Constantine II (emperor) Constantine II ( Latin: Flavius Claudius Constantinus; February 316 – 340) was Roman emperor from 337 to 340. Son of Constantine the Great and co-emperor alongside his brothers, his attempt to exert his perceived rights of primogeniture led to his death in a failed invasion of Italy in 340.
- Early Life
- Greek Dictatorship 1967–1974
- Restoration of Democracy and The Referendum
- in Exile
- Later Life
- Marriage and Children
- Titles, Styles and Honours
- See Also
Constantine was born at the Psychiko Palace in Psychiko, a suburb of Athens. He was the nephew of King George II, and also the second child and only legitimate son of the king's brother and heir presumptive, Crown Prince Paul. His mother was Princess Frederica of Hanover. Constantine's older sister, Queen Sofía of Spain, is the wife of the retired King Juan Carlos I of Spain, while his younger sister, Princess Irene, has never been married. Constantine was just one year old when Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany invaded Greece, and he spent the next four years in exile in Egypt and Cape Town, South Africa, (where his sister Irene was born) with his family. He returned to Greece with his family in 1946. King George died in 1947, and Constantine's father became the new king, making Constantine the crown prince. He was educated at a preparatory school and later a boarding school (Victoria College of Alexandria, Egypt, where his classmates included King Hussein of Jordan and actor Omar Sha...
In March 1964, King Paul died of cancer, and the 23-year-old Constantine succeeded him as king. Prior to this, Constantine had already been appointed as regentfor his ailing father. King Paul's long-time prime minister Konstantinos Karamanlis regarded him partly responsible for his fall from leadership in 1963. However, due to his youth, he was also perceived as a promise of change. The accession of Constantine coincided with the recent election of Centrist George Papandreou as prime minister in February 1964, which ended 11 years of right-wing rule by the National Radical Union(ERE). Greece was still feeling the effects of the Civil Warof 1944–49 between communists and monarchists, and society was strongly polarised between the royalist/conservative right and the liberal/socialist left. It was hoped that the new young king and the new prime minister would be able to overcome past dissensions. Initially, relations between the king and Papandreou seemed good, but by...
Elections were scheduled for 28 May 1967, with expectations of a wide Centrist victory. According to United States diplomat John Day, the Americans worried that, due to the old age of George Papandreou, Andreas Papandreouwould have a very powerful role in the next government. According to the United States diplomats Robert Keely and John Owens, who were attached to the United States embassy in Greece at the time, Constantine asked United States Ambassador Phillips Talbot what the attitude of the United States government would be to an extra-parliamentary solution to this problem. The embassy responded negatively in principle, adding that "US reaction to such a move cannot be determined in advance but would depend on circumstances at time". To this day, Constantine denies all this. According to then-Ambassador from the United States Phillips Talbot, after this communication, Constantine met with the generals of the army, who promised the king that they would not take any action befor...
In July 1974, the events in Cyprus led to the downfall of the military regime, and Karamanlis returned from exile to become prime minister. The 1973 republican constitution was regarded as illegitimate, and the new administration issued a constitutional decree restoring the 1952 constitution. Constantine confidently awaited an invitation to return.On 24 July he declared his "deep satisfaction with the initiative of the armed forces in overthrowing the dictatorial regime" and welcomed the advent of Karamanlis as prime minister. The former king visited both Buckingham Palace and 10 Downing Street and openly declared his hope to be shortly returning to Greece. However, the 1952 constitution was not restored with the overthrow of the illegal junta. Following Karamanlis' resounding victory in the November 1974 parliamentary elections (his New Democracy party won 54.4% of the vote), he called a referendum(held on 8 December 1974) on whether Greece would restore the monarchy or remain a re...
Constantine remained in exile for almost forty years after the vote in favour of the republic. He was strongly discouraged from returning to Greece, and he did not return until February 1981, when the government only allowed him to return for a few hours, to attend the funeral of his mother, Queen Frederica, in the family cemetery of the former Royal Palace at Tatoi. There were also legal disputes with the Greek state. In 1992 he concluded an agreement with the conservative government of Prime Minister Constantine Mitsotakis, ceding most of his land in Greece to a non-profit foundation in exchange for the former palace of Tatoi, near Athens, and the right to export a number of movables from Greece. The latter reportedly included privately owned art treasures from the royal palaces. As such, no formal account of what was removed was ever given or needed to be given. In 1993, Constantine visited Greece, but faced with government insecurity, he was asked to leave. In 1994, the second g...
