Clothing industry or garment industry summarizes the types of trade and industry along the production and value chain of clothing and garments, starting with the textile industry (producers of cotton, wool, fur, and synthetic fibre), embellishment using embroidery, via the fashion industry to apparel retailers up to trade with second-hand clothes and textile recycling.
Although the fashion industry developed first in Europe and America, as of 2017, it is an international and highly globalized industry, with clothing often designed in one country, manufactured in another, and sold worldwide. For example, an American fashion company might source fabric in China and have the clothes manufactured in Vietnam ...
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Pages in category "Clothing industry" The following 35 pages are in this category, out of 35 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ().
- Origin and History
- Clothing Comfort
- Cultural Aspects
- Contemporary Clothing
- Political Issues
- Life Cycle
- Global Trade
- See Also
Scientists have never agreed on when humans began wearing clothes and estimates submitted by various experts have ranged greatly from 40,000 to 3 million years ago. More recently, studies involving the evolution of body licehave pointed to a more recent development, implying the use of clothes around 170,000 years ago with others indicating as little as 40,000. However, despite these indications, there is no single estimate that is widely accepted. Ralf Kittler, Manfred Kayser and Mark Stonek...
Some human cultures, such as the various peoples of the Arctic Circle, traditionally make their clothing entirely of prepared and decorated furs and skins. Other cultures supplemented or replaced leather and skins with cloth: woven, knitted, or twined from various animal and vegetable fibers including wool, linen, cotton, silk, hemp, and ramie. Although modern consumers may take the production of clothing for granted, making fabric by hand is a tedious and labor-intensive process involving fi...
Comfortis related to various perceptions, physiological, social, and psychological needs, and after food, clothing is one of the significant objects that suffices comfort requirements.. Clothes provide aesthetic comfort, thermal comfort, moisture comfort, tactile comfort, and pressure comfort. 1. Aesthetic comfort: Color, style, garment fitting, fashion compatibility, fabric construction, and finish of clothing material satisfies visual perception. Aesthetic comfort is necessary for psychological and social comfort. 2. Thermal comfort: The heat dissipation efficiency of clothes transfers a "neither too hot nor too cold" feeling to the wearer. The human body remains in comfort around 30 °C.Secondly clothing acts as a buffer against environmental changes and maintain a thermal balance between the heat generated by the body and the heat lost to the environment while allowing the skin to remain free of liquids released from the body such as perspiration. Thermal comfort is one major cri...
The most obvious function of clothing is to protect the wearer from the elements. In hot weather, clothing provides protection from sunburn or wind damage. In the cold, it offers thermal insulation. Shelter can reduce the functional need for clothing. For example, coats, hats, glovesand other outer layers are normally removed when entering a warm place. Similarly, clothing has seasonal and regional aspects so that thinner materials and fewer layers of clothing are generally worn in warmer regions and seasons than in colder ones. Clothing has been made from a very wide variety of materials, ranging from leather and furs to woven fabrics to elaborate and exotic natural and synthetic fabrics. Not all body coverings are regarded as clothing. Articles carried rather than worn (such as purses), worn on a single part of the body and easily removed (scarves), worn purely for adornment (jewelry), or those that serve a function other than protection (eyeglasses), are normally considered acces...
Function of clothing
Serious books on clothing and its functions appear from the 19th century as imperialists dealt with new environments such as India and the tropics. Some scientific research into the multiple functions of clothing in the first half of the 20th century, with publications such as J.C. Flügel's Psychology of Clothes in 1930, and Newburgh's seminal Physiology of Heat Regulation and The Science of Clothing in 1949. By 1968, the field of environmental physiology had advanced and expanded significant...
History of clothing
Clothing reveals much about human history. According to Professor Kiki Smith of Smith College, garments preserved in collections are resources for study similar to books and paintings. Scholars around the world have studied a wide range of topics, including the history of specific items of clothing, clothing styles in different cultural groups and the business of clothing and fashion.The textile curator Linda Baumgarten writes that "clothing provides a remarkable picture of the daily lives, b...
1. A group of women and men gathered at sport event in Sweden (1938). 2. 3rd Duke of Fife wearing a traditional Scottish kilt(1984). 3. A Hindu North Indian wedding, with the groom wearing a sherwani and pagri turban, while the bride in a sari. 4. Daughter of President Trump, Ivanka Trump (right) along with Japanese PM Shinzō Abe wearing Western-style business suitsas per their gender, 2017. 5. Red carpet fashion: Italian actors Gabriel Garko and Laura Torrisi wearing designer dress code, 200...
