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  1. Czechoslovak Socialist Republic - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › Czechoslovak_Socialist_Republic

    The Czechoslovak Republic, existed between 1948 and 1960. The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was the name of Czechoslovakia from 1960 to 23 April 1990, when the country was under Communist rule. It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Following the coup d'état of February 1948, when the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia seized power with the support of the Soviet Union, the country was declared a socialist republic after the Ninth-of-May Constitution became effective. The traditional ...

  2. Cekoslowakia - Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

    id.wikipedia.org › wiki › Cekoslowakia
    • Pemerintahan Dan Politik
    • Pendidikan
    • Agama
    • Media Massa
    • Lihat Pula
    • Bacaan Lebih Lanjut
    • Pranala Luar

    Setelah Perang Dunia II, monopoli politik di negara ini dikendalikan oleh Partai Komunis Cekoslowakia (KSČ). Gustáv Husák terilih sebagai sekretaris pertama KSČ pada tahun 1969 (jabatan tersebut diubah menjadi sekretaris jenderal pada tahun 1971) serta presiden Cekoslowakia pada tahun 1975. Terdapat partai dari organisasi lainnya namun ditugaskan sebagai bawahan bagi KSČ. Seluruh partai politik, serta berbagai organisasi massa di negara ini, disatukan di bawah payung Front Nasional. Aktivis hak asasi manusia dan aktivis agama sangat tertekan dengan adanya kebijakan ini.

    Pendidikan digratiskan pada semua tingkatan dan diwajibkan sejak usia 6 hingga 15 tahun. Sebagian besar penduduk di negara ini melek huruf. Terdapat sistem pelatihan magang yang sangat maju serta sekolah kejuruan yang melengkapi sekolah menengah umumdan lembaga pendidikan tinggi.

    Berdasarkan data tahun 1991, penduduk Cekoslowakia terdiri dari penganut Katholik Roma 46%, Lutheran 5.3%, Ateis30%, n/a 17%, tetapi ada perbedaan besar dalam praktik keagamaan antara kedua konstituen republiknya; lihat Ceko dan Slovakia.

    Selama era antara Perang Dunia, demokrasi dan liberalisme di Cekoslowakia memfasilitasi kondisi untuk melakukan penerbitan secara gratis. Surat kabar harian paling signifikan pada masa ini adalah Lidové noviny, Národní listy, Český deník dan Československá republika. Selama pemerintahan Komunis, media massa di Cekoslowakia dikendalikan oleh Partai Komunis. Kepemilikan pribadi atas publikasi atau agensi media massa pada umumnya dilarang, meskipun gereja dan organisasi lain menerbitkan majalah dan surat kabar kecil. Bahkan dengan monopoli informasi yang berada di tangan organisasi di bawah kendali KSČ, seluruh publikasi ditinjauoleh Kantor Pers dan Informasi pemerintah.

    Heimann, Mary. Czechoslovakia: The State That Failed(2009).
    Hermann, A. H. A History of the Czechs(1975).
    Kalvoda, Josef. The Genesis of Czechoslovakia(1986).
    Leff, Carol Skalnick. National Conflict in Czechoslovakia: The Making and Remaking of a State, 1918–87(1988).
    (Inggris) Buku dan artikel daring
    (Inggris) U.S. Library of Congress Country Studies, "Czechoslovakia"
    (Inggris)(Ceko) Ordo dan Medali Cekoslowakia termasuk Ordo Singa Putih
    (Inggris) Cekoslowakia di Encyclopædia Britannica
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  4. Czechoslovakia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Czechoslovakia
    • Names
    • History
    • Government and Politics
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    • Transport and Communications
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    1918–1938: Czechoslovak Republic(abbreviated ČSR), or Czechoslovakia, before the formalization of the name in 1920, also known as Czecho-Slovakia or the Czecho-Slovak state
    1938–1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic, or Czecho-Slovakia
    1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic(ČSR), or Czechoslovakia
    1960–1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic(ČSSR), or Czechoslovakia

    Origins

    The area was long a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the empire collapsed at the end of World War I. The new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (1850–1937), who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935. He was succeeded by his close ally, Edvard Beneš(1884–1948). The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when philologists and educators, influenced by Romanticism, promoted the Czech language and pride in the Czech people. Natio...

