Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music. While a more precise term is also used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820 (the Classical period), this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other ...
The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 and 1820.. The Classical period falls between the Baroque and the Romantic periods. Classical music has a lighter, clearer texture than Baroque music and is less complex.
Classical music is a very general term which normally refers to the standard music of countries in the Western world. It is music that has been composed by musicians who are trained in the art of writing music (composing) and written down in music notation so that other musicians can play it.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
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- Significance of Written Notation
- Relationship to Other Music Traditions
- Public Domain
- See Also
- Further Reading
Template:Refimprove sectionGiven the wide range of styles in European classical music, from Medieval plainchant sung by monks to Classical and Romantic symphonies for orchestra from the 1700s and 1800s to avant-garde atonal compositions for solo piano from the 1900s, it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type. However, there are characteristics that classical music contains that few or no other genres of music contain,Template:Full such as the use of a printed scoreTemplate:Clarify and the performance of very complex instrumental works (e.g., the fugue). Furthermore, while the symphony did not exist throughout the entire classical music period, from the mid-1700s to the 2000s the symphony ensemble—and the works written for it—have become a defining feature of classical music.Template:Citation needed
Template:History of Western art musicTemplate:Main articleThe major time divisions of classical music up to 1900 are the early music period, which includes Medieval (500–1400) and Renaissance (1400–1600) eras, and the Common practice period, which includes the Baroque (1600–1750), Classical (1730–1820) and Romantic (1780–1910) eras. Since 1900, classical periods have been reckoned more by calendar century than by particular stylistic movements that have become fragmented and difficult to define. The 20th century calendar period (1901–2000) includes most of the early modern musical era (1890–1930), the entire high modern (mid 20th-century), and the first 25 years of the contemporary (1945 or 1975–current) or postmodern musical era (1930–current). The 21st centuryhas so far been characterized by a continuation of the contemporary/postmodern musical era. The dates are generalizations, since the periods and eras overlap and the categories are somewhat arbitrary, to the point that some a...
Literalist view of the significance of the score
While there are differences between particular performances of a classical work, a piece of classical music is generally held to transcend any interpretation of it. The use of musical notation is an effective method for transmitting classical music, since the written music contains the technical instructions for performing the work.Template:Citation needed The written score, however, does not usually contain explicit instructions as to how to interpret the piece in terms of production or perf...
Criticism of the literalist view
Some critics express the opinion that it is only from the mid-19th century, and especially in the 20th century, that the score began to hold such a high significance.Template:Citation needed Previously, improvisation (in preludes, cadenzas and ornaments), rhythmic flexibility (e.g., tempo rubato), improvisatory deviation from the score and oral tradition of playing was integral to the style.Template:Clarify Yet in the spring of 1907, this oral tradition and passing on of stylistic features wi...
Template:EssayImprovisation once played an important role in classical music. A remnant of this improvisatory tradition in classical music can be heard in the cadenza, a passage found mostly in concertos and solo works, designed to allow skilled performers to exhibit their virtuoso skills on the instrument. Traditionally this was improvised by the performer; however, it is often written for (or occasionally by) the performer beforehand. Improvisation is also an important aspect in authentic p...
Classical music has often incorporated elements or material from popular music of the composer's time. Examples include occasional music such as Brahms' use of student drinking songs in his Academic Festival Overture, genres exemplified by Kurt Weill's The Threepenny Opera, and the influence of jazz on early- and mid-20th-century composers including Maurice Ravel, exemplified by the movement entitled "Blues" in his sonata for violin and piano. Certain postmodern, minimalist and postminimalist...
Composers of classical music have often made use of folk music (music created by musicians who are commonly not classically trained, often from a purely oral tradition). Some composers, like Dvořák and Smetana, have used folk themes to impart a nationalist flavor to their work, while others like Bartókhave used specific themes lifted whole from their folk-music origins.
Certain staples of classical music are often used commercially (either in advertising or in movie soundtracks). In television commercials, several passages have become clichéd, particularly the opening of Richard Strauss' Also sprach Zarathustra (made famous in the film 2001: A Space Odyssey) and the opening section "O Fortuna" of Carl Orff's Carmina Burana, often used in the horror genreTemplate:Citation needed; other examples include the Dies Irae from the Verdi Requiem, Edvard Grieg's In the Hall of the Mountain King from Peer Gynt, the opening bars of Beethoven's Symphony No. 5, Wagner's Ride of the Valkyries from Die Walküre, Rimsky-Korsakov's Flight of the Bumblebee, and excerpts of Aaron Copland's Rodeo.Template:Citation needed Several works from the Golden Age of Animation matched the action to classical music. Notable examples are Walt Disney's Fantasia, Tom and Jerry's Johann Mouse, and Warner Bros.' Rabbit of Seville and What's Opera, Doc?. Similarly, movies and televisio...
Template:Importance sectionTemplate:One sourceTemplate:Main article Since the range of production of classical music is from 14th century to 21st century, most of this music (14th to early 20th century) belongs to the public domain, mainly sheet music and tablatures. Some projects like Musopen and Open Goldberg Variations were created to produce musical audio files of high quality and release them into the public domain, most of them are available at the Internet Archivewebsite. The Open Goldberg Variations project released a braille format into the public domain that can be used to produce paper or electronic scores, Braille e-books, for blind people.
