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  1. Constantius II - Wikipedia › wiki › Constantius_II

    Flavius Julius Constantius, known as Constantius II, was Roman emperor from 337 to 361. His reign saw constant warfare on the borders against the Sasanian Empire and Germanic peoples, while internally the Roman Empire went through repeated civil wars, court intrigues and usurpations. His religious policies inflamed domestic conflicts that would continue after his death. Constantius was a son of Constantine the Great, who elevated him to the imperial rank of caesar on 8 November 324 and after who

  2. Constantine II of Greece - Wikipedia › wiki › Constantine_Glücksburg

    Constantine II reigned as the King of Greece from 6 March 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy on 1 June 1973. He acceded as king following the death of his father King Paul in March 1964. Later that year he married Princess Anne-Marie of Denmark with whom he eventually had five children. Although the accession of the young monarch was initially regarded auspiciously, his reign saw political instability that culminated in the Colonels' Coup of 21 April 1967. The coup left Constantine, as the

    • Monarchy abolished
    • Paul
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  4. Constantine II of Greece — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2 › en › Constantine_II_of_Greece
    • Early Life
    • Reign
    • Greek Dictatorship 1967–1974
    • Restoration of Democracy and The Referendum
    • in Exile
    • Later Life
    • Marriage and Children
    • Titles, Styles and Honours
    • Honours
    • See Also

    Con­stan­tine was born at the Psy­chiko Palace in Psy­chiko, a sub­urb of Athens. He was the nephew of King George II, and also the sec­ond child and only son of the king's brother and heir pre­sump­tive, Crown Prince Paul. His mother was Princess Fred­er­ica of Hanover. Con­stan­tine's older sis­ter Queen Sofía of Spain is the wife of the re­tired King Juan Car­los I of Spain, while his younger sis­ter, Princess Irene, has never been mar­ried. Con­stan­tine was just one year old when Fas­cist Italy and Nazi Ger­many in­vaded Greece, and he spent the next four years in exile in Egypt and Cape Town, South Africa (where his sis­ter Irene was born) with his fam­ily. He re­turned to Greece with his fam­ily in 1946. King George died in 1947, and Con­stan­tine's fa­ther be­came the new king, mak­ing Con­stan­tine the crown prince. He was ed­u­cated at a prepara­tory school and later a board­ing school .A fel­low stu­dent re­called him as "a good chap, a young man with all the right in­sti...

    In March 1964, King Paul died of can­cer, and the 23-year-old Con­stan­tine suc­ceeded him as king. Prior to this, Con­stan­tine had al­ready been ap­pointed as re­gent for his ail­ing father. King Paul's long-time prime min­is­ter Kon­stan­ti­nos Kara­man­lis re­garded him partly re­spon­si­ble for his fall from lead­er­ship in 1963.[citation needed] How­ever, due to his youth, he was also per­ceived as a promise of change. The ac­ces­sion of Con­stan­tine co­in­cided with the re­cent elec­tion of Cen­trist George Pa­pan­dreou as prime min­is­ter in Feb­ru­ary 1964, which ended 11 years of right-wing rule by the Na­tional Rad­i­cal Union(ERE). Greece was still feel­ing the ef­fects of the Civil Warof 1944–49 be­tween com­mu­nists and monar­chists, and so­ci­ety was strongly po­larised be­tween the roy­al­ist/con­ser­v­a­tive right and the lib­eral/so­cial­ist cen­ter-left. It was hoped that the new young king and the new prime min­is­ter would be able to over­come past dis­sen­sion...

    Elec­tions were sched­uled for 28 May 1967, with ex­pec­ta­tions of a wide Cen­trist vic­tory. Ac­cord­ing to United States diplo­mat John Day, the Amer­i­cans wor­ried that, due to the old age of George Pa­pan­dreou, An­dreas Pa­pan­dreouwould have a very pow­er­ful role in the next gov­ern­ment. Ac­cord­ing to the United States diplo­mats Robert Keely and John Owens, who were at­tached to the United States em­bassy in Greece at the time, Con­stan­tine asked United States Am­bas­sador Phillips Tal­botwhat the at­ti­tude of the United States gov­ern­ment would be to an ex­tra-par­lia­men­tary so­lu­tion to this prob­lem. The em­bassy re­sponded neg­a­tively in prin­ci­ple, adding that "US re­ac­tion to such a move can­not be de­ter­mined in ad­vance but would de­pend on cir­cum­stances at time". To this day, Con­stan­tine de­nies all this. Ac­cord­ing to then-Am­bas­sador from the United States Phillips Tal­bot, after this com­mu­ni­ca­tion, Con­stan­tine met with the gen­er­als of...

