrated. In 1941, after Germany invaded the Soviet Union, Communist International ordered the CPUSA to abandon civil rights work and focus on supporting U.S. entry into World War II.[citation needed] Disillusioned, Rustin began working with members of the Socialist Party of Norman Thomas, particularly A. Philip Randolph, the head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; another socialist mentor was the pacifist A. J. Muste, leader of the Fellowship of Reconciliation(FOR). FOR hired Rustin as a race relation secretary in the late summer of 1941. The three of them proposed a march on Washington, D.C. in 1...

    Rustin and Houser organized the Journey of Reconciliation in 1947. This was the first of the Freedom Rides to test the ruling of the Supreme Court of the United States in Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia that banned racial discrimination in interstate travel as unconstitutional. Rustin and CORE executive secretary George Houser recruited a team of fourteen men, divided equally by race, to ride in pairs through Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Kentucky. The NAACP opposed CORE's Gandhian tactics as too meek. Participants in the Journey of Reconciliation were arrested several times. Arrested with Jewish activist Igal Roodenko, Rustin served twenty-two days on a chain gang in North Carolina for violating state Jim Crowlaws regarding segregated seating on public transportation. In 1948, Rustin traveled to India to learn techniques of nonviolent civil resistance directly from the leaders of the Gandhian movement. The conference had been organized before Gandhi's assassination ea...

    Rustin died on August 24, 1987, of a perforated appendix. An obituary in The New York Times reported, "Looking back at his career, Mr. Rustin, a Quaker, once wrote: 'The principal factors which influenced my life are 1) nonviolent tactics; 2) constitutional means; 3) democratic procedures; 4) respect for human personality; 5) a belief that all people are one.'"Rustin was survived by Walter Naegle, his partner of ten years. Rustin's personal philosophy is said to have been inspired by combining Quaker pacifism with socialism (as taught by A. Philip Randolph), and the theory of non-violent protest popularized by Mahatma Gandhi. President Ronald Reaganissued a statement on Rustin's death, praising his work for civil rights and "for human rights throughout the world". He added that Rustin "was denounced by former friends, because he never gave up his conviction that minorities in America could and would succeed based on their individual merit."

    Rustin "faded from the shortlist of well-known civil rights lions", in part because he was active behind the scenes, and also because of public discomfort with his sexual orientation and former communist membership. In addition, Rustin's tilt toward neo-conservatism in the late 1960s led him into disagreement with most civil rights leaders. But, the 2003 documentary film Brother Outsider: The Life of Bayard Rustin, a Sundance Festival Grand Jury Prize nominee,and the March 2012 centennial of Rustin's birth have contributed to renewed recognition of his extensive contributions. Rustin served as chairman of Social Democrats, USA, which, The Washington Post wrote in 2013, "was a breeding ground for many neoconservatives". In the 1970s, he was among the second-age neoconservatives, and in 1979, was elevated to vice-chair of the Coalition for a Democratic Majority, an organization that helped revive the Committee on the Present Danger. According to Daniel Richman, former clerk for United...

    Interracial primer, New York: Fellowship of Reconciliation, 1943
    Interracial workshop: progress report, New York: Sponsored by Congress of Racial Equality and Fellowship of Reconciliation, 1947
    Journey of reconciliation: report, New York : Fellowship of Reconciliation, Congress of Racial Equality, 1947
    We challenged Jim Crow! a report on the journey of reconciliation, April 9–23, 1947, New York : Fellowship of Reconciliation, Congress of Racial Equality, 1947


    1. Anderson, Jervis. Bayard Rustin: Troubles I've Seen(New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1997). 2. Bennett, Scott H. Radical Pacifism: The War Resisters League and Gandhian Nonviolence in America, 1915–1963 (Syracuse Univ. Press, 2003). ISBN 0-8156-3028-X. 3. Branch, Taylor. Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954–63(New York: Touchstone, 1989). 4. Carbado, Devon W. and Donald Weise, editors. Time on Two Crosses: The Collected Writings of Bayard Rustin (San Francisco: Cleis Pres...

  8. To give effective leadership to a civil resistance movement, an organizer must be able to strategically organize and plan, visualize a future that the moveme...

  9. Resistance movement — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2 › en › Resistance_movement
    • Etymology
    • Background
    • Geographies of Resistance
    • Controversy Regarding Definition
    • Freedom Fighter
    • Common Weapons
    • Examples of Resistance Movements
    • References

    The Ox­ford Eng­lish Dic­tio­nary records use of the word "re­sis­tance" in the sense of or­gan­ised op­po­si­tion to an in­vader from 1862.The mod­ern usage of the term "Re­sis­tance" be­came wide­spread from the self-des­ig­na­tion of many move­ments dur­ing World War II, es­pe­cially the French Re­sis­tance. The term is still strongly linked[by whom?] to the con­text of the events of 1939–45, and par­tic­u­larly to op­po­si­tion move­ments in Axis-oc­cu­pied coun­tries. Using the term "re­sis­tance" to des­ig­nate a move­ment meet­ing the de­f­i­n­i­tion prior to World War II might be con­sid­ered by some[who?] to be an anachro­nism. How­ever, such move­ments ex­isted prior to World War II (al­beit often called by dif­fer­ent names), and there have been many after it – for ex­am­ple in strug­gles against colo­nial­ism and for­eign mil­i­tary oc­cu­pa­tions. "Re­sis­tance" has become[when?]a generic term that has been used to des­ig­nate un­der­ground re­sis­tance move­ments in an...

