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  1. Constantine II (Latin: Flavius Claudius Constantinus; February 316 – 340) was Roman emperor from 337 to 340. Son of Constantine the Great and co-emperor alongside his brothers, his attempt to exert his perceived rights of primogeniture led to his death in a failed invasion of Italy in 340.

  2. Constantius II is a particularly difficult figure to judge properly due to the hostility of most sources toward him. A. H. M. Jones writes that Constantius "appears in the pages of Ammianus as a conscientious emperor but a vain and stupid man, an easy prey to flatterers. He was timid and suspicious, and interested persons could easily play on ...

    • Early Life
    • Augustus in The East
    • Sole Ruler of The Empire
    • Marriages and Children
    • Reputation
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Con­stan­tius was born in 317 at Sir­mium, Pan­nonia. He was the third son of Con­stan­tine the Great, and sec­ond by his sec­ond wife Fausta, the daugh­ter of Max­imian. Con­stan­tius was made cae­sar by his fa­ther on 8 No­vem­ber 324. In 336, re­li­gious un­rest in Ar­me­nia and tense re­la­tions be­tween Con­stan­tine and king Sha­pur II caused war to break out be­tween Rome and Sas­sanid Per­sia. Though he made ini­tial prepa­ra­tions for the war, Con­stan­tine fell ill and sent Con­stan­tius east to take com­mand of the east­ern frontier. Be­fore Con­stan­tius ar­rived, the Per­sian gen­eral Narses, who was pos­si­bly the king's brother, over­ran Mesopotamia and cap­tured Amida. Con­stan­tius promptly at­tacked Narses, and after suf­fer­ing minor set­backs de­feated and killed Narses at the Bat­tle of Narasara. Con­stan­tius cap­tured Amida and ini­ti­ated a major re­for­ti­fi­ca­tion of the city, en­hanc­ing the city's cir­cuit walls and con­struct­ing large tow­ers. He also...

    In early 337, Con­stan­tius hur­ried to Con­stan­tino­ple after re­ceiv­ing news that his fa­ther was near death. After Con­stan­tine died, Con­stan­tius buried him with lav­ish cer­e­mony in the Church of the Holy Apos­tles. Soon after his fa­ther's death Con­stan­tius sup­pos­edly or­dered a mas­sacre of his rel­a­tives de­scended from the sec­ond mar­riage of his pa­ter­nal grand­fa­ther Con­stan­tius Chlorus, though the de­tails are unclear. Eu­tropius, writ­ing be­tween 350 and 370, states that Con­stan­tius merely sanc­tioned “the act, rather than com­mand­ing it”. The mas­sacre killed two of Con­stan­tius' un­cles and six of his cousins, in­clud­ing Han­ni­balianus and Dal­matius, rulers of Pon­tus and Moe­sia re­spec­tively. The mas­sacre left Con­stan­tius, his older brother Con­stan­tine II, his younger brother Con­stans, and three cousins Gal­lus, Ju­lian and Nepo­tianusas the only sur­viv­ing male rel­a­tives of Con­stan­tine the Great. Soon after, Con­stan­tius met his...

    Con­stan­tius spent much of the rest of 353 and early 354 on cam­paign against the Ala­manni on the Danube fron­tier. The cam­paign was suc­cess­ful and raid­ing by the Ala­manni ceased tem­porar­ily. In the mean­time, Con­stan­tius had been re­ceiv­ing dis­turb­ing re­ports re­gard­ing the ac­tions of his cousin Gallus. Pos­si­bly as a re­sult of these re­ports, Con­stan­tius con­cluded a peace with the Ala­manni and trav­eled to Medi­olanum (Milan). In Medi­olanum, Con­stan­tius first sum­moned Ur­sici­nus, Gal­lus’ mag­is­ter eq­ui­tum, for rea­sons that re­main unclear. Con­stan­tius then sum­moned Gal­lus and Constantina. Al­though Gal­lus and Con­stan­tina com­plied with the order at first, when Con­stan­tina died in Bithy­nia, Gal­lus began to hes­i­tate. How­ever, after some con­vinc­ing by one of Con­stan­tius’ agents, Gal­lus con­tin­ued his jour­ney west, pass­ing through Con­stan­tino­ple and Thrace to Po­e­t­ovio (Ptuj) in Pan­nonia. In Po­e­t­ovio, Gal­lus was ar­reste...