1. Achkan sherwani and churidar (lower body) worn by Arvind Singh Mewar and his kin during a Hindu wedding in Rajasthan, India. Traditionally, these clothes were worn by the elites of the Indian subcontinent. 2. A Barong Tagalogmade for a wedding ceremony. 3. Alim Khan's bemedaled robesends a social message about his wealth, status, and power. In some societies, clothing may be used to indicate rank or status. In ancient Rome, for example, only senators could wear garments dyed with Tyrian pu...
1. The Buddha wearing kāṣāya robes. Originating from ancient India, these robes were worn by fully ordained Buddhist monks and nuns. 2. Muslimmen traditionally wear white robes and a cap during prayers. 3. Clerical clothing worn by Catholic priests. Some religious clothing might be considered a special case of occupational clothing. Sometimes it is worn only during the performance of religious ceremonies. However, it may also be worn every day as a marker for special religious status. For exa...
Western dress code
The Western dress code has changed over the past 500+ years. The mechanization of the textile industry made many varieties of cloth widely available at affordable prices. Styles have changed, and the availability of synthetic fabrics has changed the definition of "stylish". In the latter half of the 20th century, blue jeans became very popular, and are now worn to events that normally demand formal attire. Activewearhas also become a large and growing market. Jeans in the Western dress code a...
Spread of western styles
By the early years of the 21st century, western clothing styles had, to some extent, become international styles. This process began hundreds of years earlier, during the periods of European colonialism. The process of cultural dissemination has perpetuated over the centuries as Western media corporations have penetrated markets throughout the world, spreading Western culture and styles. Fast fashion clothing has also become a global phenomenon. These garments are less expensive, mass-produce...
Ethnic and cultural heritage
People may wear ethnic or national dress on special occasions or in certain roles or occupations. For example, most Korean men and women have adopted Western-style dress for daily wear, but still wear traditional hanboks on special occasions, like weddings and cultural holidays. Items of Western dress may also appear worn or accessorized in distinctive, non-Western ways. A Tongan man may combine a used T-shirt with a Tongan wrapped skirt, or tupenu.
Working conditions in the garments industry
Although mechanization transformed most aspects of human industry by the mid-20th century, garment workers have continued to labor under challenging conditions that demand repetitive manual labor. Mass-produced clothing is often made in what are considered by some to be sweatshops, typified by long work hours, lack of benefits, and lack of worker representation. While most examples of such conditions are found in developing countries, clothes made in industrialized nations may also be manufac...
The use of animal fur in clothing dates to prehistoric times. It is currently associated in developed countries with expensive, designer clothing, although fur is still used by indigenous people in arctic zones and higher elevations for its warmth and protection. Once uncontroversial, it has recently been the focus of campaigns on the grounds that campaigners consider it cruel and unnecessary. PETA, along with other animal rights and animal liberation groups have called attention to fur farmi...
Clothing suffers assault both from within and without. The human body sheds skin cells and body oils, and exudes sweat, urine, and feces. From the outside, sun damage, moisture, abrasion, and dirt assault garments. Fleas and lice can hide in seams. Worn clothing, if not cleaned and refurbished, itches, becomes outworn, and loses its aesthetics and functionality (as when buttons fall off, seams come undone, fabrics thin or tear, and zippersfail). Often, people wear an item of clothing until it...
Laundry, ironing, storage
Humans have developed many specialized methods for laundering, ranging from early methods of pounding clothes against rocks in running streams, to the latest in electronic washing machines and dry cleaning (dissolving dirt in solvents other than water). Hot water washing (boiling), chemical cleaning and ironing are all traditional methods of sterilizing fabrics for hygienepurposes. Many kinds of clothing are designed to be ironed before they are worn to remove wrinkles. Most modern formal and...
A resin used for making non-wrinkle shirts releases formaldehyde, which could cause contact dermatitis for some people; no disclosure requirements exist, and in 2008 the U.S. Government Accountability Office tested formaldehyde in clothing and found that generally the highest levels were in non-wrinkle shirts and pants.In 1999, a study of the effect of washing on the formaldehyde levels found that after 6 months after washing, 7 of 27 shirts had levels in excess of 75 ppm, which is a safe lim...
EU Member States import, in 2018 €166 billion of clothes; 51% come from outside the EU €84 billion. EU member states exported €116 billion of clothes in 2018, including 77% to other EU member states.
