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  1. Clothing industry - Wikipedia › wiki › Clothing_industry

    Clothing industry or garment industry summarizes the types of trade and industry along the production and value chain of clothing and garments, starting with the textile industry (producers of cotton, wool, fur, and synthetic fibre), embellishment using embroidery, via the fashion industry to apparel retailers up to trade with second-hand clothes and textile recycling.

  2. Category:Clothing industry - Wikipedia › wiki › Category:Clothing_industry

    Pages in category "Clothing industry" The following 35 pages are in this category, out of 35 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ().

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  4. Fashion - Wikipedia › wiki › Fashion

    Although the fashion industry developed first in Europe and America, as of 2017, it is an international and highly globalized industry, with clothing often designed in one country, manufactured in another, and sold worldwide. For example, an American fashion company might source fabric in China and have the clothes manufactured in Vietnam ...

  5. Clothing - Wikipedia › wiki › Clothing
    • Origin and History
    • Clothing Comfort
    • Functions
    • Scholarship
    • Cultural Aspects
    • Contemporary Clothing
    • Political Issues
    • Life Cycle
    • Global Trade
    • See Also

    Early use

    Scientists have never agreed on when humans began wearing clothes and estimates submitted by various experts have ranged greatly from 40,000 to 3 million years ago. More recently, studies involving the evolution of body licehave pointed to a more recent development, implying the use of clothes around 170,000 years ago with others indicating as little as 40,000. However, despite these indications, there is no single estimate that is widely accepted. Ralf Kittler, Manfred Kayser and Mark Stonek...

    Making clothing

    Some human cultures, such as the various peoples of the Arctic Circle, traditionally make their clothing entirely of prepared and decorated furs and skins. Other cultures supplemented or replaced leather and skins with cloth: woven, knitted, or twined from various animal and vegetable fibers including wool, linen, cotton, silk, hemp, and ramie. Although modern consumers may take the production of clothing for granted, making fabric by hand is a tedious and labor-intensive process involving fi...

    Comfortis related to various perceptions, physiological, social, and psychological needs, and after food, clothing is one of the significant objects that suffices comfort requirements.. Clothes provide aesthetic comfort, thermal comfort, moisture comfort, tactile comfort, and pressure comfort. 1. Aesthetic comfort: Color, style, garment fitting, fashion compatibility, fabric construction, and finish of clothing material satisfies visual perception. Aesthetic comfort is necessary for psychological and social comfort. 2. Thermal comfort: The heat dissipation efficiency of clothes transfers a "neither too hot nor too cold" feeling to the wearer. The human body remains in comfort around 30 °C.Secondly clothing acts as a buffer against environmental changes and maintain a thermal balance between the heat generated by the body and the heat lost to the environment while allowing the skin to remain free of liquids released from the body such as perspiration. Thermal comfort is one major cri...

    The most obvious function of clothing is to protect the wearer from the elements. In hot weather, clothing provides protection from sunburn or wind damage. In the cold, it offers thermal insulation. Shelter can reduce the functional need for clothing. For example, coats, hats, glovesand other outer layers are normally removed when entering a warm place. Similarly, clothing has seasonal and regional aspects so that thinner materials and fewer layers of clothing are generally worn in warmer regions and seasons than in colder ones. Clothing has been made from a very wide variety of materials, ranging from leather and furs to woven fabrics to elaborate and exotic natural and synthetic fabrics. Not all body coverings are regarded as clothing. Articles carried rather than worn (such as purses), worn on a single part of the body and easily removed (scarves), worn purely for adornment (jewelry), or those that serve a function other than protection (eyeglasses), are normally considered acces...

    Function of clothing

    Serious books on clothing and its functions appear from the 19th century as imperialists dealt with new environments such as India and the tropics. Some scientific research into the multiple functions of clothing in the first half of the 20th century, with publications such as J.C. Flügel's Psychology of Clothes in 1930, and Newburgh's seminal Physiology of Heat Regulation and The Science of Clothing in 1949. By 1968, the field of environmental physiology had advanced and expanded significant...

