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  2. The vial which held the first clinically approved COVID-19 vaccine dose delivered in the world (by Pfizer–BioNTech in the United Kingdom), and the syringe used to administer it, were acquired by the London Science Museum while the scrubs, vaccination card, and badge of the first vaccine recipient in the United States (a nurse) were acquired ...

  3. The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America.It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major unincorporated territories, 326 Indian reservations, and some minor possessions.

  4. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Corona_virusCoronavirus - Wikipedia

    The human coronavirus NL63 shared a common ancestor with a bat coronavirus (ARCoV.2) between 1190 and 1449 CE. The human coronavirus 229E shared a common ancestor with a bat coronavirus (GhanaGrp1 Bt CoV) between 1686 and 1800 CE. More recently, alpaca coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E diverged sometime before 1960.

    • Discovery of Chicken Coronavirus
    • Discovery of Mouse Coronaviruses
    • Discovery of Human Coronaviruses
    • Discovery of The Structure
    • Invention of The Name and History of The Taxonomy
    • Other Human Coronaviruses
    • Other Animal Coronaviruses
    • Evolutionary History

    Arthur Frederick Schalk and Merle C. Fawn at the North Dakota Agricultural College were the first to report what was later identified as coronavirus disease in chickens. Their publication in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association in 1931 indicates that there was a new respiratory disease that mostly affected 2-day-old to 3-week-old chickens. They referred to the disease as "an apparently new respiratory disease of baby chicks." The symptoms included severe shortness of breath and physical weakness. The infection was contagious and virulent. It was easily transmitted through direct contact between chickens or experimental transfer of the bronchial exudatesfrom infected to healthy chickens. Maximum mortality recorded was 90%. The causative pathogen was not known. Charles D. Hudson and Fred Robert Beaudette at the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station in New Brunswick, New Jersey, put forth a hypothesis in 1932 that virus could be the cause and introduced the n...

    Francis Sargent Cheevers, Joan B. Daniels, Alwin M. Pappenheimer and Orville T. Bailey investigated the case of brain disease (murine encephalitis) at the Department of Bacteriology and Immunology of Harvard Medical School in Boston in 1949. Two laboratory mice (Schwenktker strains) of 17 and 18 days old had flaccid paralysis and died. By then it was known that murine encephalitis was caused by a picornavirus, called Theiler's virus, which was discovered by Max Theiler at the Rockefeller Foundation in New York in 1937. But the Harvard scientists found that the two mice had unusual symptoms other than brain damage (demyelination). The mice had no visible illness or diarrhoea, which usually are associated with murine encephalitis. In addition, the causative virus was isolated from different organs including liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys. This indicated that brain was not the primary target organ. Liver was particularly affected with severe necrosis, indicating hepatitis. The new v...

    Human coronaviruses were discovered as one of the many causative viruses of common cold. Research on the study of common cold originated when the British Medical Research Council and the Ministry of Health established the Common Cold Research Unit (CCRU) at Salisbury in 1946. Directed by Andrewes, the research laboratory discovered several viruses such as influenza viruses, parainfluenza viruses and rhinovirusesthat cause common cold. David Arthur John Tyrrell joined CCRU in 1957 and succeeded Andrewes in 1962. He developed a technique for growing rhinoviruses using nasal epithelial cells for the first time in 1960. His team soon after developed a concept of broad categorisation of common cold viruses into two groups: one group, called H strain, could be maintained only in human-embryo-kidney cell culture, and another group, designated M strain, could be maintained both in human-embryo-kidney cell culture and monkey-embryo-kidney cell culture.By then many common cold viruses could b...

    Viruses cannot be seen normally with light microscopes. It was only with the development of electron microscopy that viruses could be visualised and structurally elucidated. Reginald L. Reagan, Jean E. Hauser, Mary G. Lillie, and Arthur H. Craige Jr. of the University of Maryland were the first to describe the structure of coronavirus using the transmission electron microscopy. In 1948, they reported in The Cornell Veterinarian that IBV was spherical in shape and some of them had filamentous projections. But the images were difficult to interpret due to poor resolution and low magnification (at × 28,000). Their subsequent studies did not show any striking properties from other viruses. An important advancement was made by Charles Henry Domermuth and O.F. Edwards at the University of Kentuckyin 1957 when they observed IBVs as "ring or doughnut-shaped structures." D.M. Berry at the Glaxo Laboratories, Middlesex, UK, with J.G. Cruickshank, H.P. Chu and R.J.H. Wells at the University of...

