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  1. Feb 24, 2017 · The Roman Empire (Latin: Imperium Rōmānum [ɪmˈpɛri.ũː roːˈmaːnũː]; Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, translit. Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican period of ancient Rome. As a polity, it included large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia, ruled by emperors. From the accession of Caesar Augustus ...

  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Crisis_under_Caligula_(37Caligula - Wikipedia

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    Early reign

    When Tiberius died on 16 March AD 37, his estate and the titles of the principate were left to Caligula and Tiberius's own grandson, Gemellus, who were to serve as joint heirs. Although Tiberius was 77 and on his death bed, some ancient historians still conjecture that he was murdered. Tacitus writes that Macro smothered Tiberius with a pillow to hasten Caligula's accession, much to the joy of the Roman people, while Suetonius writes that Caligula may have carried out the killing, though this...

    Public reform

    In 38, Caligula focused his attention on political and public reform. He published the accounts of public funds, which had not been made public during the reign of Tiberius. He aided those who lost property in fires, abolished certain taxes, and gave out prizes to the public at gymnastic events. He allowed new members into the equestrian and senatorial orders. Perhaps most significantly, he restored the practice of elections. Cassius Diosaid that this act "though delighting the rabble, grieve...

    Financial crisis and famine

    According to Cassius Dio, a financial crisis emerged in 39. Suetonius places the beginning of this crisis in 38.Caligula's political payments for support, generosity and extravagance had exhausted the state's treasury. Ancient historians state that Caligula began falsely accusing, fining and even killing individuals for the purpose of seizing their estates. Historians describe a number of Caligula's other desperate measures. To gain funds, Caligula asked the public to lend the state money. He...

    Historiography

    The facts and circumstances of Caligula's reign are mostly lost to history. Only two sources contemporary with Caligula have survived – the works of Philo and Seneca. Philo's works, On the Embassy to Gaius and Flaccus, give some details on Caligula's early reign, but mostly focus on events surrounding the Jewish population in Judea and Egypt with whom he sympathizes. Seneca's various works give mostly scattered anecdotes on Caligula's personality. Seneca was almost put to death by Caligula in...

    Health

    All surviving sources, except Pliny the Elder, characterize Caligula as insane. However, it is not known whether they are speaking figuratively or literally. Additionally, given Caligula's unpopularity among the surviving sources, it is difficult to separate fact from fiction. Recent sources are divided in attempting to ascribe a medical reason for his behavior, citing as possibilities encephalitis, epilepsy or meningitis.The question of whether Caligula was insane (especially after his illne...

    Possible rediscovery of burial site

    On 17 January 2011, police in Nemi, Italy, announced that they believed they had discovered the site of Caligula's burial, after arresting a thief caught smuggling a statue which they believed to be of the emperor. The claim has been met with scepticism by Cambridge historian Mary Beard.

    Quadrans celebrating the abolition of a tax in AD 38 by Caligula. The obverse of the coin contains a picture of a Pileuswhich symbolizes the liberation of the people from the tax burden. Caption: C...
    Roman gold coins excavated in Pudukottai, India, examples of Indo-Roman trade during the period. One coin of Caligula (AD 37–41), and two coins of Nero (AD 54–68). British Museum. Caption: C. CAESA...

    In film and series

    1. Referenced In Season 2, Episode 8 of the Tv series Lucifer. Lucifer, played by actor Tom Ellis, mentions him to actress Rachel Harriswho plays Dr. Linda Martin in her office roughly halfway through the episode. 2. Welsh actor Emlyn Williams was cast as Caligula in the never-completed 1937 film I, Claudius. 3. He was played by Ralph Bates in the 1968 ITV historical drama series, The Caesars. 4. American actor Jay Robinson famously portrayed a sinister and scene-stealing Caligula in two epic...