Following the abolition of the monarchy, Constantine has repeatedly stated that he recognizes the Republic, the laws and the constitution of Greece. He told Time, "If the Greek people decide that they want a republic, they are entitled to have that and should be left in peace to enjoy it." Constantine and Anne-Marie for many years lived in Hampstead Garden Suburb, London, Constantine being a close friend of his second cousin Charles, Prince of Wales, and a godfather to Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, his second cousin once removed. He sold his house in Hampstead in 2013. Constantine is a patron of Box Hill School, a public school in Dorking, in the south of England. In 2004, Constantine returned to Greece temporarily during the Athens Olympic Games as a member of the International Olympic Committee. On 24 December 2004, Constantine and Anne-Marie and members of the former royal family visited the Presidential Mansion (the former Royal Palace) in Athens where Constantine met Presi...
On 18 September 1964, in a Greek Orthodox ceremony in the Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens, he married Princess Anne-Marie of Denmark. The children of Constantine and Anne-Marie are: 1. Princess Alexia, born on 10 July 1965 at Mon Repos in Corfu. She was married on 9 July 1999 in London to Carlos Morales Quintana. 2. Crown Prince Pavlos, born on 20 May 1967 at Tatoi Palace in Athens. He was married on 1 July 1995 in London to Marie-Chantal Miller. 3. Prince Nikolaos, born on 1 October 1969 at Villa Claudia Clinic in Rome. He was married on 25 August 2010 in Spetses to Tatiana Elinka Blatnik. 4. Princess Theodora, born on 9 June 1983 in St Mary's Hospital, London, who is pursuing an acting career. 5. Prince Philippos, born on 26 April 1986 in St Mary's Hospital, London. He works as a hedge fund analyst in New York. He married Nina Nastassja Flohr on 12 December 2020 in St. Moritzin a civil ceremony.
Titles and styles
Until 1994, Constantine's official Greek passport identified him as "Constantine, former King of the Hellenes". A law passed in 1994 stripped him of his Greek citizenship, passport, and property. The law stated that Constantine could not be granted a Greek passport unless he adopted a surname. Constantine has stated: "I don't have a name—my family doesn't have a name. The law that Mr Papandreou passed basically says that he considers that I am not Greek and that my family was Greek only so lo...
1. Denmark: Knight of the Order of the Elephant 1.1. Grand Commander of the Order of the Dannebrog 1.2. Recipient of the Silver Anniversary Medal of Queen Margrethe II and Prince Henrik 1.3. Recipient of the 75th Birthday Medal of Queen Margrethe II 1.4. Recipient of the Ruby Jubilee Medal of Queen Margrethe II 1.5. Recipient of the 70th Birthday Medal of Queen Margrethe II 1.6. Recipient of...Woodhouse, C.M. (1998). Modern Greece a Short History. London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-571-19794-9.Γιάννης Κάτρης (1974). Η γέννηση του νεοφασισμού στην Ελλάδα 1960–1970. Athens: Παπαζήση.Αλέξης Παπαχελάς (1997). Ο βιασμός της ελληνικής δημοκρατίας. Athens:Εστία. ISBN 960-05-0748-1.ΜΑΡΙΟΣ ΠΛΩΡΙΤΗΣ:Απάντηση στον Γκλύξμπουργκ, Εφημερίδα Το ΒΗΜΑ, Κυριακή 10 Ιουνίου 2001 – Αρ. Φύλλου 13283
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Jul 25, 2020 · Category:Constantinus II. Constantine II (February 317 - 340) was Roman Emperor (337 - 340). The eldest son of Constantine I the Great and Fausta, he was born at Arles. Constantino II (es); Kostentin II a Rom (kw); Константин II (bg); Constantin al II-lea (ro); قسطنطین دوم (ur); Konstantin II (sv); Constantin II (oc ...
Constantius II is a particularly difficult figure to judge properly due to the hostility of most sources toward him. A. H. M. Jones writes that Constantius "appears in the pages of Ammianus as a conscientious emperor but a vain and stupid man, an easy prey to flatterers. He was timid and suspicious, and interested persons could easily play on ...