    Con­stan­tius II was mar­ried three times: First to a daugh­ter of his half-un­cle Julius Con­stan­tius, whose name is un­known. She was a full-sis­ter of Gal­lus and a half-sis­ter of Ju­lian. She died c. 352/3. Sec­ond, to Eu­se­bia, a woman of Mace­don­ian ori­gin, orig­i­nally from the city of Thes­sa­loniki, whom Con­stan­tius mar­ried be­fore his de­feat of Mag­nen­tius in 353. She died in 360. Third and lastly, in 360, to Faustina, who gave birth to Con­stan­tius' only child, a posthu­mous daugh­ter named Flavia Max­ima Con­stan­tia, who later mar­ried Em­peror Gra­t­ian.

    Con­stan­tius II is a par­tic­u­larly dif­fi­cult fig­ure to judge prop­erly due to the hos­til­ity of most sources to­ward him. A. H. M. Jones writes that Con­stan­tius "ap­pears in the pages of Am­mi­anus as a con­sci­en­tious em­peror but a vain and stu­pid man, an easy prey to flat­ter­ers. He was timid and sus­pi­cious, and in­ter­ested per­sons could eas­ily play on his fears for their own advantage." How­ever, Kent and M. and A. Hirmer sug­gest that Con­stan­tius "has suf­fered at the hands of un­sym­pa­thetic au­thors, ec­cle­si­as­ti­cal and civil alike. To or­tho­dox church­men he was a big­oted sup­porter of the Arian heresy, to Ju­lian the Apos­tateand the many who have sub­se­quently taken his part he was a mur­derer, a tyrant and inept as a ruler". They go on to add, "Most con­tem­po­raries seem in fact to have held him in high es­teem, and he cer­tainly in­spired loy­alty in a way his brother could not".

    This list of Roman laws of the fourth centuryshows laws passed by Constantius II relating to Christianity.

  3. Not to be confused with Constantius III or Constantine III (Byzantine emperor). Flavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine III (died shortly before 18 September 411), was a Roman general who declared himself Western Roman Emperor in Britannia in 407 and established himself in Gaul. He was co-emperor from 409 until 411.

    • 411 (before 18 September)
    • Usurper 407–409 (against Emperor Honorius), Co-emperor 409–411 (with Honorius and Constans II)
    • Early Life and First Period of Kingship
    • First Exile
    • World War II
    • Return to Greece and Death
    • in Popular Culture
    • Honours
    • Sources

    George was born at the royal villa at Tatoi, near Athens, the eldest son of Crown Prince Constantine of Greece and his wife, Princess Sophia of Prussia; George pursued a military career, training with the Prussian Guard at the age of 18, then serving in the Balkan Wars as a member of the 1st Greek Infantry.[citation needed] When his grandfather was assassinated in 1913, his father became King Constantine I and George became the crown prince.[citation needed] After a coup deposed Constantine I during World War I, Crown Prince George, by then a major in the Hellenic Army, followed his father into exile in 1917 (see National Schism). George's younger brother, Alexander, was installed as king by prime minister Eleftherios Venizelos.[citation needed] When Alexander I died following an infection from a monkey bite in 1920, Venizelos was voted out of office, and a plebiscite restored Constantine to the throne. Crown Prince George served as a colonel, and later a major general in the war ag...

    In Romania

    Unsurprisingly, the Second Hellenic Republic was proclaimed by parliament on 25 March 1924, before being confirmed by a referendum two and a half weeks later. Officially deposed and banished, George and Elisabeth were also stripped of their Greek nationality and their property confiscated by the government. From now on stateless like all members of the royal family, however, they received from the head of the House of Oldenburg, their cousin, King Christian X of Denmark, a new passport. Exile...