    Munich Agreement, and Two-Step German Occupation

    In September 1938, Adolf Hitler demanded control of the Sudetenland. On 29 September 1938, Britain and France ceded control in the Appeasement at the Munich Conference; France ignored the military alliance it had with Czechoslovakia. During October 1938, Nazi Germanyoccupied the Sudetenland border region, effectively crippling Czechoslovak defences. The First Vienna Award assigned a strip of southern Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia to Hungary. Poland occupiedZaolzie, an area whose population...

    Communist Czechoslovakia

    After World War II, pre-war Czechoslovakia was re-established, with the exception of Subcarpathian Ruthenia, which was annexed by the Soviet Union and incorporated into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. The Beneš decrees were promulgated concerning ethnic Germans (see Potsdam Agreement) and ethnic Hungarians. Under the decrees, citizenship was abrogated for people of German and Hungarian ethnic origin who had accepted German or Hungarian citizenship during the occupations. In 1948, thi...

    After World War II, a political monopoly was held by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ). Gustáv Husák was elected first secretary of the KSČ in 1969 (changed to general secretary in 1971) and president of Czechoslovakia in 1975. Other parties and organizations existed but functioned in subordinate roles to the KSČ. All political parties, as well as numerous mass organizations, were grouped under umbrella of the National Front. Human rights activists and religious activists were severely repressed.

    Before World War II, the economy was about the fourth in all industrial countries in Europe.[citation needed][clarification needed] The state was based on strong economy, manufacturing cars (Škoda, Tatra), trams, aircraft (Aero, Avia), ships, ship engines (Škoda), canons, shoes (Baťa), turbines, guns (Zbrojovka Brno). It was the industrial workshop for the Austro-Hungarian empire. The Slovak lands relied more heavily on agriculture than the Czech lands. After World War II, the economy was centrally planned, with command links controlled by the communist party, similarly to the Soviet Union. The large metallurgical industry was dependent on imports of iron and non-ferrous ores. 1. Industry: Extractive industry and manufacturing dominated the sector, including machinery, chemicals, food processing, metallurgy, and textiles. The sector was wasteful in its use of energy, materials, and labor and was slow to upgrade technology, but the country was a major supplier of high-quality machine...

    After World War II, the country was short of energy, relying on imported crude oil and natural gas from the Soviet Union, domestic brown coal, and nuclear and hydroelectric energy. Energy constraints were a major factor in the 1980s.

    Slightly after the foundation of Czechoslovakia in 1918, there was a lack of needful infrastructure in many areas – paved roads, railways, bridges etc. Massive improvement in the following years enabled Czechoslovakia to develop its industry. Prague's civil airport in Ruzyně became one of the most modern terminals in the world when it was finished in 1937. Tomáš Baťa, Czech entrepreneur and visionary outlined his ideas in the publication "Budujme stát pro 40 milionů lidí", where he described the future motorway system. Construction of the first motorways in Czechoslovakia begun in 1939, nevertheless, they were stopped after German occupation during World War II.

    Education was free at all levels and compulsory from ages 6 to 15. The vast majority of the population was literate. There was a highly developed system of apprenticeship training and vocational schools supplemented general secondary schools and institutions of higher education.

    In 1991: Roman Catholics 46%, Evangelical Lutheran 5.3%, Atheist30%, n/a 17%, but there were huge differences in religious practices between the two constituent republics; see Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    After World War II, free health carewas available to all citizens. National health planning emphasized preventive medicine; factory and local health care centres supplemented hospitals and other inpatient institutions. There was a substantial improvement in rural health care during the 1960s and 1970s.

    During the era between the World Wars, Czechoslovak democracy and liberalism facilitated conditions for free publication. The most significant daily newspapers in these times were Lidové noviny, Národní listy, Český deník and Československá Republika. During Communist rule, the mass media in Czechoslovakia were controlled by the Communist Party. Private ownership of any publication or agency of the mass media was generally forbidden, although churches and other organizations published small periodicals and newspapers. Even with this information monopoly in the hands of organizations under KSČ control, all publications were reviewedby the government's Office for Press and Information.

  5. Perang Tanda Hubung - Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia ...

    id.wikipedia.org › wiki › Perang_Tanda_Hubung

    Perang Tanda Hubung (dalam bahasa Ceko, Pomlčková válka; dalam bahasa Slowakia, Pomlčková vojna —secara harafiah " Perang Tanda Pisah ") adalah nama yang diberikan untuk konflik mengenai penamaan geografis Cekoslowakia setelah jatuhnya pemerintahan Komunis .

