A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action.
A confederation is a group of countries that, by treaty, have given some of their powers to a central government. They do this in order to coordinate their actions in a number of areas. This is like a federation, but without the association being a new country. A confederation is not the same as a federation, but they have a similarity.
The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution. It was approved, after much debate (between July 1776 and November 1777), by the Second Continental Congress on November 15, 1777, and sent to the states for ratification.
The Confederate States of America (CSA), commonly referred to as the Confederate States or the Confederacy, was an unrecognized breakaway state in existence from February 8, 1861 to May 9, 1865, that fought against the United States of America during the American Civil War.
The Congress of the Confederation, or the Confederation Congress, formally referred to as the United States in Congress Assembled, was the governing body of the United States of America from March 1, 1781, to March 4, 1789.
- March 1, 1781
- 3 years in 6 year period
Canadian Confederation (French: Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the three colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one federation called the Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.
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- Bridge development
The Confederation Bridge is a box girder bridge carrying the Trans-Canada Highway across the Abegweit Passage of the Northumberland Strait, linking the province of Prince Edward Island with the province New Brunswick on the mainland. Opened May 31, 1997, the 12.9-kilometre bridge is Canada's longest bridge and also the world's longest bridge over ice-covered water. Construction took place from October 1993 to May 1997 and cost C$1.3 billion. Before its official naming, Prince Edward Islanders of
The bridge is a two-lane toll bridge that carries the Trans-Canada Highway between Borden-Carleton, Prince Edward Island and Cape Jourimain, New Brunswick. It is a multi-span balanced cantilever bridge with a post-tensioned concrete box girder structure. Most of the curved bridge is 40 metres above water with a 60 m navigation span for ship traffic. The bridge rests on 62 piers, of which the 44 main piers are 250 m apart. The bridge is 11 m wide. The speed limit on the bridge is 80 kilometres pe
Tolls apply only when leaving Prince Edward Island. The toll rates as of January 2020 are $48.50 for a two-axle automobile and $8.25 for each additional axle. Motorcycles are charged $19.00. While pedestrians and cyclists are not permitted to cross the bridge, a shuttle service is available. Before 2006, the shuttle was free and since January 1, 2015, the service has charged $4.50 per pedestrian or $8.75 per cyclist when leaving Prince Edward Island. The other major Northumberland Strait crossin
Various proposals for a fixed link across the Northumberland Strait can be traced as far back as the 1870s when the province's railway system was developed. Subsequent proposals arose during federal elections in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The ebb and flow of public support for a fixed link was indirectly tied to the varying levels of federal investment in ferry and steamship connections to the province over the years, finally culminating in a proposal in the mid-1980s which resulted in the
The debate did not end with the 1988 plebiscite and the federal government faced numerous legal challenges and a lengthy environmental impact assessment for the project. The developer of the single bridge proposal, Strait Crossing Development Inc., was selected and an announcement that the Northumberland Strait Crossing Project would be built was finally made on December 2, 1992; the developer being required to privately finance all construction through bond markets.
The number of tourists visiting Prince Edward Island increased from 740,000 in 1996 to 1,200,000 in 1997, but this dropped back to about 900,000 visitors annually. As a way of further promoting the island's new accessibility, the province issued vehicle licence plates from 1999 to 2006 that featured a likeness of the Confederation Bridge between the serial number. These plates, along with four other designs, started being replaced by a single design in 2013.
- 250 m (820 ft) (43 segments)
- 12.9 km (8 mi)
- May 31, 1997
- Northumberland Strait
The Bar Confederation (Polish: Konfederacja barska; 1768–1772) was an association of Polish nobles formed at the fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth against Russian influence and against King Stanisław II Augustus with Polish reformers, who were attempting to limit the power of the Commonwealth's wealthy ...
- Federations and other forms of state
- Internal controversy and conflict
- Federal governments
A federation is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government. In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states, as well as the division of power between them and the central government, is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of either party, the states or the federal political body. Alternatively, a federation is a form of governmen
The component states are in some sense sovereign, insofar as certain powers are reserved to them that may not be exercised by the central government. However, a federation is more than a mere loose alliance of independent states. The component states of a federation usually posse
A unitary state is sometimes one with only a single, centralized, national tier of government. However, unitary states often also include one or more self-governing regions. The difference between a federation and this kind of unitary state is that in a unitary state the autonomo
A confederation, in modern political terms, is usually limited to a permanent union of sovereign states for common action in relation to other states. The closest entity in the world to a confederation at this time is the European Union. While the word confederation was officiall
Certain forms of political and constitutional dispute are common to federations. One issue is that the exact division of power and responsibility between federal and regional governments is often a source of controversy. Often, as is the case with the United States, such conflicts are resolved through the judicial system, which delimits the powers of federal and local governments. The relationship between federal and local courts varies from nation to nation and can be a controversial and comple
The federal government is the common or national government of a federation. A federal government may have distinct powers at various levels authorized or delegated to it by its member states. The structure of federal governments vary. Based on a broad definition of a basic federalism, there are two or more levels of government that exist within an established territory and govern through common institutions with overlapping or shared powers as prescribed by a constitution. The federal governmen