Constitutionalism Constitutionalism has a variety of meanings. Most generally, it is "a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law"
Terminology. The British historian Herbert Butterfield coined the term "whig history" in his short but influential book The Whig Interpretation of History (1931). [page needed] It takes its name from the British Whigs, advocates of the power of Parliament, who opposed the Tories, advocates of the power of the king.
A constitutional republic is a state where the chief executive and representatives are elected, and the rules are set down in a written constitution.. The head of state and other representatives are elected but they do not have uncontrolled power.
The Second Constitutional Era (Ottoman Turkish: ايکنجى مشروطيت دورى; Turkish: İkinci Meşrûtiyyet Devri) was the period of restored parliamentary rule in the Ottoman Empire between the 1908 Young Turk Revolution and the 1920 dissolution of the General Assembly, during the empire's twilight years.