    Re­sis­tance move­ments can in­clude any ir­reg­u­lar armed force that rises up against an en­forced or es­tab­lished au­thor­ity, gov­ern­ment, or ad­min­is­tra­tion. This fre­quently in­cludes groups that con­sider them­selves to be re­sist­ing tyranny or dic­ta­tor­ship. Some re­sis­tance move­ments are un­der­ground or­ga­ni­za­tions en­gaged in a strug­gle for na­tional lib­er­a­tion in a coun­try under mil­i­tary oc­cu­pa­tion or to­tal­i­tar­ian dom­i­na­tion. Tac­tics of re­sis­tance move­ments against a con­sti­tuted au­thor­ity range from non­vi­o­lent re­sis­tance and civil dis­obe­di­ence, to guer­rilla war­fare and ter­ror­ism, or even con­ven­tional war­fare if the re­sis­tance move­ment is strong enough. Any gov­ern­ment fac­ing vi­o­lent acts from a re­sis­tance move­ment usu­ally con­demns such acts as ter­ror­ism, even when such at­tacks tar­get only the mil­i­tary or se­cu­rity forces. Re­sis­tance dur­ing World War II was mainly ded­i­cated to fight­ing the Axis...

    When ge­o­gra­phies of re­sis­tance are dis­cussed, it is often taken for granted that re­sis­tance takes place where dom­i­na­tion, power, or op­pres­sion oc­curs and so re­sis­tance is often un­der­stood as some­thing that al­ways op­poses to power or dom­i­na­tion. How­ever, some schol­ars be­lieve and argue that look­ing at re­sis­tance in re­la­tion to only power and dom­i­na­tion does not pro­vide a full un­der­stand­ing of the ac­tual na­ture of re­sis­tance. Not all power, dom­i­na­tion, or op­pres­sion leads to re­sis­tance, and not all cases of re­sis­tance are against or to op­pose what is cat­e­go­rizd as "power". In fact, they be­lieve that re­sis­tance has its own char­ac­ter­is­tics and spa­tial­i­ties. In Steve Pile's (1997) "Op­po­si­tion, Po­lit­i­cal Iden­ti­ties and Spaces of Re­sis­tance," ge­o­gra­phies of re­sis­tance show: We can bet­ter un­der­stand re­sis­tance by ac­count­ing dif­fer­ent per­spec­tives and by break­ing the pre­sump­tions that re­sis­tance...

    Some de­f­i­n­i­tions of re­sis­tance move­ment have proved con­tro­ver­sial. Ac­cord­ing to Joint Pub­li­ca­tion 1-02, the United States De­part­ment of De­fense de­fines a re­sis­tance move­ment as "an or­ga­nized ef­fort by some por­tion of the civil pop­u­la­tion of a coun­try to re­sist the legally es­tab­lished gov­ern­ment or an oc­cu­py­ing power and to dis­rupt civil order and sta­bil­ity". In strict mil­i­tary ter­mi­nol­ogy, a re­sis­tance move­ment is sim­ply that; it seeks to re­sist (change) the poli­cies of a gov­ern­ment or oc­cu­py­ing power. This may be ac­com­plished through vi­o­lent or non-vi­o­lent means. In this view, a re­sis­tance move­ment is specif­i­cally lim­ited to chang­ing the na­ture of cur­rent power, not to over­throw it; and the correct[according to whom?] mil­i­tary term for re­mov­ing or over­throw­ing a gov­ern­ment is an in­sur­gency. How­ever, in re­al­ity many re­sis­tance move­ments have aimed to dis­place a par­tic­u­lar ruler, es­pe­ciall...

    Free­dom fighter is an­other term for those en­gaged in a strug­gle to achieve po­lit­i­cal free­dom for them­selves or ob­tain free­dom for others. Though the lit­eral mean­ing of the words could in­clude "any­one who fights for the cause of free­dom", in com­mon use it may be re­stricted to those who are ac­tively in­volved in an armedre­bel­lion, rather than those who cam­paign for free­dom by peace­ful means, or those who fight vi­o­lently for the free­dom of oth­ers out­side the con­text of an up­ris­ing (though this title may be ap­plied in its lit­eral sense) Gen­er­ally speak­ing, free­dom fight­ers are peo­ple who use phys­i­cal force to cause a change in the po­lit­i­cal and or so­cial order. No­table ex­am­ples in­clude Umkhonto we Sizwe in South Africa, the Sons of Lib­erty in the Amer­i­can Rev­o­lu­tion, the Er­itrean Peo­ple's Lib­er­a­tion Front, and the Na­tional Re­sis­tance Army in Uganda, which were con­sid­ered free­dom fight­ers by sup­port­ers. How­ever, a per...

    Par­ti­sans often use cap­tured weapons taken from their en­e­mies, or weapons that have been stolen or smug­gled in. Dur­ing the Cold War, par­ti­sans often re­ceived arms from ei­ther NATO or War­saw Pact mem­ber states. Where par­ti­san re­sources are stretched, im­pro­vised weaponsare also de­ployed.

    The fol­low­ing ex­am­ples are of groups that have been con­sid­ered or would iden­tify them­selves as groups. These are mostly, but not ex­clu­sively, of armed re­sis­tance move­ments. For move­ments and phases of ac­tiv­ity in­volv­ing non-vi­o­lent meth­ods, see civil re­sis­tance and non­vi­o­lent re­sis­tance.

    Gardam, Judith Gail (1993). Non-combatant Immunity as a Norm of International Humanitarian, Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 0-7923-2245-2.
    Ticehurst, Rupert. The Martens Clause and the Laws of Armed Conflict 30 April 1997, International Review of the Red Cross no. 317, pp. 125–34. ISSN 1560-7755
  10. Cuatro años después de la odisea de Nathan Hale nos llega la conclusión al épico conflicto entre la Humanidad y las Quimeras. Joseph Capelli, personaje prese...

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