May 08, 2020 · File:King Constantine II, khelrtva, 1467 signature.svg is a vector version of this file. It should be used in place of this raster image when not inferior.
Constantine the Great ( Laitin: Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; 27 Februar c. 272 – 22 Mey 337), forby kent as Constantine I or Saunt Constantine, wis Roman Emperor frae 306 tae 337. Constantine wis the son o Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman airmy officer, an his consort Helena. His faither becam Caesar, the depute ...
- Původ A Kariéra
- Externí odkazy
Narodil se ve městě Arelate (dnešní Arles) jako nejstarší ze synů Konstantina Velikého a Fausty. 1. března 317 se stal z otcovy vůle caesarem a ve věku sedmi let se zúčastnil tažení proti Sarmatům. V deseti letech byl formálně pověřen správou Galie na místo svého popraveného nevlastního bratra Crispa. Podle nápisu pocházejícího patrně z roku 330 získal Konstantin II. titul Alamannicus, což by mohlo dokládat, že jeho vojevůdci dosáhli vítězství nad Alamany. V roce 332 působil jako velitel v průběhu otcovy kampaně proti Gótům. Někdy před rokem 335se oženil, avšak jméno jeho manželky není známo. V letech bezprostředně před otcovou smrtí pobýval v Galii.
Po smrti Konstantina Velikého 22. května 337 následovaly zmatky, během nichž vojsko vyvraždilo většinu mužských členů konstantinovské dynastie kromě Konstantinových synů. V září téhož roku se Konstantin II. setkal se svými bratry Constantiem II. a Constantem v Panonii, kde byli vojáky společně provoláni za augusty. Každý z bratrů měl vládnout nad třetinou římské říše, přičemž Konstantinovi II. byly přiděleny do správy Galie, Británie a Hispánie. Obdobně jako jeho mladší bratři byl i Konstantin vychován jako křesťan. Brzy po uchopení moci se proto zapojil do sporu mezi různými křesťanskými směry. Západní část říše byla nakloněna zastáncům nicejského vyznání a vystupovala proti ariánům. Konstantin II. proto osvobodil z vyhnanství biskupa Athanasia, jemuž povolil návrat do Alexandrie. Tento čin vyvolal napětí ve vztazích mezi Konstantinem II. a Constantiem II., který podporoval ariánství. Konstantin II. si nárokoval postavení staršího z augustů (senior Augustus) a vystupoval jako poruč...BLECKMANN, Bruno, Der Bürgerkrieg zwischen Constantin II. und Constans (340 v. Chr.), Historia52/2003, s. 225–250.ČEŠKA, Josef, Zánik antického světa, Praha : Vyšehrad, 2000. ISBN 80-7021-386-8GRANT, Michael, Římští císařové, Praha : BB art, 2002. ISBN 80-7257-731-XObrázky, zvuky či videa k tématu Konstantin II. na Wikimedia CommonsGalerie Konstantin II. na Wikimedia Commons(česky) Constantinus II. (Římské císařství)(česky) Constantinovi synové (337–361), stránky Antika
- Rise to Power
- Tiberius Emperor
- Tiberius and Sejanus
- Last Years
Tiberius shared in Augustus' tribune powers as of 6 BC, but soon went into retirement in Rhodes. He was reported as wanting no further role in politics.p117p46 After the early deaths of Augustus' young grandchildren-turned-sons, Lucius and Gaius in AD 2 and 4 respectively, and the earlier death of his own brother Drusus (9 BC), Tiberius was recalled to Rome in June AD 4, where he was adopted by Augustus on the condition that he, in turn, adopt his nephew Germanicus.p119This continued the tradition of presenting at least two generations of heirs. In the same year, Tiberius was also granted the powers of a tribune and proconsul, emissaries from foreign kings had to pay their respects to him, and by 13 was awarded with his second triumph and equal level of imperium with that of Augustus.p119/120Tiberius duly assumed the titles of Augustus when the old man's long reign came to an end in AD 14.