  6. Czechoslovak Socialist Republic — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2

    wiki2.org › en › Czechoslovak_Socialist_Republic
    • Name
    • History
    • Geography
    • Politics
    • Economy
    • Demographics
    • Culture and Society
    • See Also
    • References

    The of­fi­cial name of the coun­try was the Czechoslo­vak So­cial­ist Republic. Con­ven­tional wis­dom sug­gested that it would be known as sim­ply the "Czechoslo­vak Re­pub­lic"—its of­fi­cial name from 1920 to 1938 and from 1945 to 1960. How­ever, Slo­vak politi­cians felt this di­min­ished Slo­va­kia's equal stature, and de­manded that the coun­try's name be spelled with a hy­phen (i.e. "Czecho-Slo­vak Re­pub­lic"), as it was spelled from Czechoslo­vak in­de­pen­dence in 1918 until 1920, and again in 1938 and 1939. Pres­i­dent Havel then changed his pro­posal to "Re­pub­lic of Czecho-Slo­va­kia"—a pro­posal that did not sit well with Czech politi­cians who saw re­minders of the 1938 Mu­nich Agree­ment, in which NaziGer­many an­nexed a part of that ter­ri­tory. The name also means "Land of the Czechs and Slo­vaks" while La­tinised from the coun­try's orig­i­nal name – "the Czechoslo­vak Nation" – upon in­de­pen­dence in 1918, from the Czech en­donym Češi – via its Pol­ishor­thog­r...

    Background

    Be­fore the Prague Of­fen­sive in 1945, Ed­vard Beneš, the Czechoslo­vak leader, agreed to So­viet leader Joseph Stalin's de­mands for un­con­di­tional agree­ment with So­viet for­eign pol­icy and the Beneš de­crees. While Beneš was not a Moscow cadre and sev­eral do­mes­tic re­forms of other East­ern Bloccoun­tries were not part of Beneš' plan, Stalin did not ob­ject be­cause the plan in­cluded prop­erty ex­pro­pri­a­tion and he was sat­is­fied with the rel­a­tive strength of com­mu­nists in...

    1960–1990

    With the ex­cep­tion of the Prague Spring in the late-1960s, Czecho­slo­va­kia was char­ac­ter­ized by the ab­sence of democ­racy and com­pet­i­tive­ness of its West­ern Eu­ro­pean coun­ter­parts as part of the Cold War. In 1969, the coun­try be­came a fed­er­a­tive re­pub­lic com­pris­ing the Czech So­cial­ist Re­pub­lic and Slo­vak So­cial­ist Re­pub­lic. Under the fed­er­a­tion, so­cial and eco­nomic in­equities be­tween the Czech and Slo­vak halves of the coun­try were largely elim­i­nate...

    The Czechoslo­vak So­cial­ist Re­pub­lic was bounded on the West by West Ger­many and East Ger­many, on the North by Poland, on the East by the So­viet Union (via the Ukrain­ian SSR) and on the South by Hun­gary and Aus­tria.

    The Com­mu­nist Party of Czecho­slo­va­kia (KSČ) led ini­tially by First Sec­re­tary Kle­ment Gottwald, held a mo­nop­oly on pol­i­tics. Fol­low­ing the 1948 Tito-Stalin split and the Berlin Block­ade, in­creased party purges oc­curred through­out the East­ern Bloc, in­clud­ing a purge of 550,000 party mem­bers of the KSČ, 30% of its members. Ap­prox­i­mately 130,000 peo­ple were sent to pris­ons, labor camps and mines. The evo­lu­tion of the re­sult­ing harsh­ness of purges in Czecho­slo­va­kia, like much of its his­tory after 1948, was a func­tion of the late takeover by the com­mu­nists, with many of the purges fo­cus­ing on the siz­able num­bers of party mem­bers with prior mem­ber­ships in other parties. The purges ac­com­pa­nied var­i­ous show tri­als, in­clud­ing those of Rudolf Slánský, Vladimír Clemen­tis, Ladislav Novomeský and Gustáv Husák (Clemen­tis was later executed). Slánský and eleven oth­ers were con­victed to­gether of being "Trot­sky­ist-zion­ist-titoist-bour­geo...