Template:Main articleDuring the 1990s, several research papers and popular books wrote on what came to be called the "Mozart effect": an observed temporary, small elevation of scores on certain tests as a result of listening to Mozart's works. The approach has been popularized in a book by Don Campbell, and is based on an experiment published in Nature suggesting that listening to Mozart temporarily boosted students' IQ by 8 to 9 points. This popularized version of the theory was expressed succinctly by the New York Times music columnist Alex Ross: "researchers... have determined that listening to Mozart actually makes you smarter." Promoters marketed CDs claimed to induce the effect. Florida passed a law requiring toddlers in state-run schools to listen to classical music every day, and in 1998 the governor of Georgia budgeted $105,000 per year to provide every child born in Georgia with a tape or CD of classical music. One of the co-authors of the original studies of the Mozart ef...
Template:Portal 1. List of classical and art music traditions 2. List of classical music in literature Nation-specific: 1. American classical music 2. Australian classical music 3. Canadian classical music 4. French classical music 5. Indian classical music 6. Italian classical music 7. Russian classical music 8. Classical music of the United KingdomTemplate:Cite bookTemplate:Cite bookJohnson, Julian (2002), Who Needs Classical Music?: Cultural Choice and Musical Value. Oxford University Press, 140pp.Template:WikiciteGrout, Donald Jay; Palisca, Claude V. (1996) A History of Western Music, Fifth edition. W. W. Norton & Company. Template:ISBN(hardcover).Hanning, Barbara Russano; Grout, Donald Jay (1998 rev. 2009) Concise History of Western Music. W. W. Norton & Company. Template:ISBN(hardcover).Johnson, Julian (2002) Who Needs Classical Music?: cultural choice and musical value. Oxford University Press. Template:ISBN.
- Major traditions
- Reception outside India
Modern Bhangra Bhangragga Blues Filmi Bollywood Ghazal Qawwali Chakwood Goa trance Dance Indi-pop Asian Underground Jazz Rock Bengali Raga Media and performance Music awards Filmfare Awards Sangeet Natak Akademi Award Music festivals Saptak Festival of Music Chennai Music Season Dover Lane music festival Purandaradasa Aradhana Tyagaraja Aradhana Harivallabh Sangeet Sammelan Music media Sruti The Record Nationalistic and patriotic songs National anthemJana Gana Mana Regional music Andaman and Nic
The root of music in ancient India are found in the Vedic literature of Hinduism. The earliest Indian thought combined three arts, syllabic recital, melos and dance. As these fields developed, sangeeta became a distinct genre of art, in a form equivalent to contemporary music. This likely occurred before the time of Yāska, since he includes these terms in his nirukta studies, one of the six Vedanga of ancient Indian tradition. Some of the ancient texts of Hinduism such as the Samaveda are ...
The classical music tradition of the ancient and medieval Indian subcontinent were a generally integrated system through the 14th century, after which the socio-political turmoil of the Delhi Sultanate era isolated the north from the south. The music traditions of the North and South India were not considered distinct until about the 16th century, but after that the traditions acquired distinct forms. North Indian classical music is called Hindustani, while the South Indian expression is called
Classical Indian music is a genre of South Asian music, the other being film, various varieties of pop, regional folk, religious and devotional music. In Indian classical music, the raga and the tala are two foundational elements. The raga forms the fabric of a melodic structure, and the tala keeps the time cycle. Both raga and tala are open frameworks for creativity and allow a very large number of possibilities, however, the tradition considers a few hundred ragas and talas as basic. Raga is i
According to Yukteshwar Kumar, elements of Indian music arrived in China in the 3rd century, such as in the works of Chinese lyricist Li Yannian. In the 1980s, 1990s and particularly the 2000s onwards, Indian Classical Music has seen rapid growth in reception and development around the globe; particularly in North America. Numerous musicians of American origin, including Ramakrishnan Murthy, Sandeep Narayan, Abby V, and Mahesh Kale have taken professionally to Indian Classical Music with great s
A few of the organizations that promote classical music include Saptak, Sangeet Sankalp established in 1989. SPIC MACAY, established in 1977, has more than 500 chapters in India and abroad. SPIC MACAY claims to hold around 5000 events every year related to Indian classical music and dance. Prayag Sangeet Samiti is also a well established organisastion promoting Indian Classical Music. Music Academy Madras' Sangeetha Kalanidhi Award is a well regarded award.
Edward Elgarcomposed hisVariations,Op.36, popularly known as theEnigma Variations,between October 1898 and February 1899. It is an orchestral work comprising fourteenvariationson an original theme. Elgar dedicated the work 'to my friends pictured within', each variation being a musical sketch of one of his circle of close acquaintances (seemusical cryptogram). Those portrayed include Elgar ...
Romantic music is a stylistic movement in Western orchestral music associated with the period of the nineteenth century commonly referred to as the Romantic era (or Romantic period). It is closely related to the broader concept of Romanticism —the intellectual, artistic and literary movement that became prominent in Europe from approximately ...
Spanish music played a notable part in the early developments of western classical music, from the 15th through the early 17th century. The breadth of musical innovation can be seen in composers like Tomás Luis de Victoria , styles like the zarzuela of Spanish opera , the ballet of Manuel de Falla , and the classical guitar music of Francisco ...