Problems soon arose. The northern legions had not been paid, and rebelled. Germanicus and Tiberius's son, Drusus, were dispatched with a small force to quell the uprising and bring the legions back in line. Germanicus rallied the mutineers and led them on a short campaign across the Rhine into Germanic territory, stating that whatever treasure they could grab would count as their bonus. Germanicus's forces smashed across the Rhine and quickly occupied all of the territory between the Rhine and the Elbe. So Germanicus dealt a significant blow to Rome's enemies, and quelled an uprising of troops, actions that increased his fame with the Roman people. After being recalled from Germania, Germanicus celebrated a triumph in Rome in AD 17, the first full triumph that the city had seen since Augustus's own in 29 BC. As a result, in AD 18 Germanicus was granted control over the eastern part of the empire, just as both Agrippa and Tiberius had received before, and was clearly the successor to...
Sejanus had served the imperial family for almost twenty years when he became Praetorian Prefect in AD 15. The death of Drusus elevated Sejanus. Tiberius had statues of Sejanus erected throughout the city,and Sejanus became more and more visible as Tiberius began to withdraw from Rome altogether. Finally, with Tiberius's withdrawal to Capri in AD 26, Sejanus was left in charge of the entire state mechanism and the city of Rome. Sejanus's position was not quite that of successor. The presence of Livia (the third wife and advisor of Augustus) seems to have checked his power for a time. Her death in AD 29 changed all that. Sejanus began a series of purge trials of Senators in Rome. Germanicus's widow Agrippina the Elderand two of her sons were arrested and exiled in AD 30 and later all died in suspicious circumstances. In response, Tiberius manoeuvered cleverly. He knew an immediate condemnation of Sejanus might not succeed. Since he and Sejanus were then joint Consuls, Tiberius resign...
The last years of Tiberius were notable for his complete absence from Rome, and his inactivity as Emperor. He was now an old man in his 70s, and left decisions to the officials in Rome. He did nothing to prevent the rise of his grandnephew Caligula, who was now popular with the people (as the only surviving son of germanicus) and who had the support of the Prefect Macro.In 35, Tiberius would make both caligula and his own grandson Gemellus joint heirs, before dying two years later, in his 78th year. Some speculate Macro and Caligula hastened the old emperor’s death. Regardless, Caligula would succeed Tiberius as emperor.
- Family and Background
- Further Reading
Licinius I married Flavia Julia Constantia, daughter of the augustus Constantius Chlorus and half-sister of the augustus Constantine I. They wed at Mediolanum (Milan) in February 313. Three years later, Constantine attacked Licinius in the Cibalensean War. Constantine defeated Licinius at the Battle of Cibalae at Cibalae (Vinkovci) in Pannonia Secunda on the 8 October 316 and again at the Battle of Mardia near Hadrianopolis in Haemimontus (Edirne).
Licinius II, son of Licinius, grandson of Constantius I, and half-nephew of Constantine, was born to Flavia Julia Constantia in July or August 315. While the augustus Licinius marched against Constantine in 316, Licinius II was left with his mother and the augustus's treasury at Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica). After Licinius was defeated by Constantine at the Battle of Cibalae, and lost two thirds of his army, he fled to Sirmium and thence to Singidunum (Belgrade), where he crossed the river Sava and destroyed the bridge to delay Constantine's pursuit of him. With this delay, Licinius and his family reached Hadrianopolis. After Constantine reached Philippopolis (Plovdiv), and after he and Licinius failed to come to terms over Licinius's appointment of Valerius Valens as co-augustus, the Battle of the Mardia (or "of Campus Ardiensis", probably Harmanli) ensued, in which Licinius was again defeated. Licinius failed to flee towards Byzant...
The younger Licinius was executed by his uncle Constantine in 326. He fell victim to the augustus's suspicions and died at Pola, possibly in the context of the execution of Crispus. Like his father, Licinius II was the subject of a posthumous damnatio memoriaeand their names were expunged from official inscriptions.Dietmar Kienast: Römische Kaisertabelle. Grundzüge einer römischen Kaiserchronologie. Wiss. Buchgesellschaft, 3. Auflage, Darmstadt 2004 (unveränderter Nachdruck der 2., durchgesehenen und erw. Auf...Lenski, Noel (2005), Lenski, Noel (ed.), "The Reign of Constantine", The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine, Cambridge University Press, pp. 59–90, doi:10.1017/ccol0521818389.004, ISBN 9...