    The CSSR's econ­omy was a cen­trally planned com­mand econ­omy with links con­trolled by the com­mu­nist party, sim­i­lar to the So­viet Union. It had a large met­al­lur­gi­cal in­dus­try, but was de­pen­dent on im­ports for iron and non­fer­rous ores. Like the rest of the East­ern Bloc, pro­ducer goods were fa­vored over con­sumer goods, and as a re­sult con­sumer goods were lack­ing in quan­tity and qual­ity. This re­sulted in a short­age econ­omy. Eco­nomic growth rates lagged well be­hind Czecho­slo­va­kia's west­ern Eu­ro­pean counterparts.In­vest­ments made in in­dus­try did not yield the re­sults ex­pected, and con­sump­tion of en­ergy and raw ma­te­ri­als was ex­ces­sive. Czechoslo­vak lead­ers them­selves de­cried the econ­omy's fail­ure to mod­ern­ize with suf­fi­cient speed. 1. Industry: Extractive and manufacturing industries dominated this sector. Major branches included machinery, chemicals, food processing, metallurgy, and textiles. Industry was wasteful of energy, ma...

    Society and social groups

    Ho­mo­sex­u­al­ity was de­crim­i­nal­ized in 1962.

    Emigration

    His­tor­i­cally, em­i­gra­tion has al­ways been an op­tion for Czechs and Slo­vaks dis­sat­is­fied with the sit­u­a­tion at home. Each wave of em­i­gra­tion had its own im­pe­tus. In the 19th cen­tury, the rea­sons were pri­mar­ily eco­nomic. In the 20th cen­tury, em­i­gra­tion was largely prompted by po­lit­i­cal tur­moil, though eco­nomic fac­tors still played a role. The first major wave of em­i­gra­tion in the 20th cen­tury came after the com­mu­nists came to power, and the next wave bega...

    Religion

    Re­li­gion was op­pressed and at­tacked in com­mu­nist-era Czechoslovakia. In 1991, 46.4% were Roman Catholics, Athe­ists made up 29.5%, 5.3% were Evan­gel­i­cal Luther­ans, and 16.7% were n/a, but there were huge dif­fer­ences be­tween the 2 con­stituent re­publics – see Czech Re­pub­lic and Slo­va­kia.

    Health, social welfare and housing

    After World War II, free health care was avail­able to all cit­i­zens. Na­tional health plan­ning em­pha­sized pre­ven­tive med­i­cine; fac­tory and local health-care cen­ters sup­ple­mented hos­pi­tals and other in­pa­tient in­sti­tu­tions. Sub­stan­tial im­prove­ment in rural health care in 1960s and 1970s.

    Mass media

    The mass media in Czecho­slo­va­kia was con­trolled by the Com­mu­nist Party of Czecho­slo­va­kia (KSČ). Pri­vate own­er­ship of any pub­li­ca­tion or agency of the mass media was gen­er­ally for­bid­den, al­though churches and other or­ga­ni­za­tions pub­lished small pe­ri­od­i­cals and news­pa­pers. Even with this in­for­ma­tional mo­nop­oly in the hands of or­ga­ni­za­tions under KSČ con­trol, all pub­li­ca­tions were re­viewed by the gov­ern­ment's Of­fice for Press and Information.

    Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (2007), A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-36626-7
    Black, Cyril E.; English, Robert D.; Helmreich, Jonathan E.; McAdams, James A. (2000), Rebirth: A Political History of Europe since World War II, Westview Press, ISBN 0-8133-3664-3
    Crampton, R. J. (1997), Eastern Europe in the twentieth century and after, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-16422-2
    Dale, Gareth (2005), Popular Protest in East Germany, 1945–1989: Judgements on the Street, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-7146-5408-9
  7. First Czechoslovak Republic - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Czechoslovak_Republic_(1918

    The First Czechoslovak Republic, often colloquially referred to as the First Republic, was the first Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938. Dominated by ethnic Czechs and Slovaks, the country was commonly called Czechoslovakia, a compound of Czech and Slovak; which gradually became the most widely used name for its successor states. It was composed of former territories of Austria-Hungary, inheriting different systems of administration from the formerly Austrian and Hungarian territo

  8. Third Czechoslovak Republic - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › History_of_Czechoslovakia
    • 1945
    • 1946
    • 1947
    • 1948