    In July 1974, the events in Cyprus led to the down­fall of the mil­i­tary regime, and Kara­man­lis re­turned from exile to be­come prime min­is­ter. The 1973 re­pub­li­can con­sti­tu­tion was re­garded as il­le­git­i­mate, and the new ad­min­is­tra­tion is­sued a con­sti­tu­tional de­cree restor­ing the 1952 con­sti­tu­tion. Con­stan­tine con­fi­dently awaited an in­vi­ta­tion to return.On 24 July he de­clared his "deep sat­is­fac­tion with the ini­tia­tive of the armed forces in over­throw­ing the dic­ta­to­r­ial regime" and wel­comed the ad­vent of Kara­man­lis as prime min­is­ter. The for­mer king vis­ited both Buck­ing­ham Palace and 10 Down­ing Street and openly de­clared his hope to be shortly re­turn­ing to Greece. How­ever, the 1952 con­sti­tu­tion was not re­stored with the over­throw of the il­le­gal junta. Fol­low­ing Kara­man­lis' re­sound­ing vic­tory in the No­vem­ber 1974 par­lia­men­tary elec­tions (his New Democ­racy party won 54.4% of the vote), he called a ref­er­...

    Con­stan­tine re­mained in exile for al­most forty years after the vote in favour of the republic. He was strongly dis­cour­aged from re­turn­ing to Greece, and he did not re­turn until Feb­ru­ary 1981, when the gov­ern­ment only al­lowed him to re­turn for a few hours, to at­tend the fu­neral of his mother, Queen Fred­er­ica, in the fam­ily ceme­tery of the for­mer Royal Palace at Tatoi. There were also legal dis­putes with the Greek state. In 1992 he con­cluded an agree­ment with the con­ser­v­a­tive gov­ern­ment of Prime Min­is­ter Con­stan­tine Mit­so­takis, ced­ing most of his land in Greece to a non-profit foun­da­tion in ex­change for the for­mer palace of Tatoi, near Athens, and the right to ex­port a num­ber of mov­ables from Greece. The lat­ter re­port­edly in­cluded pri­vately owned art trea­sures from the royal palaces. As such, no for­mal ac­count of what was re­moved was ever given or needed to be given. In 1993, Con­stan­tine vis­ited Greece, but faced with gov­ern­me...

    Fol­low­ing the abo­li­tion of the monar­chy, Con­stan­tine has re­peat­edly stated that he rec­og­nizes the Re­pub­lic, the laws and the con­sti­tu­tion of Greece. He told Time, "If the Greek peo­ple de­cide that they want a re­pub­lic, they are en­ti­tled to have that and should be left in peace to enjoy it." Until 1994, Con­stan­tine's of­fi­cial Greek pass­port iden­ti­fied him as "Con­stan­tine, for­mer King of the Hel­lenes". A law passed in 1994 stripped him of his Greek cit­i­zen­ship, pass­port, and prop­erty. The law stated that Con­stan­tine could not be granted a Greek pass­port un­less he adopted a sur­name. He con­tin­ues to use the title "King Con­stan­tine", al­though he no longer uses "Con­stan­tine, King of the Hel­lenes". Today, this ap­pel­la­tion draws at­ten­tion to the fact that Con­stan­tine and his fam­ily lacks a legal sur­name in Greece.[citation needed] Con­stan­tine has stated: "I don't have a name—my fam­ily doesn't have a name. The law that Mr Pa­pan­d...

