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    • Conducting - Wikipedia
      • Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert. It has been defined as "the art of directing the simultaneous performance of several players or singers by the use of gesture."
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  2. Conducting - Wikipedia › wiki › Conducting

    Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert. It has been defined as "the art of directing the simultaneous performance of several players or singers by the use of gesture." The primary duties of the conductor are to interpret the score in a way which reflects the specific indications in that score, set the tempo, ensure correct entries by ensemble members, and "shape" the phrasing where appropriate. Conductors communicate with their musicians

  3. Conducting - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia › wiki › Conducting
    • History
    • Technique of Conducting
    • Famous Conductors
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    In the 17th century, orchestras were usually small enough that they did not need a conductor. Often they were directed by the keyboard player or lead violinist. But as orchestras grew in size and began using a wider variety of instruments, it became a convention of having someone who was not playing any instrument to stand, facing the orchestra, as the director or conductor. One early conductor was the French composer Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687), who beat time by banging a big stick (like a walking stick) on the floor to the time of the music. One day he banged his stick so hard, it went through his foot, and he died of gangrene. Conducting as we know it today had become normal by the 19th century. The composer Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847) was known to be a very good conductor as well. Some conductors in Victorian times behaved like they wanted to show off. At around the same time, Louis Antoine Jullien (1812-1860) was a French conductor who wore white gloves, which were presen...

    Conductors usually beat time with their right hand. This leaves their left hand free to show the various instruments when they come in (when they start playing) and to give interpretative gestures, such as indicating when to play louder or softer, or faster or slower. Most conductors have a stick called a “baton”. It makes it easier for people at the back of large orchestras or choirs to see the beat. Other conductors, such as those who lead singers, prefer not to use a baton. A conductor stands on a small platform called a “rostrum”. To be a good conductor is not easy. It is not just a question of giving a steady beat. A good conductor will know the music extremely well, understand how the composer wanted the music to sound, be able to figure out the technical details, and know how to be able to work with the orchestra to create great music everyone would want to listen to. Having good communicationskills would help a lot, but some conductors speak very little during their rehearsa...

    Some of the most famous conductors of the past were: Gustav Mahler, Hans Richter, Arthur Nikisch, Arturo Toscanini, Bruno Walter, Wilhelm Furtwängler, Herbert von Karajan, Leopold Stokowski, Georg Solti, John Barbirolli, Otto Klemperer, George Szell and Leonard Bernstein. Some of the most famous conductors today are: Marin Alsop, Riccardo Chailly, Gustavo Dudamel, Sir Simon Rattle, Andris Nelsons, Valery Gergiev and Bernard Haitink.

    The main conductor who is in charge of an orchestra is often given the title "musical director". This will usually mean that he or she has a lot of power in the organization of the orchestra, such as choosing the music that will be performed at each concert or inviting soloists to perform with the orchestra. Orchestras may give honorary titles to their conductor, such as "conductor laureate". A "guest conductor" is one who conducts an orchestra regularly, but is not the main conductor. Typically, he or she would be invited by the main conductor to conduct a performance now and then. An "assistant conductor" will often be a young conductor who helps the main conductor and gets the chance to conduct some of the concerts. Leonard Bernstein became famous in 1953 as the assistant conductor of the New York Philharmonic when he led a concert, which was being broadcast nationally on CBSRadio, without having time to prepare for it. He would be the main director of that orchestra from 1958 to...

  4. Conduct - Wikipedia › wiki › Conduct

    Conduct may refer to: Actions. Behavior, the range of actions and mannerisms made by entities Human behavior, the way people act Work behavior, the way people act on the job; Conduct disorder, a mental disorder; Action (philosophy), that which is done by an agent; Conducting, directing a musical performance; Other uses

  5. Wikipedia:Researching with Wikipedia - Wikipedia › wiki › Wikipedia:Researching_with
    • Special Research Considerations Concerning Wikipedia
    • Citing Wikipedia
    • Further Help
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    • External Links

    Use multiple independent sources

    Because Wikipedia is licensed under the GFDL, its content is often reproduced, especially online. Researchers should be especially careful of the FUTON bias("Full Text On the Net" bias) and ensure that a second article appearing to confirm a Wikipedia article is not (for example) simply a copy of an earlier version. One place to look for additional sources to use in assessing the quality of a Wikipedia article is to look at the sources it cites. An article that faithfully reflects the informa...

    Examine an article's history

    The process of creating Wikipedia is radically open. As a result, unlike most reference works, it is possible that, even for a generally excellent and stable article, the latest version at any given moment may have been subject to recent edits which are not of the same quality as the rest of the article. However, unlike most reference works, you can access the history of the article (previous versions and change comments) and the discussionbetween the editors who created it. Often, if you hav...

    Internal links

    Wikipedia breathes new life into one of the initial dreams of the World Wide Web: hyperlinks. Hyperlinks allow Wikipedia authors to link any word or phrase to another Wikipedia article, often providing annotations of great value. Background information to an article no longer needs to be limited or even produced by the author of the article. This method has proved to have major limitations on the Internetas a whole, because for a variety of reasons links are prone to quickly become obsolete....

    First you should question the appropriateness of citing any encyclopedia as a source or reference. This is not simply a Wikipedia-specific issue, as most secondary schools and institutions of higher learning do not consider encyclopedias, in general, a proper citable source. Citation of Wikipedia in research papers has been known to result in a failing grade. This does not mean Wikipedia is not useful: Wikipedia articles contain many links to newspaper articles, books (often with ISBN numbers), radio programming, television shows, Web-based sources, and the like. It will usually be more acceptable to cite those original sources rather than Wikipedia since it is, by nature, a secondary or tertiary source.At the same time, simple academic ethics require that you should actually read the work that you cite: if you do not actually have your hands on a book, you should not misleadingly cite it as your source. There are cases where contributions to Wikipedia are considered original and im...

    Frequently asked questions

    1. FAQ index: Index of all Wikipedia FAQ pages

    Other help and feedback

    There is an established escalation and dispute process within Wikipedia, as well as pages designed for raising questions, feedback, suggestions and comments, and community discussion. (See About Wikipedia). Facilities for help for users researching specific topics can be found at: 1. Wikipedia:Requested articles—to suggest or request articles for future. 2. Wikipedia:Reference desk—to ask for help with any questions, or in finding specific facts. 3. Wikipedia:Help desk—Wikipedia's general hel...

    Brochure on how to evaluate a Wikipedia article and pdf version
    Evaluating Web Pages: Techniques to Apply & Questions to Ask from the University of California, Berkeley
    Critically Analyzing Information Sources from Cornell University
  6. Conducting polymer metal nanocomposites - Wikipedia › wiki › Conducting_polymer_metal

    The basic conduction mechanism in conducting polymers is due to Polarons, Bipolarons and solitons. Conducting polymers are used in various applications such as chemical sensors and biosensors , transistors and switches, data storage devices, photovoltaic cells , and actuators . [5]

  7. Baton (conducting) - Wikipedia › wiki › Baton_(conducting)

    Igor Stravinsky conducting with a baton (1929). Conductors view their gestures as the primary means to communicate musical ideas, whether or not they choose to use batons. Leonard Bernstein is quoted as saying, "If one [the conductor] uses a baton, the baton itself must be a living thing, charged with a kind of electricity, which makes it an instrument of meaning in its tiniest movement."

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  8. Code of conduct - Wikipedia › wiki › Code_of_conduct

    A company code of conduct is a set of rules which is commonly written for employees of a company, which protects the business and informs the employees of the company's expectations. It is appropriate for even the smallest of companies to create a document containing important information on expectations for employees.

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