    The Third Republic came into being in April 1945. Its government, installed at Košice on 4 April and moved to Prague after its liberation on 10 May, was a National Front coalition in which three socialist parties—KSČ, Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party, and Czechoslovak National Social Party—predominated. The Slovak Popular Party was banned as collaborationist with the Nazis. Other conservative yet democratic parties, such as the Republican Party of Farmers and Peasants, were prevented from resuming activities in the postwar period. Certain acceptable nonsocialist parties were included in the coalition; among them were the Catholic People's Party (in Moravia) and the Slovak Democratic Party. Employing 61.2 percent of the industrial labour force—were nationalised. 14 October 1945 saw a new provisional national assembly voted in. Beneš had compromised with the KSČ to avoid a postwar coup; he naïvely hoped that the democratic process would restore a more equitable distribution of pow...

    In the May 1946 election, the KSČ won in the Czech part of the country (40.17%), while the anti-Communist Democratic Party won in Slovakia (62%). In sum, however, the KSČ won a plurality of 38 percent of the vote at the Czechoslovak level. Beneš continued as president of the republic, and Jan Masaryk, son of the revered founding father, continued as foreign minister. Gottwald became prime minister. Most important, although the communists held only a minority of portfolios, they were able to gain control over such key ministries as information, internal trade, finance and interior (including the police apparatus). Through these ministries, the communists were able to suppress noncommunist opposition, place party members in positions of power, and create a solid basis for a takeover attempt.

    The year that followed was uneventful. The KSČ continued to proclaim its national and democratic orientation. The turning point came in the summer of 1947. In July, the Czechoslovak government, with KSČ approval, accepted an Anglo-French invitation to attend preliminary discussions of the Marshall Plan. The Soviet Union responded immediately to the Czechoslovak move to continue the Western alliance: Stalin summoned Gottwald to Moscow. Upon his return to Prague, the KSČ reversed its decision. In subsequent months, the party demonstrated a significant radicalisation of its tactics. The KSČ argued that a reactionary coup was imminent, and that immediate action was necessary to prevent it. Through media and police means, they intensified their activity. Originally announced by Gottwald at the KSČ Central Committee meeting in November 1947, news of the "reactionary plot" was disseminated throughout the country by the communist press. From June of that year, and especially after the outbr...

    In January 1948, the communist-controlled Ministry of Interior proceeded to purge the Czechoslovak security forces, substituting noncommunists with communists. Simultaneously, the KSČ began agitating for increased nationalisation and for a new land reform limiting landholdings to fifty hectares. A cabinet crisis precipitated the February coup. Backed by all non-communist parties, the National Social ministers said that the communists were using the Ministry of Interior's police and security forces to suppress non-communists, and demanded a halt to this. Prime Minister Gottwald, however, repeatedly forestalled discussion of the police issue. On 21 February, National Socialists resigned from the cabinet in protest. The Catholic People's Party and the Slovak Democratic Party followed suit. The twelve noncommunist ministers resigned, in part, to induce Beneš to call for early elections. Communist losses were anticipated owing to popular disapproval of recent KSČ tactics. A January poll...

  9. Second Czechoslovak Republic - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Czech-Slovak_Republic

    The Second Czechoslovak Republic existed for 169 days, between 30 September 1938 and 15 March 1939. It was composed of Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia and the autonomous regions of Slovakia and Subcarpathian Rus', the latter being renamed on 30 December 1938 to Carpathian Ukraine. The Second Republic was the result of the events following the Munich Agreement, where Czechoslovakia was forced to cede the German-populated Sudetenland region to Germany on 1 October 1938. After the Munich Agreement and th

  10. Czechoslovak Socialist Republic wiki | TheReaderWiki

    thereaderwiki.com › en › Czechoslovak_Socialist_Republic
    • Name
    • History
    • Geography
    • Politics
    • Economy
    • Demographics
    • Culture and Society
    • See Also

    The official name of the country was the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Conventional wisdom suggested that it would be known as simply the "Czechoslovak Republic"—its official name from 1920 to 1938 and from 1945 to 1960. However, Slovak politicians felt this diminished Slovakia's equal stature, and demanded that the country's name be spelled with a hyphen (i.e. "Czecho-Slovak Republic"), as it was spelled from Czechoslovak independence in 1918 until 1920, and again in 1938 and 1939. President Havel then changed his proposal to "Republic of Czecho-Slovakia"—a proposal that did not sit well with Czech politicians who saw reminders of the 1938 Munich Agreement, in which NaziGermany annexed a part of that territory. The name also means "Land of the Czechs and Slovaks" while Latinised from the country's original name – "the Czechoslovak Nation" – upon independence in 1918, from the Czech endonym Češi – via its Polishorthography The name "Czech" derives from the Czech endonym Češi via...