For the production of apparel, clothing and garments, see Clothing industry. An old textile factory ("Cvernovka") in Bratislava, Slovakia (1901-2004). Textile factory ( Germany, c. 1975). Remi Holdings highest scoring LEED certified Garment factory in Bangladesh and highest in the world. The textile industry is primarily concerned with the ...
May 18, 2018 · CLOTHING INDUSTRY. Throughout the eighteenth century, clothing manufacture—from the raising of the raw materials, through the spinning and weaving, to the sewing—was largely a household industry in the United States. In the colonial period fine imported textiles, including clothing and bed and table linens, were costly items.
1,000 (2017) Website. patagonia.com. Patagonia, Inc. is an American clothing company that markets and sells outdoor clothing. The company was founded by Yvon Chouinard in 1973 and is based in Ventura, California. They have hundreds of stores in 10+ countries across 5 continents, as well as factories in 16 countries.
- Fashion Companies
- Imports & Exports
In the United States an estimated 1.8 million people are in employed in the fashion industry, among whom 232,000 in manufacturing textiles for apparel and other fashion items. (JEC Democratic, Bureau of Labor) Average annual wages in fashion range from 26,440 dollars, for textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators, to 84,600 dollars for marketing and sales managers in fashion. About 79 percent of all US employees in fashion work for apparel retailers. The average annual wage at such companies is 26,650 dollars. However in certain occupations the average wages are a lot higher. Marketing and sales managers at apparel retailers have the highest average annual wage of 84,600 dollars. Accountants and auditors receive an average annual pay of 69,960 dollar and buyers and purchasing agents get paid 56,550 dollars, on average. A smaller amount, 145,000 employees accounting for 8 percent of all employees in fashion work in apparel wholesale and merchandising. The average annual wage in...
Some of the world’s largest fashion companies are based in the United States. Moreover, the currently largest fashion company globally, Nike, is American. Nike is an athleisure- and lifestyle brand with annual revenues of 30.6 billion and a market value of nearly a 105 billion dollars. Nike offers its products worldwide and its largest markets are the United States, accounting for 46 percent of the total revenues, and Western Europe (19 percent). Most of Nike’s income, nearly 94 percent, comes from the Nike brand. The remaining 6 percent comes from Converse, which is a subsidiary of Nike. The brand’s best selling division is footwear, accounting for 64 percent of Nike’s income. With a market value of 54.5 billion dollars and 2015 annual sales of 30.9 billion dollars, TJX Companies is the second largest fashion company in the United States. TJX operates the majority of its stores in the United States and is best known for its fast-fashion brand T.J. Maxx. Its US sales account for 86...
Exports of textiles and clothing: 22.9 billion dollars
The United States are not one of the largest exporters of fashion-related products in the world, however it still supplies a fair share of several textiles for fashion purpose to overseas markets. The largest export products among textile and clothing of the United States are:
Imports of clothing: 105 billion dollars
The United States are the largest importer of fashion-related products in the world. It mostly imports manufactured apparel.Import and export data: OECLargest companies Info: FashionUnited top 100Population and Labour Data: World Bank | www.wto.org
- Retail Trends
- Growing Competition
- Consumer Savvy
- Market Expansion
The global fashion industry is dependent on ever-changing trends that keep consumers, driven by the need to wear the latest, buying. However, this means that goods have a short shelf life, requiring manufacturers, designers and retailers to meet tight production schedules and distribution deadlines. This also gives trendsetters, such as celebrities, key roles in successful marketing and promotions.
In a global marketplace, the fashion industry is highly competitive. While parts of the developing world, such as the Asian-Pacific markets and Africa, are dominant in the manufacturing and export segments of the industry, even they are being squeezed out by neighboring China, which is claiming a majority stake by offering quality goods at cheaper prices.
Media images of the celebrity lifestyle, including what stars are wearing, and the touting of designer brands have retail consumers demanding access to the same styles. Clothes buyers are increasingly status-conscious and seek out the latest styles worn by cultural icons. This puts additional pressure on the industry while also providing new opportunity for growth.
The fashion industry is no longer solely dependent on ``brick and mortar'' stores for sales. Opportunities for retail sales have expanded through e-commerce, which allows buyers to shop and purchase online. Marketing and promotion also are expanding with the growth of such media trends as social networking and use of technologies such as mobile devices and smart phone applications, which allow for shopping anywhere.
Product branding is an important part of gaining recognition and customer loyalty. This segment of the market, promoted by designers and fashion models, is among the most visible. It also presents greater challenges for lesser known product lines.