    History of clothing

    Clothing reveals much about human history. According to Professor Kiki Smith of Smith College, garments preserved in collections are resources for study similar to books and paintings. Scholars around the world have studied a wide range of topics, including the history of specific items of clothing, clothing styles in different cultural groups and the business of clothing and fashion.The textile curator Linda Baumgarten writes that "clothing provides a remarkable picture of the daily lives, b...

    Gender differentiation

    1. A group of women and men gathered at sport event in Sweden (1938). 2. 3rd Duke of Fife wearing a traditional Scottish kilt(1984). 3. A Hindu North Indian wedding, with the groom wearing a sherwani and pagri turban, while the bride in a sari. 4. Daughter of President Trump, Ivanka Trump (right) along with Japanese PM Shinzō Abe wearing Western-style business suitsas per their gender, 2017. 5. Red carpet fashion: Italian actors Gabriel Garko and Laura Torrisi wearing designer dress code, 200...

    Social status

    1. Achkan sherwani and churidar (lower body) worn by Arvind Singh Mewar and his kin during a Hindu wedding in Rajasthan, India. Traditionally, these clothes were worn by the elites of the Indian subcontinent. 2. A Barong Tagalogmade for a wedding ceremony. 3. Alim Khan's bemedaled robesends a social message about his wealth, status, and power. In some societies, clothing may be used to indicate rank or status. In ancient Rome, for example, only senators could wear garments dyed with Tyrian pu...


    1. The Buddha wearing kāṣāya robes. Originating from ancient India, these robes were worn by fully ordained Buddhist monks and nuns. 2. Muslimmen traditionally wear white robes and a cap during prayers. 3. Clerical clothing worn by Catholic priests. Some religious clothing might be considered a special case of occupational clothing. Sometimes it is worn only during the performance of religious ceremonies. However, it may also be worn every day as a marker for special religious status. For exa...

    Western dress code

    The Western dress code has changed over the past 500+ years. The mechanization of the textile industry made many varieties of cloth widely available at affordable prices. Styles have changed, and the availability of synthetic fabrics has changed the definition of "stylish". In the latter half of the 20th century, blue jeans became very popular, and are now worn to events that normally demand formal attire. Activewearhas also become a large and growing market. Jeans in the Western dress code a...

    Spread of western styles

    By the early years of the 21st century, western clothing styles had, to some extent, become international styles. This process began hundreds of years earlier, during the periods of European colonialism. The process of cultural dissemination has perpetuated over the centuries as Western media corporations have penetrated markets throughout the world, spreading Western culture and styles. Fast fashion clothing has also become a global phenomenon. These garments are less expensive, mass-produce...

    Ethnic and cultural heritage

    People may wear ethnic or national dress on special occasions or in certain roles or occupations. For example, most Korean men and women have adopted Western-style dress for daily wear, but still wear traditional hanboks on special occasions, like weddings and cultural holidays. Items of Western dress may also appear worn or accessorized in distinctive, non-Western ways. A Tongan man may combine a used T-shirt with a Tongan wrapped skirt, or tupenu.

    Working conditions in the garments industry

    Although mechanization transformed most aspects of human industry by the mid-20th century, garment workers have continued to labor under challenging conditions that demand repetitive manual labor. Mass-produced clothing is often made in what are considered by some to be sweatshops, typified by long work hours, lack of benefits, and lack of worker representation. While most examples of such conditions are found in developing countries, clothes made in industrialized nations may also be manufac...


    The use of animal fur in clothing dates to prehistoric times. It is currently associated in developed countries with expensive, designer clothing, although fur is still used by indigenous people in arctic zones and higher elevations for its warmth and protection. Once uncontroversial, it has recently been the focus of campaigns on the grounds that campaigners consider it cruel and unnecessary. PETA, along with other animal rights and animal liberation groups have called attention to fur farmi...