    In the United Kingdom

    At the start of his life as an exile, George spent half the year in Romania with Elizabeth. Alone or with his wife, he divided the remaining six months between Tuscany, where he resided with his mother, at Villa Bobolina, and the UK, where he had many friends. On 16 September 1930, he was initiated into Freemasonry in London and became venerable master of the Wellwood Lodge in 1933. After the death of the queen dowager Sophie, in 1932, George chose to leave Bucharest and his wife permanently...

    Italian and German invasions

    Despite the nationalist government's strong economic and military ties to Germany, a connection which continued with Nazi Germany, King George was known to have pro-British feelings at the start of World War II. On 28 October 1940, Metaxas rejected an Italian ultimatum demanding the stationing of Italian troops in Greece, and Italy invaded, starting the Greco-Italian War. The Greeks mounted a successful defense and eventually occupied the southern half of Albania (then an Italian protectorate...

    Crisis of April 1941 and evacuation to Crete

    Following the suicide of Prime Minister Alexandros Koryzis on 18 April 1941 in the face of the rapid German advance, George found himself as the de facto head of government (as well as head of the three armed services ministries) for a few days, as he cast around for a potential successor. The King had thus a unique opportunity to form a broader government of national consensus, and abolish the hated dictatorial regime—whose sole bastion of support he now was. Although he was urged to this st...

    Second exile

    During World War II he remained the internationally recognised head of state, backed by the Greek government-in-exile and Greek forces serving in the Middle East. The British Foreign Office found him an exceedingly difficult man to deal with, as he was deeply obstinate about upholding what he regarded as his royal prerogatives, and proved notably unwilling to compromise with those who wanted a clear break with the 4th of August Regime. George long resisted British pressure to promise to resto...

    In elections held on 31 March 1946, the monarchist parties won a clear majority of the parliamentary seats, aided by the abstention of the Communists, and the referendum on the monarchy was set for 1 September. Between then and the plebiscite, the electoral registers were revised under Allied supervision. The announced results claimed 68.4% in favour of the King's return on an 86.6% turnout.However, even Allied observers acknowledged that the official results were marked by significant fraud by monarchist supporters. In the words of the official Allied observation report, "There is no doubt in our minds that the party representing the government view exercised undue influence in securing votes in support of the return of the King." On 26 September, George returned to Greece to find the Royal Palace looted, the woods at Tatoi chopped down for fuel and corpses buried in shallow graves outside.His country faced economic collapse and political instability. He died of arteriosclerosis on...

    During WWII, the Allies used the figure of George II as an instrument of propaganda to reinforce Greek patriotic sentiment. Several short films centred on the sovereign and his government are thus shot, such as Heroic Greece!by the American Frank Norton (1941). The romantic relationship of King George II and his mistress, nicknamed "Mrs. Brown", is briefly mentioned in the third episode ("The New King") from the British mini-series Edward & Mrs. Simpson, which features the king's cruise with Edward VIII and Wallis Simpsonin the Greek Islands, in 1936. On the occasion of the restoration of George II in 1935, the singer of rebetiko Markos Vamvakaris wrote the song Nous te welcome, King (in Greek: Καλώς μας ήρθες Βασιληά). Various stamps bearing the effigy of George II have been issued by Greek Post during his reign. A series of four stamps depicting the sovereign was thus issued, shortly after his restoration to the throne, on 1 November 1937, with face values of 1, 3, 8 and 100 drach...