    In literature and theatre

    1. Caligula, by French author Albert Camus, is a play in which Caligula returns after deserting the palace for three days and three nights following the death of his beloved sister, Drusilla. The young emperor then uses his unfettered power to "bring the impossible into the realm of the likely". 2. In the novel I, Claudius by English writer Robert Graves, Caligula is presented as being a murderous sociopath from his childhood, who became clinically insane early in his reign. At the age of onl...

    In music

    1. There is a song by the rap duo City Morgue called "Caligula" from their debut album CITY MORGUE VOL 1: HELL OR HIGH WATER. 2. There is a song by Hip Hop rapper Ghostemanecalled "Caligula". 3. Caligvla is the second album released by Canadian death metal band Ex Deo. 4. The Smiths' 1984 track "Heaven Knows I'm Miserable Now" references the emperor with the following line: "What she asked of me at the end of the day, Caligula would have blushed". 5. Macy Gray released a track called "Caligul...

    Primary sources

    1. Cassius Dio, Roman History, Book 59 2. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, (trans. W.Whiston), Books XVIII–XIX 3. Philo of Alexandria, (trans. C.D.Yonge, London, H. G. Bohn, 1854–1890): 3.1. On the Embassy to Gaius 3.2. Flaccus 4. Seneca the Younger 4.1. On Firmness 4.2. On Anger 4.3. To Marcia, On Consolation 4.4. On Tranquility of Mind 4.5. On the Shortness of Life 4.6. To Polybius, On Consolation 4.7. To Helvia, On Consolation 4.8. On Benefits 4.9. On the Terrors of Death(Epistle IV) 4.1...

    Secondary material

    1. Balsdon, V. D. (1934). The Emperor Gaius. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 2. Barrett, Anthony A. (1989). Caligula: the corruption of power. London: Batsford. ISBN 978-0-7134-5487-1. 3. Grant, Michael (1979). The Twelve Caesars. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-044072-0. 4. Hurley, Donna W. (1993). An Historical and Historiographical Commentary on Suetonius' Life of C. Caligula. Atlanta: Scholars Press. 5. Sandison, A. T. (1958). "The Madness of the Emperor Caligula". Medical History. 2 (3):...

    • 16 March 37 – 24 January 41
    • Tiberius
  3. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › October_20,_19671967 - Wikipedia

    December 13 – King Constantine II of Greece flees the country when his coup attempt fails. December 15 – The Silver Bridge over the Ohio River in Point Pleasant, West Virginia, collapses, killing 46 people. December 17 – Harold Holt, 17th Prime Minister of Australia, disappears when swimming at Cheviot Beach, 60 km from Melbourne.

  4. Forced perspective is a technique which employs optical illusion to make an object appear farther away, closer, larger or smaller than it actually is. It manipulates human visual perception through the use of scaled objects and the correlation between them and the vantage point of the spectator or camera.

  5. The same is found in the Report (Anaphora) of Pilate, 15, where the governor informs the emperor that the Jews had accused Jesus of many healings on the Sabbath: he made the blind see and the lame walk; he raised the dead, purififed the leper, and healed the paralytic; he even raised a man who had been dead for four days, he drove out demons ...

    • (5)
  6. A fresh survey of the mythos and history of the Grahams through the ages, including the family’s origins, heraldry, heroes and villains. Genetic genealogy is used to untangle the family’s origin myths and main branches, encompassing both the noble house of Montrose and the bandit “reivers” of the Anglo-Scottish border. The heady mix of history and science is complemented by an original ...

  7. www.friesian.com › popes-3Emperors

    Constantine II Fl. Claudius Contantinus: 337-340 W: Constans I Fl. Julius Constans: 337-350 W [Magnentius Fl. Magnus Magnentius] 350-353 W: Constantius II Fl. Julius Constantius: 337-361 E+W: Altar of Victory removed from Roman Senate, 357; Amida on the Tigris falls to Persians, 359; Gallus Fl. Claudius Constantius Gallus: 351-354 E, Caesar ...