    On 18 Sep­tem­ber 1964, in a Greek Or­tho­dox cer­e­mony in the Met­ro­pol­i­tan Cathe­dral of Athens, he mar­ried Princess Anne-Marie of Den­mark. The chil­dren of Con­stan­tine and Anne-Marie are: 1. Princess Alexia, born on 10 July 1965 at Mon Repos in Corfu. She was married on 9 July 1999 in London to Carlos Morales Quintana. 2. Crown Prince Pavlos, born on 20 May 1967 at Tatoi Palace in Athens. He was married on 1 July 1995 in London to Marie-Chantal Miller. 3. Prince Nikolaos, born on 1 October 1969 at Villa Claudia Clinic in Rome. He was married on 25 August 2010 in Spetses to Tatiana Elinka Blatnik. 4. Princess Theodora, born on 9 June 1983 in St Mary's Hospital, London, who is pursuing an acting career. 5. Prince Philippos, born on 26 April 1986 in St Mary's Hospital, London.He works as a hedge fund analyst in New York.

    Titles and styles

    He is known in­ter­na­tion­ally, for ex­am­ple by the In­ter­na­tional Olympic Com­mit­tee, as His Majesty King Constantine.In Greece, he is re­ferred to as ο τέως βασιλιάς or ο πρώην βασιλιάς ("the for­mer king"). He is still re­ferred to as ο βα­σι­λιάς των Ελληνων("the King of the Hel­lenes") by his loyal sup­port­ers in Greece.

    National honours

    1. Greece 1.1. Sovereign Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of the Redeemer 1.2. Sovereign Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Saints George and Constantine 1.3. Sovereign of the Order of Saints Olga and Sophia 1.4. Sovereign Knight Grand Cross of the Order of George I 1.5. Knight Grand Cross of Order of the Phoenix 1.6. Sovereign Knight Grand Cross of Order of Beneficence 1.7. Recipient of the Commemorative Badge of the Centenary of the Royal House of Greece

    Foreign honours

    1. Denmark: Knight of the Order of the Elephant 1.1. Grand Commander of the Order of the Dannebrog 1.2. Recipient of the Silver Anniversary Medal of Queen Margrethe II and Prince Henrik 1.3. Recipient of the 75th Birthday Medal of Queen Margrethe II 1.4. Recipient of the Ruby Jubilee Medal of Queen Margrethe II 1.5. Recipient of the 70th Birthday Medal of Queen Margrethe II 1.6. Recipient of the Silver Jubilee Medal of Queen Margrethe II 2. France: Grand Cross of the Order of the Legion of Ho...

  5. Constantine V - Wikipedia › Byzantine_emperor_Constantine_V

    Constantine V ( Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος, romanized : Kōnstantīnos; July, 718 AD – 14 September 775 AD) was Byzantine emperor from 741 to 775. His reign saw a consolidation of Byzantine security from external threats. As an able military leader, Constantine took advantage of civil war in the Muslim world to make limited offensives ...

  6. George II of Greece - Wikipedia › wiki › en:George_II_of_Greece
    • Early Life and First Period of Kingship
    • First Exile
    • World War II
    • Return to Greece and Death
    • in Popular Culture
    • Honours
    • Sources

    George was born at the royal villa at Tatoi, near Athens, the eldest son of Crown Prince Constantine of Greece and his wife, Princess Sophia of Prussia; George pursued a military career, training with the Prussian Guard at the age of 18, then serving in the Balkan Wars as a member of the 1st Greek Infantry.[citation needed] When his grandfather was assassinated in 1913, his father became King Constantine I and George became the crown prince.[citation needed] After a coup deposed Constantine I during World War I, Crown Prince George, by then a major in the Hellenic Army, followed his father into exile in 1917 (see National Schism). George's younger brother, Alexander, was installed as king by prime minister Eleftherios Venizelos.[citation needed] When Alexander I died following an infection from a monkey bite in 1920, Venizelos was voted out of office, and a plebiscite restored Constantine to the throne. Crown Prince George served as a colonel, and later a major general in the war ag...

    In Romania

    Unsurprisingly, the Second Hellenic Republic was proclaimed by parliament on 25 March 1924, before being confirmed by a referendum two and a half weeks later. Officially deposed and banished, George and Elisabeth were also stripped of their Greek nationality and their property confiscated by the government. From now on stateless like all members of the royal family, however, they received from the head of the House of Oldenburg, their cousin, king Christian X, a new passport. Exiled in Romani...

    In the United Kingdom

    At the start of his life as an exile, George spent half the year in Romania with Elizabeth. Alone or with his wife, he divided the remaining six months between Tuscany, where he resided with his mother, at Villa Bobolina, and the UK, where he had many friends. On 16 September 1930, he was initiated into Freemasonry in London and became venerable master of the Wellwood Lodge in 1933. After the death of the queen dowager Sophie, in 1932, George chose to leave Bucharest and his wife permanently...