    France: Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour, 10 December 1892
    House of Savoy: Knight of the Annunciation, with Collar and Star
    Brewer, David (2016). Greece, The Decade of War: Occupation, Resistance, and Civil War. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1780768540.
    Clogg, Richard (July 1979). "The Greek Government-in-Exile 1941-4". The International History Review. Cambridge University Press. 1(3).
    Karamitsos, A. (2008). Hellas stamp catalogue. 1.
    Koliopoulos, Ioannis S. (1976–1977). "Η στρατιωτική και πολιτική κρίση στην Ελλάδα τον Απρίλιο του 1941" [The Military and Political Crisis in Greece in April 1941] (PDF). Μνήμων (in Greek). 6: 53–...
    • Early Career
    • Murder of Valentinian III and Accession of Maximus
    • Reign and Death
    • Aftermath
    • Sources

    Petronius Maximus was born about 397. Although he was of obscure origin, it is believed that he belonged to the Anicius family. Related to the later Emperor Olybrius, Maximus was the son of Anicius Probinus, and the grandson of Anicia Faltonia Proba and Sextus Claudius Petronius Probus, who was prefect of Illyricum in 364, prefect of Gaul in 366, prefect of Italy from 368 to 375 and again in 383 and consulin 371. Maximus had a remarkable early career. His earliest known office was praetor, held in about 411; around 415 he served as a tribunus et notarius, which was an entry position to the imperial bureaucracy and led to his serving as comes sacrarum largitionum (count of the sacred largess) between 416 and 419. From January or February 420 to August or September 421 he was praefectus urbi of Rome, meaning that he had executive authority for much of the municipal administration of Rome; he held the office again sometime before 439. As praefectus he restored the Old St. Peter's Basil...

    According to the historian John of Antioch, Maximus poisoned the mind of the Emperor against Aëtius, resulting in the murder of his rival at the hands of Valentinian III. John's account has it that Valentinian and Maximus placed a wager on a game that Maximus ended up losing. As he did not have the money available, Maximus left his ring as a guarantee of his debt. Valentinian then used the ring to summon to court Lucina, the chaste and beautiful wife of Maximus, whom Valentinian had long lusted after. Lucina went to the court, believing she had been summoned by her husband, but instead found herself at dinner with Valentinian. Although initially resisting his advances, the Emperor managed to wear her down and succeeded in raping her. Returning home and meeting Maximus, she accused him of betrayal, believing that he had handed her over to the Emperor. Although Maximus swore revenge, he was equally motivated by ambition to supplant "a detested and despicable rival",so he decided to mo...

    After gaining control of the palace, Maximus consolidated his hold on power by immediately marrying Licinia Eudoxia, the widow of Valentinian. She married him reluctantly, suspecting that he had been involved in the murder of her late husband; and indeed Maximus treated Valentinian III's assassins with considerable favour. The eastern court at Constantinople refused to recognise his accession. To further secure his position Maximus quickly appointed Avitus as magister militum and sent him on a mission to Toulouse to gain the support of the Visigoths. He also proceeded to cancel the betrothal of Licinia's daughter, Eudocia, to Huneric, the son of the Vandal king Geiseric, and marry her to his own son. Again he anticipated that this would further his and his family's imperial credentials. This repudiation infuriated the Vandal king, who only needed the excuse of Licinia's despairing appeal to the Vandal court to begin preparations for the invasion of Italy. By May, within two months o...

    On 2 June 455, three days after Maximus' death, Geiseric captured the city of Rome and sacked it for two weeks. Amidst the pillaging and looting of the city, and in response to the pleas of Pope Leo I, the Vandals are said to have refrained from arson, torture, and murder. Such modern historians as John Henry Haaren state that temples, public buildings, private houses and even the emperor's palace were destroyed. The Vandals also shipped many boatloads of Romans to North Africa as slaves, destroyed works of art and killed a number of citizens. The Vandals' activities during the sack gave rise to the modern term vandalism. Geiseric also carried away the empress Licinia Eudoxia and her daughters Placidiaand Eudocia.

