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  1. Jul 01, 2020 · Quantum fluctuations can “kick” objects on the human scale, a new study reports. MIT physicists have observed that LIGO’s 40-kilogram mirrors can move in response to tiny quantum effects.

  2. Jiggle definition, to move up and down or to and fro with short, quick jerks. See more.

    • Observation
    • Question
    • Hypothesis
    • Prediction
    • Experiment
    • Analysis
    • Some Examples
    • Past Events Cannot Be Tested!!
    • Some Personal Observations

    The scientific method, then, is founded upon direct observation of the world around us. A scientist looks critically and attempts to avoid all sources of bias in this observation. But more than looking, a scientist measuresto quantify the observations; this helps in avoiding bias. Which of these lines is longer? In fact, neither is longer if you measure them, though human bias might generate belief that one is longer than the other. The arrowheads on the lines"trick" the human integrating system, so an accurate ruler is required to avoid bias. The system of measurements used in this observation part of the scientific method is the metric system. Now many people in the US get all upset when this system is mentioned as a replacement for the English system currently in common use. But I am here to tell you that there are two important reasons to use the metric system. So, once you know what a meter is and learn the prefixes, you can measure from here to wherever quite easily and precis...

    The second step in the scientific method is to formulate a question. Scientists have to be curious. Humans are naturally curious, visit with a three-year-old sometime and you will see what I mean. Unfortunately parents and school teachers get tired of answering questions (we all need patience and want it right now!) and so the natural curiosity of children it kicked right out of them. In some schools, for example, the children are forced to sit quietly in neat rows of desks with their idle hands folded neatly on the desktop. While this might be some form of discipline and important lessons in conformity are needed, this style of classroom is antithetical to science. An effective science classroom is filled with hands-on activity and lots of questions. It involves a productive noise! In this course, please let go of your cultured inhibitions somewhat. Be curious, ask questions! There is one truly foolish question...the one you internalize and never answer! The uninvestigated question...

    The next part of our scientific method is to form a hypothesis. This is merely an educated guess as to the answer for the question. You examine the literature on the subject; scientists need libraries, reading is critical to scientific performance! You gather as much book knowledge as you can on the subject to begin to arrive at an answer to your question. This tentative answer...this best educated guess...is your hypothesis. Please notice that hypotheses do not always have to be correct. In fact most of science is spent trying to determine the validity of a hypothesis, yet this effort is NOT likely to give a single perfect answer. So, in formulating your hypothesis, you should not worry too much that you have come up with the best or the only possible hypothesis. The rest of the scientific method will test your hypothesis. What will be important is your decision at the end of the method. The one aspect of your hypothesis is important, though. It really must be rejectable. There mus...

    The prediction is a formal way to put a hypothesis to a test. If you have carefully designed your hypothesis to be sure it is falsifiable, then you know precisely what to predict. The prediction has three parts: 1. If my hypothesis is true... 2. Then _____ should happen 3. When _____ is manipulated 1. If Ross Koning is sleeping... 2. Then his breathing will remain slow and even 3. When I brush his cheek with a feather This part of the scientific method is the key to testing the hypothesis. If this prediction holds then you will not be able to reject your hypothesis. If this prediction does not hold, then you will reject your hypothesis. Rejecting the hypothesis is usually the desired outcome as we shall see...

    This is the actual hands-on part of the project. Here you carry out your manipulation and compare the results with results from a control setting. Our sample project gets tough here. We can find Ross sleeping daily and we can try the feather trick on several occasions when we are sure he is sleeping (how do we know? that's the point of the project, no?). We can stroke him when we know he is awake (there ARE symptoms for that!). We can measure ventilation (inspiration + expiration) rates easily. We can compare those results with what we observe during the actual test. We really have to know how deeply Ross does sleep, however. Some people will waken even with the slightest touch...others sleep through alarms, smoke detector alarms, thunderstorms, and ignore the touches of their significant-other. We have to know what Ross' sensitivities are before we proceed. We might need to change our feather for a pine cone or maybe a wood rasp! We cannot go on to a decision with just one observat...

    How dowe compare the results? As good scientists we will try to repeat (replicate) or experimental treatments several times to avoid chance error. But once we repeat, we may get a mixture of"positive" results and"negative" results. How will we know which results are typical or correct? There are many sources for error. Ross might not be paying attention but nevertheless is awake. We might have touched him so lightly that he would not respond even if awake. Certain parts of the body are more sensitive to touch than others. A sleeping Ross might awaken for other reasons just at the time we touch him. So there are chances for false positive results and false negative results. Statistical analysis is designed to help us answer our question by assessing results to minimize false positives and false negatives. I won't go here into lots of details about hypothesis testing with statistics, but I will say that all statistics can do is provide you with a measure of how probable your answer is...