    Clothing maintenance

    Clothing suffers assault both from within and without. The human body sheds skin cells and body oils, and exudes sweat, urine, and feces. From the outside, sun damage, moisture, abrasion, and dirt assault garments. Fleas and lice can hide in seams. Worn clothing, if not cleaned and refurbished, itches, becomes outworn, and loses its aesthetics and functionality (as when buttons fall off, seams come undone, fabrics thin or tear, and zippersfail). Often, people wear an item of clothing until it...

    Laundry, ironing, storage

    Humans have developed many specialized methods for laundering, ranging from early methods of pounding clothes against rocks in running streams, to the latest in electronic washing machines and dry cleaning (dissolving dirt in solvents other than water). Hot water washing (boiling), chemical cleaning and ironing are all traditional methods of sterilizing fabrics for hygienepurposes. Many kinds of clothing are designed to be ironed before they are worn to remove wrinkles. Most modern formal and...


    A resin used for making non-wrinkle shirts releases formaldehyde, which could cause contact dermatitis for some people; no disclosure requirements exist, and in 2008 the U.S. Government Accountability Office tested formaldehyde in clothing and found that generally the highest levels were in non-wrinkle shirts and pants.In 1999, a study of the effect of washing on the formaldehyde levels found that after 6 months after washing, 7 of 27 shirts had levels in excess of 75 ppm, which is a safe lim...

    EU Member States import, in 2018 €166 billion of clothes; 51% come from outside the EU €84 billion. EU member states exported €116 billion of clothes in 2018, including 77% to other EU member states.

  6. History of clothing and textiles - Wikipedia › wiki › History_of_clothing_and
    • Prehistoric Development
    • Ancient Textiles and Clothing
    • Medieval Clothing and Textiles
    • Renaissance and Early Modern Period
    • Enlightenment and The Colonial Period
    • Industrial Revolution
    • 20Th-Century Developments
    • 21st Century Issues
    • Bibliography
    • External Links

    The development of textile and clothing manufacture in prehistory has been the subject of a number of scholarly studies since the late 20th century.These sources have helped to provide a coherent history of these prehistoric developments. Evidence suggests that humans may have begun wearing clothing as far back as 100,000 to 500,000 years ago.

    Knowledge of ancient textiles and clothing has expanded in the recent past due to modern technological developments. The first actual textile, as opposed to skins sewn together, was probably felt.[citation needed] The first known textile of South America was discovered in Guitarrero Cave in Peru. It was woven out of vegetable fibers and dates back to 8,000 B.C.E. Surviving examples of Nålebinding, another early textile method, have been found in Israel, and date from 6500 BC.

    The history of Medieval European clothing and textiles has inspired a good deal of scholarly interest in the 21st century. Elisabeth Crowfoot, Frances Pritchard, and Kay Staniland authored Textiles and Clothing: Medieval Finds from Excavations in London, c.1150-c.1450 (Boydell Press, 2001). The topic is also the subject of an annual series, Medieval Clothing and Textiles (Boydell Press), edited by Robin Netherton and Gale R. Owen-Crocker, Emeritus Professor of Anglo-Saxon Culture at the University of Manchester.

    Renaissance Europe

    Wool remained the most popular fabric for all classes, followed by linen and hemp. Wool fabrics were available in a wide range of qualities, from rough undyed cloth to fine, dense broadcloth with a velvety nap; high-value broadcloth was a backbone of the English economy and was exported throughout Europe.Wool fabrics were dyed in rich colours, notably reds, greens, golds, and blues. Silk-weaving was well established around the Mediterranean by the beginning of the 15th century, and figured si...

    Early Modern Europe

    By the first half of the 16th century, the clothing of the Low Countries, German states, and Scandinavia had developed in a different direction than that of England, France, and Italy, although all absorbed the sobering and formal influence of Spanish dress after the mid-1520s. Elaborate slashing was popular, especially in Germany. Black was increasingly worn for the most formal occasions. Bobbin lace arose from passementerie in the mid-16th century, probably in Flanders. This century also sa...