    Background

    Before the Prague Offensive in 1945, Edvard Beneš, the Czechoslovak leader, agreed to Soviet leader Joseph Stalin's demands for unconditional agreement with Soviet foreign policy and the Beneš decrees. While Beneš was not a Moscow cadre and several domestic reforms of other Eastern Bloccountries were not part of Beneš' plan, Stalin did not object because the plan included property expropriation and he was satisfied with the relative strength of communists in Czechoslovakia compared to other E...

    1960–1990

    With the exception of the Prague Spring in the late-1960s, Czechoslovakia was characterized by the absence of democracy and competitiveness of its Western European counterparts as part of the Cold War. In 1969, the country became a federative republic comprising the Czech Socialist Republic and Slovak Socialist Republic. Under the federation, social and economic inequities between the Czech and Slovak halves of the country were largely eliminated. A number of ministries, such as Education, we...

    The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was bounded on the West by West Germany and East Germany, on the North by Poland, on the East by the Soviet Union (via the Ukrainian SSR) and on the South by Hungary and Austria.

    The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) led initially by First Secretary Klement Gottwald, held a monopoly on politics. Following the 1948 Tito-Stalin split and the Berlin Blockade, increased party purges occurred throughout the Eastern Bloc, including a purge of 550,000 party members of the KSČ, 30% of its members. Approximately 130,000 people were sent to prisons, labor camps and mines. The evolution of the resulting harshness of purges in Czechoslovakia, like much of its history after 1948, was a function of the late takeover by the communists, with many of the purges focusing on the sizable numbers of party members with prior memberships in other parties. The purges accompanied various show trials, including those of Rudolf Slánský, Vladimír Clementis, Ladislav Novomeský and Gustáv Husák (Clementis was later executed). Slánský and eleven others were convicted together of being "Trotskyist-zionist-titoist-bourgeois-nationalist traitors" in one series of show trials, after whi...

    The CSSR's economy was a centrally planned command economy with links controlled by the communist party, similar to the Soviet Union. It had a large metallurgical industry, but was dependent on imports for iron and nonferrous ores. Like the rest of the Eastern Bloc, producer goods were favored over consumer goods, and as a result consumer goods were lacking in quantity and quality. This resulted in a shortage economy. Economic growth rates lagged well behind Czechoslovakia's western European counterparts.Investments made in industry did not yield the results expected, and consumption of energy and raw materials was excessive. Czechoslovak leaders themselves decried the economy's failure to modernize with sufficient speed. 1. Industry: Extractive and manufacturing industries dominated this sector. Major branches included machinery, chemicals, food processing, metallurgy, and textiles. Industry was wasteful of energy, materials, and labor and slow to upgrade technology, but was a sour...

    Society and social groups

    Homosexuality was decriminalized in 1962.

    Emigration

    Historically, emigration has always been an option for Czechs and Slovaks dissatisfied with the situation at home. Each wave of emigration had its own impetus. In the 19th century, the reasons were primarily economic. In the 20th century, emigration was largely prompted by political turmoil, though economic factors still played a role. The first major wave of emigration in the 20th century came after the communists came to power, and the next wave began after the Prague Springwas suppressed....

    Religion

    Religion was oppressed and attacked in communist-era Czechoslovakia. In 1991, 46.4% were Roman Catholics, Atheists made up 29.5%, 5.3% were Evangelical Lutherans, and 16.7% were n/a, but there were huge differences between the 2 constituent republics – see Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    Health, social welfare and housing

    After World War II, free health care was available to all citizens. National health planning emphasized preventive medicine; factory and local health-care centers supplemented hospitals and other inpatient institutions. Substantial improvement in rural health care in 1960s and 1970s.

    Mass media

    The mass media in Czechoslovakia was controlled by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ). Private ownership of any publication or agency of the mass media was generally forbidden, although churches and other organizations published small periodicals and newspapers. Even with this informational monopoly in the hands of organizations under KSČ control, all publications were reviewed by the government's Office for Press and Information.

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