    Italian and German invasions

    Despite the nationalist government's strong economic and military ties to Germany, a connection which continued with Nazi Germany, King George was known to have pro-British feelings at the start of World War II. On 28 October 1940, Metaxas rejected an Italian ultimatum demanding the stationing of Italian troops in Greece, and Italy invaded, starting the Greco-Italian War. The Greeks mounted a successful defense and eventually occupied the southern half of Albania (then an Italian protectorate...

    Crisis of April 1941 and evacuation to Crete

    Following the suicide of Prime Minister Alexandros Koryzis on 18 April 1941 in the face of the rapid German advance, George found himself as the de facto head of government (as well as head of the three armed services ministries) for a few days, as he cast around for a potential successor. The King had thus a unique opportunity to form a broader government of national consensus, and abolish the hated dictatorial regime—whose sole bastion of support he now was. Although he was urged to this st...

    Second exile

    During World War II he remained the internationally recognised head of state, backed by the Greek government-in-exile and Greek forces serving in the Middle East. The British Foreign Office found him an exceedingly difficult man to deal with, as he was deeply obstinate about upholding what he regarded as his royal prerogatives, and proved notably unwilling to compromise with those who wanted a clear break with the 4th of August Regime. George long resisted British pressure to promise to resto...

    In elections held on 31 March 1946, the monarchist parties won a clear majority of the parliamentary seats, aided by the abstention of the Communists, and the referendum on the monarchy was set for 1 September. Between then and the plebiscite, the electoral registers were revised under Allied supervision. The announced results claimed 68.4% in favour of the King's return on an 86.6% turnout.However, even Allied observers acknowledged that the official results were marked by significant fraud by monarchist supporters. In the words of the official Allied observation report, "There is no doubt in our minds that the party representing the government view exercised undue influence in securing votes in support of the return of the King." On 26 September, George returned to Greece to find the Royal Palace looted, the woods at Tatoi chopped down for fuel and corpses buried in shallow graves outside.His country faced economic collapse and political instability. He died of arteriosclerosis on...

    During WWII, the Allies used the figure of George II as an instrument of propaganda to reinforce Greek patriotic sentiment. Several short films centred on the sovereign and his government are thus shot, such as Heroic Greece!by the American Frank Norton (1941). The romantic relationship of King George II and his mistress, nicknamed "Mrs. Brown", is briefly mentioned in the third episode ("The New King") from the British mini-series Edward & Mrs. Simpson, which features the king's cruise with Edward VIII and Wallis Simpsonin the Greek Islands, in 1936. On the occasion of the restoration of George II in 1935, the singer of rebetiko Markos Vamvakaris wrote the song Nous te welcome, King (in Greek: Καλώς μας ήρθες Βασιληά). Various stamps bearing the effigy of George II have been issued by Greek Post during his reign. A series of four stamps depicting the sovereign was thus issued, shortly after his restoration to the throne, on 1 November 1937, with face values of 1, 3, 8 and 100 drach...

    France: Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour, 10 December 1892
    House of Savoy: Knight of the Annunciation, with Collar and Star
    Brewer, David (2016). Greece, The Decade of War: Occupation, Resistance, and Civil War. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1780768540.
    Clogg, Richard (July 1979). "The Greek Government-in-Exile 1941-4". The International History Review. Cambridge University Press. 1(3).
    Karamitsos, A. (2008). Hellas stamp catalogue. 1.
    Koliopoulos, Ioannis S. (1976–1977). "Η στρατιωτική και πολιτική κρίση στην Ελλάδα τον Απρίλιο του 1941" [The Military and Political Crisis in Greece in April 1941] (PDF). Μνήμων (in Greek). 6: 53–...
  7. Maurice (emperor) - Wikipedia › wiki › Maurice_(emperor)

    According to John of Ephesus, he was the first heir born to a reigning emperor since the reign of Theodosius II (408–450). He was appointed Caesar in 587 and co-emperor on 26 March 590. Tiberius (died 27 November 602) Petrus (died 27 November 602) Paulus (died 27 November 602) Justin (died 27 November 602) Justinian (died 27 November 602)