    Browne, Robert William (1859). A history of Rome from A.D. 96 to the fall of the Western empire. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. OCLC 26234691.
    Cameron, Averil; Ward-Perkins, Bryan; Whitby, Michael (2001). "Late Antiquity: Empire and Successors, A.D. 425–600". The Cambridge Ancient History. Volume 14. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0...
    Drinkwater, John; Elton, Hugh (2002). Fifth-Century Gaul: A Crisis of Identity?. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521529334.
    Gibbon, Edward (1776). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Vol. I. OCLC 810900761. |volume= has extra text (help)
    • Background and Beginning
    • Classical Period
    • Titles and Positions
    • Lineages and Epochs
    • Post-Classical Assertions to The Title
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Mod­ern his­to­ri­ans con­ven­tion­ally re­gard Au­gus­tus as the first Em­peror whereas Julius Cae­sar is con­sid­ered the last dic­ta­tor of the Roman Re­pub­lic, a view hav­ing its ori­gins in the Roman writ­ers Plutarch, Tac­i­tus and Cas­sius Dio. How­ever, the ma­jor­ity of Roman writ­ers, in­clud­ing Jose­phus, Pliny the Younger, Sue­to­nius and Ap­pian, as well as most of the or­di­nary peo­ple of the Em­pire, thought of Julius Cae­sar as the first Emperor. At the end of the Roman Re­pub­lic no new, and cer­tainly no sin­gle, title in­di­cated the in­di­vid­ual who held supreme power. In­so­far as em­peror could be seen as the Eng­lish trans­la­tion of im­per­a­tor, then Julius Cae­sar had been an em­peror, like sev­eral Roman gen­er­als be­fore him. In­stead, by the end of the civil wars in which Julius Cae­sar had led his armies, it be­came clear that there was cer­tainly no con­sen­sus to re­turn to the old-style monar­chy, but that the pe­riod when sev­eral of­fi­cials,...

    Rome had no sin­gle con­sti­tu­tional of­fice, title or rank ex­actly equiv­a­lent to the Eng­lish title "Roman em­peror". Ro­mans of the Im­pe­r­ial era used sev­eral ti­tles to de­note their em­per­ors, and all were as­so­ci­ated with the pre-Im­pe­r­ial, Re­pub­li­can era. The legal au­thor­ity of the em­peror de­rived from an ex­tra­or­di­nary con­cen­tra­tion of in­di­vid­ual pow­ers and of­fices that were ex­tant in the Re­pub­lic rather than from a new po­lit­i­cal of­fice; em­per­ors were reg­u­larly elected to the of­fices of con­sul and cen­sor. Among their per­ma­nent priv­i­leges were the tra­di­tional Re­pub­li­can title of prin­ceps sen­a­tus (leader of the Sen­ate) and the re­li­gious of­fice of pon­tifex max­imus (chief priest of the Col­lege of Pon­tiffs). Every em­peror held the lat­ter of­fice and title until Gra­t­ian sur­ren­dered it in AD 382 to Pope Siri­cius; it even­tu­ally be­came an aux­il­iary honor of the Bishop of Rome. These ti­tles and of­fices con­fe...

    Al­though these are the most com­mon of­fices, ti­tles, and po­si­tions, not all Roman em­per­ors used them, nor were all of them used at the same time in his­tory. The con­sular and cen­so­r­ial of­fices es­pe­cially were not an in­te­gral part of the Im­pe­r­ial dig­nity, and were usu­ally held by per­sons other than the reign­ing em­peror. 1. Augustus: (also "Αὔγουστος" or "Σεβαστός"), "Majestic" or "Venerable"; an honorific cognomenexclusive to the emperor 2. Autokrator: (Αὐτοκράτωρ, Autokratōr), (lit. "Self-ruler"); Greek title equivalent to imperatoror commander-in-chief 3. Basileus: (Βασιλεύς), Greek for king, popularly used in the east to refer to the emperor; a formal title of the Roman emperor beginning with Heraclius 4. Caesar: (also "Καίσαρ"), "Caesar"; initially the cognomen of Julius Caesar, it was transformed into a title; an honorific name later used to identify an emperor-designate 5. Censor: a Republican office held jointly by two former consuls every five years fo...

