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  1. Constantine I of Greece - Wikipedia › wiki › Constantine_I_of_Greece

    Constantine I (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Αʹ, Konstantínos I; 2 August [ O.S. 21 July] 1868 – 11 January 1923) was King of Greece from 18 March 1913 to 11 June 1917 and from 19 December 1920 to 27 September 1922.

  2. Constantine I - Christianity, Life & Death - Biography › political-figure › constantine-i

    Jun 05, 2020 · Constantine I was a Roman emperor who ruled early in the 4th century. He was the first Christian emperor and saw the empire begin to become a Christian state. Who Was Constantine I? Constantine I's...

  3. Constantine I - World History Encyclopedia › Constantine_I
    • Early Life
    • Constantine Becomes Emperor
    • Constantine &
    • Death

    Although sources vary on the exact year of his birth, Constantine (Gaius Flavis Valerius Constantinus) was born at Naissus in present day Serbia as early as 272 CE or as late as 285 CE. Since his father was not only a military commander but also the caesar of the west, Constantine lived his entire early life in the imperial court, eventually serving as a high ranking staff officer for Diocletian. Even in his youth, those around him saw Constantine as a man of boundless energy. Under the emper...

    With little support in the city, Maxentius left Rome to meet Constantine in one final, crucial battle - the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312 CE. On the day before the battle began, Constantine reportedly looked to the sky where he saw the sign of the cross superimposed over the sun. Under it was the inscription In Hoc Signo Vinae or “conquer by this sign.” That night, in a dream, he received an explanation of the sign - Christ appeared before him telling him to carry the sign of the cross into...

    During his years of warfare in the west he had always demonstrated religious tolerance with both pagans and Christians (he claimed to be a Christian since 312 CE). His mother Helena was a devout Christian, and after Constantine became emperor, he sent her on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land where she had built the Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem. Although he had been a worshipper of the sun-god in his youth and while some claim he did not become baptized until his deathbed, he still gave eve...

    Constantine maintained his role as a military commander, fighting the Alemani in 328 CE with the assistance of his son Constantius II, defeating the Goths in 332 CE by starving them into submission, and lastly, capturing lost territories from the Dacians (territories that were later lost after his death). His last wish was to conquer neighbouring Persia after their king Shapur II had invaded Armenia. However, it was not to be. In 337 CE Constantine fell ill and died. He had ruled for thirty-o...

    • Donald L. Wasson
  4. Constantine the Great - Wikipedia › wiki › Constantine_I

    Kōnstantînos; 27 February c. 272 – 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was a Roman emperor from 306 to 337. Born in Naissus, Dacia Mediterranea (now Niš, Serbia), he was the son of Flavius Constantius, an Illyrian army officer who became one of the four emperors of the Tetrarchy. His mother, Helena, was Greek and of low birth.

    • 25 July 306 – 22 May 337 (alone from 19 September 324)
    • Constantius I
  5. Constantine I | king of Scotland | Britannica › biography › Constantine-I-king

    Constantine I, (died c. 877, Inverdovat, Scot.), king of Scotland or Alba, the united kingdom of the Picts and Scots (862–877), who succeeded his uncle Donald I. Constantine’s reign was occupied with conflicts with the Norsemen.

  6. Constantine—facts and information - Culture › article › constantine

    Feb 25, 2019 · Emperor Constantine (ca A.D. 280– 337) reigned over a major transition in the Roman Empire—and much more. His acceptance of Christianity and his establishment of an eastern capital city, which...

    • 5 min
  7. Constantine I - 309-337 AD | Armstrong Economics › research › monetary
    • 307 – 337AD
    • Monetary System
    • Monetary Reform

    Flavius Valerius Constantinus was the son of Constantius I Chlorus by his first marriage with Helena, known to Christians as St Helena. Constantine was born at Naissus in Upper Moesia on February 27th. The year is not quite certain, however, it was either 280 – 282 or 272 – 273 AD. As we will see, Constantine was always prone to stretch the truth if not make outright false claims. In this case, the 272 – 273 time period is most likely his true birth date despite Constantine’s attempts to portray himself as a youthful leader for political purposes in later years. Constantine was educated in the finest of Roman traditions and benefited from his experience serving at the court of Diocletian when his father was given the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) within the Tetrarchy in 293AD. Constantine remained at Diocletian’s court, most likely as a hostage, while his father traveled. Constantine accompanied Diocletian in his campaign against the usurper Domitius Domitianusin Egypt. As Constan...