    By mid-1967 it was recognised that IBV, MHV, B814 and 229E were structurally and biologically similar so that they form a distinct group. Tyrrell met Waterson and Almeida in London to decide on the name of the viruses. Almeida had earlier suggested the term "influenza-like" because of their resemblance, but Tyrrell thought it inappropriate. Almeida came up with a novel name "coronavirus". Tyrrell wrote of his recollection in Cold Wars: The Fight Against the Common Coldin 2002: Proposal of the new name was submitted to and accepted by the International Committee for the Nomenclature of Viruses (ICNV, established in 1966). 16 November 1968 issue of Naturereported the justification by Almeida, Berry, C.H. Cunningham, Hamre, M.S. Hofstad, L. Mallucci, McIntosh and Tyrrell as: Coronavirus was accepted as a genus name by ICNV in its first report in 1971. IBV was then officially designated the type species as Avian infectious bronchitis virus (but renamed to Avian coronavirus in 2009). Mou...

    Human coronavirus NL63

    HCoV-NL63 was discovered in January 2003 from a seven-month-old baby in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The baby was suffering from bronchiolitis, coryza, conjunctivitis and fever. A year later, a comprehensive analysis of nasal swab samples was done from where it was found that a sample from an eight-month-old boy diagnosed in 1988 with pneumonia had a similar virus (HCoV-NL). The virus was independently described in 2005 as HCoV-NH following a discovery among a group of children having respirat...

    Human coronavirus HKU1

    HCoV-HKU1 was discovered from a 71-year-old man in Hong Kong, China, who was suffering from pneumonia in January 2004. When samples (nasopharyngeal aspirates from pneumonia patients) collected between April 2004 to March 2005 were analysed in 2006, it was found that 13 individuals had HCoV-HKU1. The same year, the virus was subsequently reported from Australia, Europe,and US.

    Zoonotic coronaviruses

    Coronaviruses that are transmitted from animals (zoonoses) are clinically the most important human coronaviruses as they are responsible for a series of global epidemics. There are two species of such coronaviruses:

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus

    A viral infection in pigs, called transmissible gastroenteritis, which was characterised mainly by diarrhoea and vomiting, and associated with high mortality was first recognised by Leo P. Doyle and L. M. Hutchings in 1946. A. W. McClurkin isolated and identified the virus in 1965. The virus was named Transmissible gastro-enteritis virus of swine in the ICNV first report, and changed to Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (PTGV) in the second report in 1976. A new disease that caused...

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

    An acute infectious diarrhoea was first known in England in 1971. The infection was specifically among fattening pigs and sows. It was referred to as TOO (for "the other one") or TGE2 (for "transmissible gastroenteritis type 2") as the symptoms were similar to transmissible gastroenteritis. Other than causing rapid and acute diarrhoea, it was not a fatal disease. The case was first reported by J. Oldham in Pig Farming in 1972 using the term "epidemic diarrhea". A second outbreak occurred in 1...

    Bat coronaviruses

    Reagan and his colleagues at the University of Maryland were the first to investigate bats as a potential sources of coronavirus in 1956. They experimentally inoculated 44 cave bats or little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) with IBV and found that all of them developed the symptoms of infectious bronchitis. Their report reads: But nothing was known of the real nature of bats as reservoirs of coronaviruses until the epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome of humans in 2002/2003. Since the...

    According to phylogenetic estimate all coronaviruses evolved from the most recent common ancestor that lived around 190 to 489 (with a mean of 293) million years ago. The four genera split up around 2,400 to 3,300 years ago into bat and avian coronavirus ancestors. Bat coronavirus gave rise to species of Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus that infect mammals, while avian coronavirus produced those of Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus that infect birds. Zoonotic coronaviruses emerged recently. For instance, SARS-CoV was transmitted from bats in 1998 (4.08 years prior to the outbreak),and diverged from bat coronavirus in around 1962. SARS-CoV-2 evolved from bat coronavirus in around 1948.

  5. A list by date of birth of historically recognized American fine artists known for the creation of artworks that are primarily visual in nature, including traditional media such as painting, sculpture, photography, and printmaking, as well as more recent genres, including installation art, performance art, body art, conceptual art, video art, and digital art.

  6. Apr 02, 2020 · US Cultural Sector Mobilizes to Provide Coronavirus Relief to Artists and Arts Institutions As millions of Americans attempt to cope with social and financial hardships during the coronavirus pandemic—more than ten million people filed for unemployment benefits over the last two weeks alone—philanthropists, foundations, and other organizations are stepping forward to help with COVID-19 ...

  7. Feb 18, 2020 · The Coronavirus has shaken up the world, no doubt. But how are artists responding? Visual artists in Hong Kong, China and abroad are speaking up about the virus, its censorship and how families ...

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