    Principate

    The na­ture of the im­pe­r­ial of­fice and the Prin­ci­pate was es­tab­lished under Julius Cae­sar's heir and posthu­mously adopted son, Au­gus­tus, and his own heirs, the de­scen­dants of his wife Livia from her first mar­riage to a scion of the dis­tin­guished Clau­dian clan. This Julio-Clau­dian dy­nasty came to an end when the Em­peror Nero– a great-great-grand­son of Au­gus­tus through his daugh­ter and of Livia through her son – was de­posed in 68. Nero was fol­lowed by a suc­ces­sion o...

    Crisis of the Third Century

    The ac­ces­sion of Max­imi­nus Thrax marks both the close and the open­ing of an era. It was one of the last at­tempts by the in­creas­ingly im­po­tent Roman Sen­ate to in­flu­ence the suc­ces­sion. Yet it was the sec­ond time that a man had achieved the pur­ple while owing his ad­vance­ment purely to his mil­i­tary ca­reer; both Ves­pasian and Sep­ti­m­ius Severus had come from noble or mid­dle-class fam­i­lies, while Thrax was born a com­moner. He never vis­ited the city of Rome dur­ing his...

    Dominate

    The ac­ces­sion on 20 No­vem­ber 284, of Dio­clet­ian, the lower-class, Greek-speak­ing Dal­ma­t­ian com­man­der of Carus' and Nu­mer­ian's house­hold cav­alry (pro­tec­tores do­mes­tici), marked major in­no­va­tions in Rome's gov­ern­ment and con­sti­tu­tional the­ory. Dio­clet­ian, a tra­di­tion­al­ist and re­li­gious con­ser­v­a­tive, at­tempted to se­cure ef­fi­cient, sta­ble gov­ern­ment and a peace­ful suc­ces­sion with the es­tab­lish­ment of the Tetrar­chy. The em­pire was di­vided in...

    Survival of the Roman Empire in the East

    The line of Roman em­per­ors in the East­ern Roman Em­pire con­tin­ued un­bro­ken at Con­stan­tino­ple until the cap­ture of Con­stan­tino­ple in 1204 by the Fourth Cru­sade. In the wake of this ac­tion, four lines of Em­per­ors emerged, each claim­ing to be the legal suc­ces­sor: the Em­pire of Thes­sa­lonica, evolv­ing from the Despotate of Epirus, which was re­duced to im­po­tence when its founder Theodore Kom­nenos Doukas was de­feated, cap­tured and blinded by the Bul­gar­ian Em­peror Iv...

    Last Roman emperor

    Con­stan­tine XI Palaiol­o­gos was the last reign­ing Roman em­peror. A mem­ber of the Palaiol­o­gos dy­nasty, he ruled the rem­nant of the East­ern Roman Em­pire from 1449 until his death in 1453 de­fend­ing its cap­i­tal Con­stan­tino­ple. He was born in Mys­tra as the eighth of ten chil­dren of Manuel II Palaiol­o­gos and He­lena Dragaš, the daugh­ter of the Ser­bian prince Con­stan­tine Dragaš of Ku­manovo. He spent most of his child­hood in Con­stan­tino­ple under the su­per­vi­sion of h...

    New Western lineage

    The con­cept of the Roman Em­pire was re­newed in the West with the coro­na­tion of the king of the Franks, Charle­magne (Charles the Great), as Roman em­peror by the Pope on Christ­mas Day, 800. This coro­na­tion had its roots in the de­cline of in­flu­ence of the Pope in the af­fairs of the Byzan­tine Em­pire at the same time the Byzan­tine Em­pire de­clined in in­flu­ence over pol­i­tics in the West. The Pope saw no ad­van­tage to be de­rived from work­ing with the Byzan­tine Em­pire, but...

    Scarre, Chris. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London: Thames & Hudson, October 1, 1995. ISBN 0-500-05077-5(hardcover).

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