    Mints:Alexandria, Antioch, Aquileia, Arelate, Constantinople, Cyzicus, Heraclea, London, Lugdunum, Nicomedia, Rome, Siscia, Sirmium, Thessalonica, Ticinum, Treveri Obverse Legends: As Caesar 306 – 307 AD CONSTANTINVS N C CONSTANTINVS NOB C CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES FL VAL CONSTANTINVS N C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES As Filius Augustorum 308 – 309 AD CONSTANTINVS FIL AVGG FL VAL CONSTANTINVS FIL AVG As Augustus 308 – 337 AD CONSTANTINVS P F AVG CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG FL VALER CONSTANTINVS P F AVG Posthumous Coinage DV CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG

    Constantine carried out a major monetary reformthroughout his reign beginning from the time he was merely a junior partner holding the rank of Caesar. A new weight standard was employed for the gold and new denominations were added to the silver. Bronze coinage also underwent major reforms, usually for the worst, with a continual steady decline in size and weight. DENOMINATIONS As Caesar AU Aureus (6.54 grams) AR Argentius AR ½ Argentius Æ Antoninianus Æ Denarius (3.54 grams) Æ Quinarius (3.54 grams) As Filius Augustorum 308 – 309 AD AU Aureus (6.54 grams) Post-Reform Æ Follis Pre-Reform Debased Silver Argentius As Augustus AU Aureus (6.54 grams) AR (Billion) Argentius Æ Antoninianus Æ Denarius Æ Quinarius Post-Reform AU Solidus (4.50 grams) AU Semissis (2.25 grms) AU 1½ Scripulum (1.65 grms) AR Miliarense (4.50 grms) AR Siliqua (3.25 grms) AR 1/2 Siliqua (1.12 grms) Æ Follis Æ3

  8. Constantine I "the Great", Roman Emperor - geni family tree › people › Constantine-I-the-Great
    • Introduction
    • Constantine's Rise to Power
    • Constantine's Conversion
    • Constantine as The Sole Ruler of The West
    • The Conflict with Licinius
    • The Arian Controversy, The Council of Nicaea, and Its Aftermath
    • The Crisis in The Imperial Family
    • The New Rome
    • Constantine's Government
    • Final Years , Death, and Burial

    The emperor Constantine has rightly been called the most important emperor of Late Antiquity. His powerful personality laid the foundations of post-classical European civilization; his reign was eventful and highly dramatic. His victory at the Milvian Bridge counts among the most decisive moments in world history, while his legalization and support of Christianity and his foundation of a 'New Rome' at Byzantium rank among the most momentous decisions ever made by a European ruler. The fact that ten Byzantine emperors after him bore his name may be seen as a measure of his importance and of the esteem in which he was held.

    Flavius Valerius Constantinus, the future emperor Constantine, was born at Naissus in the province of Moesia Superior, the modern Nish in Serbia, on 27 February of 271, 272, or 273. 1 His father was a military officer named Constantius (later Constantius Chlorus or Constantius I), his mother a woman of humble background named Helena (later St. Helena). 2 There is good reason to think that Constantius and Helena lived in concubinage rather than in legally recognized marriage. Having previously attained the rank of tribune, provincial governor, and probably praetorian prefect, Constantius was raised, on 1 March 293, to the rank of Caesar in the First Tetrarchy organized by Diocletian .3 On this occasion he was required to put aside Helena and to marry Theodora , the daughter of Maximian .4 Upon the retirement of Diocletian and Maximian on 1 May 305 Constantius succeeded to the rank of Augustus. 5 Constantine, in the meanwhile, had served with distinction under both Diocletian and Gale...

    When Diocletian and Maximian announced their retirement in 305, the problem posed by the Christians was unresolved and the persecution in progress. Upon coming to power Constantine unilaterally ended all persecution in his territories, even providing for restitution. His personal devotions, however, he offered first to Mars and then increasingly to Apollo, reverenced as Sol Invictus . The next significant event in Constantine's religious development occurred in 312. Lactantius, whom Constantine appointed tutor of his son Crispus 11 and who therefore must have been close to the imperial family, reports that during the night before the Battle of the Milvian Bridge Constantine was commanded in a dream to place the sign of Christ on the shields of his soldiers. 12 Twenty-five years later Eusebius gives us a far different, more elaborate, and less convincing account in his Life of Constantine .13 When Constantine and his army were on their march toward Rome - neither the time nor the loc...

    To his dismay Constantine soon discovered that there was a lack of unity within the church. In the province of Africa, specifically, there were those who took a rigorist position towards the lapsi (those who had shown a lack of faith during the preceding years of persecution) and those who took a more moderate, forgiving position. The former eventually became known as the Donatists, after a certain Donatus, whom they elected as their bishop. In April of 313 the rigorists presented to Constantine their grievance against Caecilian, the bishop of Carthage. Constantine convened a synod of bishops to hear the complaint; the synod met in Rome's Lateran Council and is known as the Synod of Rome. When the synod ruled in favor of Caecilian, the Donatists appealed to Constantine again. In response to the appeal Constantine convened a larger council of thirty-three bishops, who met at Arles in southern Gaul on 1 August 314. This council, too, ruled against the Donatists, and again they refused...

    The ultimate goal pursued by both Constantine and Licinius was sole power. The agreement of 313 had been born out of necessity, not of mutual good will. Even Constantia's apparent devotion to Licinius did little to ease the strained relationship between the two rivals. Hostilities erupted in 316. 19 In the course of this first war between the two emperors two battles were fought: the first at Cibalae in Pannonia, whence this war is called the bellum Cibalense, the second on the campus Ardiensis in Thrace. In the first battle Licinius' army suffered heavy losses; in the second neither side won a clear victory. 20 A settlement left Licinius in his position as Augustus, but required him to cede to Constantine all of his European provinces other than Thrace. On 1 March 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), Constantine announced the appointment of three Caesars: his own son Crispus , about twelve years old, his own son Constantine , less than seven months old, and Licinius' son, also named Lic...