    Mughal India

    Mughal India (16th to 18th centuries) was the most important center of manufacturing in international trade up until the 18th century. Up until 1750, India produced about 25% of the world's industrial output. The largest manufacturing industry in Mughal India was textile manufacturing, particularly cotton textile manufacturing, which included the production of piece goods, calicos, and muslins, available unbleached and in a variety of colours. The cotton textile industry was responsible for a...

    During the 18th century, distinction was made between full dress worn at Court and for formal occasions, and undress or everyday, daytime clothes. As the decades progressed, fewer and fewer occasions called for full dress which had all but disappeared by the end of the century. Full dress followed the styles of the French court, where rich silks and elaborate embroidery reigned. Men continued to wear the coat, waistcoat and breeches for both full dress and undress; these were now sometimes made of the same fabric and trim, signalling the birth of the three-piece suit. Women's silhouettes featured small, domed hoops in the 1730s and early 1740s, which were displaced for formal court wear by side hoops or panniers which later widened to as much as three feet to either side at the court of Marie Antoinette. Fashion reached heights of fantasy and abundant ornamentation, before new enthusiasms for outdoor sports and country pursuits and a long-simmering movement toward simplicity and dem...

    During the industrial revolution, fabric production was mechanised with machines powered by waterwheels and steam-engines. Production shifted from small cottage based production to mass production based on assembly line organisation. Clothing production, on the other hand, continued to be made by hand. Sewing machines emerged in the 19th centurystreamlining clothing production. Textiles were not only made in factories. Before this, they were made in local and national markets. Dramatic change in transportation throughout the nation is one source that encouraged the use of factories. New advances such as steamboats, canals, and railroads lowered shipping costs which caused people to buy cheap goods that were produced in other places instead of more expensive goods that were produced locally. Between 1810 and 1840, the development of a national market prompted manufacturing which tripled the output's worth. This increase in production created a change in industrial methods, such as th...

    The 20th century is marked by new applications for textiles as well as inventions in synthetic fibers and computerized manufacturing control systems.

    In the 2010s, the global textile industry has come under fire for unsustainable practices. The textile industry is shown to have a 'negative environmental impact at most stages in the production process. Global trade of secondhand clothingshows promise for reducing landfill use, however international relations and challenges to textile recycling keep the market small compared to total clothing use. Advancements in textile treatment, coating, and dyes have unclear affects in human health, and textile contact dermatitisis increasing in prevalence among textile workers and clothing consumers. Scholars have identified an increase in the rate at which western consumers purchase new clothing, as well as a decrease in the lifespan of clothing. Fast fashionhas been suggested to contribute to increased levels of textile waste. The worldwide market for textiles and apparel exports in 2013 according to United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Databasestood at $772 billion. In 2016, the larges...

    Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The history of costume and personal adornment. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1987 ISBN 0-8109-1693-2
    Jenkins, David, ed.: The Cambridge History of Western Textiles, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-521-34107-8
    Payne, Blanche; Winakor, Geitel; Farrell-Beck Jane (1992) The History of Costume, from the Ancient Mesopotamia to the Twentieth Century, 2nd Edn, HarperCollins ISBN 0-06-047141-7
    Piponnier, Françoise, and Perrine Mane; Dress in the Middle Ages; Yale UP; 1997; ISBN 0-300-06906-5
    Textile production in Europe, 1600–1800, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
    Australian Museum of Clothing And Textiles Inc. at the Wayback Machine(archived 27 October 2009) – Why have a Museum of Clothing and Textiles?
  7. Textile industry - Wikipedia › wiki › Textile_industry

    For the production of apparel, clothing and garments, see Clothing industry. An old textile factory ("Cvernovka") in Bratislava, Slovakia (1901-2004). Textile factory ( Germany, c. 1975). Remi Holdings highest scoring LEED certified Garment factory in Bangladesh and highest in the world. The textile industry is primarily concerned with the ...