    Here I give you a sketchy outline of several cycles through the scientific method in an attempt to arrive at the truth in an everyday situation. The situation is this: You arrive home late at night, walk up to your house door, unlock the door, reach in to the light switch just inside the front door. The light does not come on! Now what? As a normal human being, you will go through a mental and physical process of hypothesis testing. The steps happen very rapidly in your mind and, prior to this, you may not have had names for the various steps. Nevertheless, I hope you will recognize what your brain is doing as you stand there in the darkness. You are already a scientist as you will see, you just didn't know it! Observation:Night, Come Home, Switch On, No Light....we are"IN THE DARK" Question:Power Out? Hypothesis:Power IS out! Prediction:If power is out, then light is out at all neighbors, when I look Experiment: Manipulation: switch on, no light. Control?=neighbor's lights, street...

    Hypothesis: Genie of the lamp was originally displeased with us... after all the cord stroking, bulb changing, switch fiddling, Genie is now happy with us so it lights? Hypothesis: Genie of lamp not listening for requests (Genie asleep or, worse, dead) (Thank goodness we did that CPR) We cannot test these last hypotheses because Genies cannot be manipulated scientifically. Worse, whatever happened to cause the initial failure, occurred in the past and we cannot go back in time to run tests. So we cannot eliminate the Genie in the Lamp ideas. But the evidence leads us to the ultimate theory: The Bulb Was Loose In the Socket! A theoryin science is an idea that has been tested thoroughly, and despite extensive testing, cannot be rejected. It is as close to the truth as we can get while still admitting that we cannot eliminate the rest of the possible hypotheses (Genies and such). EVOLUTION is a theory exactly like this. It is an event that happened in the past, so we cannot know for ce...

    Creation must have occurred because life was not always here. The sequence of dominant forms of life on planet Earth matches the list in Genesis. This logic leads to the idea that the people who wrote Genesis were quite inspired for people lacking knowledge of fossils, the big bang, and other scientific findings that lend credibility to the story found there. Science is merely saying creation was not sudden and is still on-going. Science does not deny existence of God...God just cannot be tested scientifically. Scientists are commonly very religious. The RELIGION vs SCIENCE controversy is a creature of the media and ignorant people. ...this is an apples/oranges scenario. SCIENCE in the ECSU GER seeks to eliminate ignorance...It is the acquisition of truth! Scientific truth rests in objective criteria...religious truth rests in subjective criteria. This page © Ross E. Koning 1994. The MLA citation style for this page would be: Koning, Ross E."The Scientific Method". Plant Physiology...

  3. The six steps of the scientific method include: 1) asking a question about something you observe, 2) doing background research to learn what is already known about the topic, 3) constructing a hypothesis, 4) experimenting to test the hypothesis, 5) analyzing the data from the experiment and drawing conclusions, and 6) communicating the results ...

  4. Jun 09, 2021 · When conducting an experiment, a control is an element that remains unchanged or unaffected by other variables. It is used as a benchmark or a point of comparison against which other test results are measured. Controls are typically used in science experiments, business research, cosmetic testing and medication testings.

  5. direction, and point and plane of application over time. Figure 4.18 shows the dynamic forces of the truck moving over the bridge and the wind on the bridge. Think about a bookcase. Its static load consists of the materials that the bookcase is made from. Gravity acts on these materials whether there are books in the bookcase or not. All

    • The Research Question
    • The Hypothesis
    • The Procedure
    • The Results
    • The Conclusion

    Your research question is what you hope to figure out. It is your "what if" question. You should be able to write the research question in a simple sentence. For example, "What happens to seeds if they are kept at different temperatures before they are planted?"

    The hypothesis is what you expect to happen in your experiment. For the research question about seeds (above), the hypothesis might be, "higher temperatures will make seeds sprout faster."

    The procedure is the plan for how you will conduct your experiment. Here are some things to think about: 1. An experiment can only have one variable. That is, you can change only one condition in each experiment. For example, with the seed experiment, the variable is the temperature at which the seeds are kept before you plant them. Keep each group of seeds at that temperature for the same amount of time. Also make sure that all the seeds get the same amount of light and water after you plant them. 2. How long will your experiment take? If you only have a few weeks to do your experiment, decide on a procedure that you can carry out in that time. 3. Consider your "sample size." How many seeds will you test at each temperature? Allow a big enough sample so that you can have a few duds in each group. Once you decide on a procedure, write it down step by step. That way, you can prove what you did and can follow the same procedure if you need to repeat the experiment.

    Results are the data, or information, that you collected. Your data should be in numbers. For example, let's say that some of your plants grew 1 centimeter the first week. Don't just write that the plants "look bigger"; write down exactly how much they grew.

    The conclusion is what you learned from doing the experiment. You might also think of the conclusion as a summary. In just a few sentences, your conclusion explains what happened in your experiment and whether it supported your hypothesis. What if your results do not support your hypothesis? That is perfectly fine. You're not out to "prove" your hypothesis but to test it. Think along the lines of "here's what I thought was going to happen, and here's what actually happened." Then go on to explain why you think things happened the way they did.

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