    Early in the fourth century a dispute erupted within the Christian church regarding the nature of the Godhead, more specifically the exact relationship of the Son to the Father. Arius, a priest in Alexandria, taught that there was a time when Christ did not exist, i.e. that he was not co-eternal with the Father, that the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit were three separate and distinct hypostaseis, and that the Son was subordinate to the Father, was in fact a "creature." These teachings were condemned and Arius excommunicated in 318 by a council convened by Alexander, the bishop of Alexandria. But that did not by any means close the matter. Ossius (or Hosius) of Cordova, Constantine's trusted spiritual advisor, failed on his mission to bring about a reconciliation. Constantine then summoned what has become known as the First Ecumenical Council of the church. The opening session was held on 20 May 325 in the great hall of the palace at Nicaea, Constantine himself presiding and gi...

    At some time in 326 Constantine ordered the execution of his oldest son Crispus , who had been appointed Caesar in 317, had three times served as consul, and had distinguished himself in the recent campaign against Licinius . In the same year, soon after the death of Crispus , Constantine also brought about the death of Fausta , the mother of his other three sons. A connection between the two deaths is likely. Zosimus reports that Crispus had come under suspicion of "being involved" with his stepmother Fausta .26 The Epitome of Aurelius Victor reports that Constantine killed Fausta when his mother Helena rebuked him for the death of Crispus .27 It is impossible now to separate fact from gossip and to know with certainty what offenses Crispus and Fausta had committed. Both of them suffered damnatio memoriae and were never rehabilitated. Some involvement of Helena in this family tragedy cannot be excluded, but there is no reason to shift the responsibility from Constantine to her. 28...

    During the First Tetrarchy Trier, Milan, Thessalonike, and Nicomedia had served as imperial residences, and the importance of Rome as a center of government had thus been considerably reduced. Constantine went far beyond this when he refounded the ancient Greek city of Byzantium as Constantinople and made it the capital of the empire. His decision to establish a new capital in the East ranks in its far-reaching consequences with his decision to adopt Christianity. The new capital enjoyed a most favorable location which afforded easy access to both the Balkan provinces and the eastern frontier, controlled traffic through the Bosporus, and met all conditions for favorable economic development. On 8 November 324, less than two months after his victory over Licinius at Chrysopolis, Constantine formally laid out the boundaries of his new city, roughly quadrupling its territory. By 328 the new walls were completed, and on 11 May 330 the new city was formally dedicated. The New Rome, both...

    The prevailing character of Constantine's government was one of conservatism. His adoption of Christianity did not lead to a radical reordering of society or to a systematic revision of the legal system. Generally refraining fom sweeping innovations, he retained and completed most of the arrangements made by Diocletian , especially in provincial administration and army organization. One notable change pertained to the praetorian prefects; these now became civilian ministers assisting the Augustus or the Caesars. In the course of a successful reform of the currency Constantine instituted a new type of coin, the gold solidus , which won wide acceptance and remained the standard for centuries to come. 34 Some of Constantine's measures show a genuine concern for the welfare and the morality of his subjects, even for the condition of slaves. By entrusting some government functions to the Christian clergy he actually made the church an agency of the imperial government. Constantine did no...

    In the years 325-337 Constantine continued his support of the church even more vigorously than before, both by generous gifts of money and by specific legislation. Among his numerous church foundations the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem and the Golden Octagon in Antioch deserve to be singled out. At the same time, he was more inclined to suppress paganism; we know of some specific pagan temples which were torn down upon his orders, while in other cases temple treasures were confiscated and the proceeds fed into the imperial treasury. 37 Shortly after Easter (3 April) 337 Constantine began to feel ill. He traveled to Drepanum, now named Helenopolis in honor of his mother, where he prayed at the tomb of his mother's favorite saint, the martyr Lucian. From there he proceeded to the suburbs of Nicomedia, and there he was baptized, as both Eusebius and Jerome report; but only Jerome adds another significant fact: the baptism was performed by the Arian bishop Eusebius of Nicome...

    • Constantius II, Constantina, Constans
  9. Constantine I, king of the Picts and Scots - geni family tree › people › Constantine-I-king-of-the

    Jan 22, 2019 · Constantine I, (died c. 877, Inverdovat, Scot.) king of Scotland or Alba, the united kingdom of the Picts and Scots (862–877), who succeeded his uncle Donald I. Constantine’s reign was occupied with conflicts with the Norsemen.

  10. Constantine I | Rex Factor › 2015/03/11 › constantine-i

    Mar 11, 2015 · Constantine I was the son of Kenneth MacAlpin, so was known as Causantín mac Cináeda (Constantine son of Kenneth). We don’t know exactly when he was born but it must have been no later than 858 (the year his father died) and, given that he became king in 862 and was not said to reside in a cot, was probably born in the early 840s.

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