  8. Textile - Wikipedia › wiki › Textile

    The word 'cloth' derives from the Old English clað, meaning a 'cloth, woven or felted material to wrap around one', from the Proto-Germanic kalithaz, similar to the Old Frisian klath, the Middle Dutch cleet, the Middle High German kleit and the German kleid, all meaning 'garment'.

  9. Retail - Wikipedia › wiki › Retail
    • Etymology
    • Definition and Explanation
    • History
    • Retail Strategy
    • The Retail Marketing Mix
    • Shopper Profiles
    • Retail format: Types of Retail Outlet
    • Challenges
    • Consolidation
    • Statistics

    The word retail comes from the Old French verb tailler, meaning "to cut off, clip, pare, divide in terms of tailoring" (c. 1365). It was first recorded as a noun in 1433 with the meaning of "a sale in small quantities" from the Middle French verb retailler meaning "a piece cut off, shred, scrap, paring". At the present, the meaning of the word retail (in English, French, Dutch, German and Spanish) refers to the sale of small quantities of items to consumers (as opposed to wholesale).

    Retail refers to the activity of selling goods or services directly to consumers or end-users. Some retailers may sell to business customers, and such sales are termed non-retail activity.In some jurisdictions or regions, legal definitions of retail specify that at least 80 percent of sales activity must be to end-users. Retailing often occurs in retail stores or service establishments, but may also occur through direct selling such as through vending machines, door-to-door sales or electronic channels.Although the idea of retail is often associated with the purchase of goods, the term may be applied to service-providers that sell to consumers. Retail service providers include retail banking, tourism, insurance, private healthcare, private education, private security firms, legal firms, publishers, public transport and others. For example, a tourism provider might have a retail division that books travel and accommodation for consumers plus a wholesale division that purchases blocks...

    Retail markets have existed since ancient times. Archaeological evidence for trade, probably involving barter systems, dates back more than 10,000 years. As civilizations grew, barter was replaced with retail trade involving coinage. Selling and buying are thought to have emerged in Asia Minor (modern Turkey) in around the 7th-millennium BCE. In ancient Greece markets operated within the agora, an open space where, on market days, goods were displayed on mats or temporary stalls. In ancient Rome, trade took place in the forum. The Roman forum was arguably the earliest example of a permanent retail shop-front. Recent research suggests that China exhibited a rich history of early retail systems. From as early as 200 BCE, Chinese packaging and branding were used to signal family, place names and product quality, and the use of government imposed product branding was used between 600 and 900 CE. Eckhart and Bengtsson have argued that during the Song Dynasty (960–1127), Chinese society d...

    The distinction between "strategic" and "managerial" decision-making is commonly used to distinguish "two phases having different goals and based on different conceptual tools. Strategic planning concerns the choice of policies aiming at improving the competitive position of the firm, taking account of challenges and opportunities proposed by the competitive environment. On the other hand, managerial decision-making is focused on the implementation of specific targets." In retailing, the strategic plan is designed to set out the visionand provide guidance for retail decision-makers and provide an outline of how the product and service mix will optimize customer satisfaction. As part of the strategic planning process, it is customary for strategic planners to carry out a detailed environmental scan which seeks to identify trends and opportunities in the competitive environment, market environment, economic environment and statutory-political environment. The retail strategy is normal...

    Once the strategic plan is in place, retail managers turn to the more managerial aspects of planning. A retail mix is devised for the purpose of coordinating day-to-day tactical decisions. The retail marketing mix typically consists of six broad decision layers including product decisions, place decisions, promotion, price, personnel and presentation (also known as physical evidence). The retail mix is loosely based on the marketing mix, but has been expanded and modified in line with the unique needs of the retail context. A number of scholars have argued for an expanded marketing, mix with the inclusion of two new Ps, namely, Personnel and Presentation since these contribute to the customer's unique retail experience and are the principal basis for retail differentiation. Yet other scholars argue that the Retail Format (i.e. retail formula) should be included. The modified retail marketing mix that is most commonly cited in textbooks is often called the 6 Ps of retailing(see diagr...