  8. Helena, mother of Constantine I - Wikipedia › wiki › Helen_of_Constantinople

    Flavia Julia Helena, or Saint Helena, was the mother of Roman emperor Constantine the Great. She was born outside of the noble classes, a Greek, possibly in the Greek city of Drepana, Bithynia in Asia Minor. Helena ranks as an important figure in the history of Christianity and of the world due to her influence on her son. In her final years, she made a religious tour of Syria Palaestina and Jerusalem, during which ancient tradition claims that she discovered the True Cross. The Eastern Orthodox

  9. Jovian (emperor) - Wikipedia › wiki › Flavius_Jovian

    Jovian (emperor) Jovian ( Latin: Flavius Jovianus; 331 – 17 February 364) was Roman emperor from June 363 to February 364. As part of the imperial bodyguard, he accompanied Emperor Julian on his campaign against the Sasanian Empire and following the latter's death, Jovian was hastily declared Emperor by his soldiers.

  10. Ferdinand I of Bulgaria - Wikipedia › wiki › en:Ferdinand_I_of_Bulgaria
    • Family Background
    • Prince of Bulgaria
    • Tsar of Bulgaria
    • Balkan Wars
    • First World War and Abdication
    • Personal Life
    • Exile and Death
    • Honours
    • See Also
    • Books

    Ferdinand was born on 26 February 1861 in Vienna, a German prince of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry. He was the son of Prince August of Saxe-Coburg and his wife Clémentine of Orléans, daughter of King Louis Philippe I of the French. Princess Maria Antonia Koháry was a Hungarian Noble and heiress who married Ferdinand’s grandfather, Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Ferdinand was raised in his parents’ Catholic faith and baptised in St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna on 27 February, having as godparents Archduke Maximilian of Austria and his wife Princess Charlotte of Belgium. He grew up in the cosmopolitan environment of Austro-Hungarian high nobility and also in their ancestral lands in Hungary and in Germany. The House of Koháry descended from an immensely wealthy Upper Hungarian noble family, who held the princely lands of Čabraď and Sitno in present-day Slovakia, among others. The family's property was augmented by Clémentine of Orléans' remarkable dowry. Ferdin...

    The previous ruling prince of Bulgaria, Alexander of Battenberg, had abdicated in 1886 after a pro-Russian coup, only seven years after he had been elected. Ferdinand, who was an officer in the Austro-Hungarian army, was elected Prince of autonomous Bulgaria by its Grand National Assembly on 7 July 1887 in the Gregorian calendar (the "New Style" used hereinafter). In desperate attempts to prevent Russian occupation of Bulgaria, the throne had been previously offered, before Ferdinand's acceptance, to princes from Denmark to the Caucasus and even to the King of Romania. The Russian tsar himself had nominated his aide, Nichols Dadian of Mingrelia, but his candidacy was rejected by the Bulgarians. Ferdinand's accession was greeted with disbelief in many of the royal houses of Europe; Queen Victoria, his father's first cousin, stated to her Prime Minister, "He is totally unfit ... delicate, eccentric and effeminate ... Should be stopped at once."To the amazement of his initial detractor...

    On 5 October 1908 (celebrated on 22 September), Ferdinand proclaimed Bulgaria's de jure independence from the Ottoman Empire (though the country had been de facto independent since 1878). He also proclaimed Bulgaria a kingdom, and assumed the title of tsar—a deliberate nod to the rulers of the earlier Bulgarian states. However, while the title tsar was translated as "emperor" in the First and Second Bulgarian empires, it was translated as "king" under Ferdinand and his successors. The Bulgarian Declaration of Independence was proclaimed by him at the Holy Forty Martyrs Church in Tarnovo, and was recognized by Turkey and the other European powers. The Tarnovo Constitutionwas retained, with the word "prince" replaced by the word "tsar." Ferdinand was known for being quite a character. On a visit to German Emperor Wilhelm II, his second cousin once removed, in 1909, Ferdinand was leaning out of a window of the New Palace in Potsdam when the Emperor came up behind him and slapped him on...

    Like many other rulers before him, Ferdinand desired the creation of a "new Byzantium", a desire that has to be interpreted as wanting to create a significant, essentially Christian, Balkan power, given that Bulgaria and Bulgarians had neither cultural, nor ethnical, nor historical nor linguistic affinity with the old Byzantine Empire, which was quintessentially Roman and, evolving through the centuries, Greek . In 1912, Ferdinand joined the other Balkan states in an assault on the Ottoman Empire to free occupied territories. He saw this war as a new crusade declaring it, "a just, great and sacred struggle of the Cross against the Crescent." Bulgaria contributed the most and also lost the greatest number of soldiers. The Great Powers insisted on the creation of an independent Albania. Though the Balkan League allies had fought together against the common enemy in the First Balkan War, that was not enough to overcome their mutual rivalries. In the original documents for the Balkan Le...

    On 11 October 1915, the Bulgarian army attacked Serbia after signing a treaty with Austria-Hungary and Germany stating that Bulgaria would gain the territory it sought at the expense of Serbia. While he was not an admirer of German Emperor Wilhelm II or Austrian Emperor Franz Josef I—whom he described as "that idiot, that old dotard of a Francis Joseph".—Ferdinand wanted additional territorial gains after the humiliation of the Balkan Wars. This also entailed forming an alliance with his former enemy, the Ottoman Empire. This ranging of his country with the Central Powers made him a de facto supporter of Germany’s war aims and was not well received by the Allies. Edmund Gossewrote: “In this war, where the ranks of the enemy present to us so many formidable, sinister, and shocking figures, there is one, and perhaps but one, which is purely ridiculous. If we had the heart to relieve our strained feelings by laughter, it would be at the gross Coburg traitor, with his bodyguard of assas...

    Ferdinand entered a marriage of convenience with Princess Marie Louise of Bourbon-Parma, daughter of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Princess Maria Pia of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, on 20 April 1893 at the Villa Pianore in Lucca. The marriage produced four children: 1. Boris III(1894–1943) 2. Kyril(1895–1945) 3. Eudoxia(1898–1985) 4. Nadezhda(1899–1958). Marie Louise died on 31 January 1899 after giving birth to her youngest daughter. Ferdinand did not think about remarriage until his mother, Princess Clémentine died in 1907. To satisfy dynastic obligations and to provide his children with a mother figure, Ferdinand married Princess Eleonore Reuss of Köstritz, on 28 February 1908.Neither romantic love or physical attraction played any role, and Ferdinand treated her as no more than a member of the household, and showed scant regard. In his private relations, Ferdinand was a somewhat hedonistic individual. Bisexual throughout his life, up until early middle age his inclination was more toward...

    After his abdication, Ferdinand returned to live in Coburg, Germany. He had managed to salvage much of his fortune and was able to live in some style. He saw his being in exile simply as one of the hazards of kingship. He commented, "Kings in exile are more philosophic under reverses than ordinary individuals; but our philosophy is primarily the result of tradition and breeding, and do not forget that pride is an important item in the making of a monarch. We are disciplined from the day of our birth and taught the avoidance of all outward signs of emotion. The skeleton sits forever with us at the feast. It may mean murder, it may mean abdication, but it serves always to remind us of the unexpected. Therefore we are prepared and nothing comes in the nature of a catastrophe. The main thing in life is to support any condition of bodily or spiritual exile with dignity. If one sups with sorrow, one need not invite the world to see you eat."He was pleased that the throne could pass to his...


    1. Grand Cross of St. Alexander, in Diamonds, 27 May 1883 2. Founder and Grand Master of the Civil Merit Order, 1891 3. Founder and Grand Master of the Military Merit Order, 19 May 1900 4. Founder and Grand Master of the Order of Saints Cyril and Methodius, 18 May 1909

    Honorary military appointments

    1. Russian Empire: Colonel of the 54th Minsk Regiment, 1902

    Aronson, Theo (1986). Crowns In Conflict: The Triumph And The Tragedy Of European Monarchy, 1910–1918. London: J.Murray. ISBN 0-7195-4279-0.
    Constant, Stephen (1986). Foxy Ferdinand, 1861–1948, Tsar of Bulgaria. London: Sidgwick and Jackson. ISBN 0-283-98515-1.
    Louda, Jiri; Michael Maclagan (1981). Lines of Succession. London: Orbis Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-460-04519-9.
    Massie, Robert K (1981). The Last Courts of Europe. London: J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd. ISBN 0-460-04519-9.
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