    Two different strands of research have investigated shopper behaviour. One strand is primarily concerned with shopper motivations. Another stream of research seeks to segment shoppers according to common, shared characteristics. To some extent, these streams of research are inter-related, but each stream offers different types of insights into shopper behaviour. Babin et al. carried out some of the earliest investigations into shopper motivations and identified two broad motives: utilitarian and hedonic.Utilitarian motivations are task-related and rational. For the shopper with utilitarian motives, purchasing is a work-related task that is to be accomplished in the most efficient and expedient manner. On the other hand, hedonic motives refer to pleasure. The shopper with hedonic motivations views shopping as a form of escapism where they are free to indulge fantasy and freedom. Hedonic shoppers are more involved in the shopping experience. Many different shopper profiles can be iden...

    The retail format (also known as the retail formula) influences the consumer's store choice and addresses the consumer's expectations. At its most basic level, a retail format is a simple marketplace, that is; a location where goods and services are exchanged. In some parts of the world, the retail sector is still dominated by small family-run stores, but large retail chains are increasingly dominating the sector, because they can exert considerable buying power and pass on the savings in the form of lower prices. Many of these large retail chains also produce their own private labels which compete alongside manufacturer brands. Considerable consolidation of retail stores has changed the retail landscape, transferring power away from wholesalers and into the hands of the large retail chains. In Britain and Europe, the retail sale of goods is designated as a service activity.The European Service Directive applies to all retail trade including periodic markets, street traders and pedd...

    To achieve and maintain a foothold in an existing market, a prospective retail establishment must overcome the following hurdles: 1. regulatory barriers including: 1.1. restrictions on real-estate purchases, especially as imposed by local governments and against "big-box" chain retailers 1.2. restrictions on foreign investment in retailers, in terms of both absolute amount of financing provided and percentage share of voting stock (e.g. common stock) purchased 2. unfavorable taxation structures, especially those designed to penalize or keep out "big box" retailers (see "Regulatory" above) 3. absence of developed supply-chain and integrated IT management 4. high competitiveness among existing market participants and resulting low profit margins, caused in part by: 4.1. constant advances in product design resulting in constant threat of product obsolescence and price declines for existing inventory 5. lack of a properly-educated and/or -trained work-force, often including management,...

    Among retailers and retails chains a lot of consolidation has appeared over the last couple of decades. Between 1988 and 2010, worldwide 40,788 mergers & acquisitions with a total known value of US$2.255 trillion have been announced. The largest transactions with involvement of retailers in/from the United States have been: the acquisition of Albertson's Inc. for US$17 billion in 2006, the merger between Federated Department Stores Inc with May Department Stores valued at 16.5 bil. USD in 2005 – now Macy's, and the merger between Kmart Holding Corp and Sears Roebuck & Cowith a value of US$10.9 billion in 2004. Between 1985 and 2018 there have been 46,755 mergers or acquisitions conducted globally in the retail sector (either acquirer or target from the retail industry). These deals cumulate to an overall known value of around US$2,561 billion. The three major Retail M&A waves took place in 2000, 2007 and lately in 2017. However the all-time high in terms of number of deals was in 20...

    Global top ten retailers

    As of 2016, Chinawas the largest retail market in the world.


    Retail stores may or may not have competitors close enough to affect their pricing, product availability, and other operations. A 2006 survey found that only 38% of retail stores in India believed they faced more than slight competition.Competition also affected less than half of retail stores in Kazakhstan, Bulgaria, and Azerbaijan. In all countries the main competition was domestic, not foreign. Retail trade provides 9% of all jobs in India and 14% of GDP.

  10. Fashion industry - definition of fashion industry by The Free ... › fashion+industry

    Define fashion industry. fashion industry synonyms, fashion industry pronunciation, fashion industry translation, English dictionary definition of fashion industry ...

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