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  1. 1 Introduction. The goal of metaphysics of science is to understand the world, its structure and fundamental ontological categories by studying the concepts, theories and explanations of science. The place of chemistry in the metaphysics of science may be viewed as peripheral compared to physics, which tells us about the fundamental behaviour ...

    • Acid Definition and Examples
    • Amphoteric Species
    • Strong and Weak Acids
    • Monoprotic vs Polyprotic
    • Superacids
    • Properties of Acids
    • References

    There are three ways of defining an acid, based on the three main acid-basetheories. Some chemicals are acids under one definition, but not another. 1. Arrhenius acid: An Arrhenius acid increases the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration of an aqueous solution. Since hydrogen ions attach to water molecules, what this really means is an Arrhenius acid inc...

    An amphoteric compoundacts as either an acid or a base, depending on the situation. Examples include water, amino acids, and metal oxides. For example, water donates a proton when it reacts with a base, but accepts a proton when it reacts with water.

    The two broad categories of acids are strong acids and weak acids. 1. Strong acids completely dissociate into their ions in water (or other solvent, for Brønsted-Lowry acids). Examples include hydrochloric acid (HCl) and nitric acid (HNO3). There are only seven common strong acids. 2. Weak acids incompletely dissociate into their ions in a solvent,...

    A monoprotic or monobasic acidonly donates one proton per molecule. An example is hydrochloric acid (HCl). HA (aq) + H2O (l) ⇌ H3O+ (aq) + A−(aq) A polyprotic or polybasic acid can donate more than one proton per acid molecule. There are diprotic (dibasic) acid and triprotic (tribasic acids). For example, sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is a diprotic acid th...

    A superacid is any acid that is stronger than sulfuric acid. The strongest acid is fluoroantimonic acid (HSbF6). It donates protons about a billiontimes better than sulfuric acid.

    Acids display several characteristic properties: 1. Most taste sour. (Don’t test this.) 2. Most are corrosive. 3. They have pH values less than 7. 4. Acids turn litmus paperred. 5. In water, Arrhenius acids are electrolytes. In other words, they conduct electricity in aqueous solution. 6. Arrhenius acids react with bases to form salt and water. 7. ...

    Finston, H.L.; Rychtman, A.C. (1983). A New View of Current Acid-Base Theories. New York: John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/ciuz.19830170211
    Hall, Norris F. (March 1940). “Systems of Acids and Bases”. Journal of Chemical Education. 17 (3): 124–128. doi:10.1021/ed017p124
    IUPAC (1997). “Acid.” Compendium of Chemical Terminology (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. doi:10.1351/goldbook
    Jensen, W.B. (1980). The Lewis Acid-Base Concepts: An Overview. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-03902-0.
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  3. A base is a substance that forms hydroxide ions OH - when dissolved in water. For example, hydrochloric acid ( HCl HCl) is an acid because it forms H+ H + when it dissolves in water. HCl(g) Water H+(aq) +Cl−(aq) H C l ( g) Water H + ( a q) + C l − ( a q) Similarly, NaOH is a base because it forms OH - when it dissolves in water.

    • The Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases. In 1884, the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius proposed two specific classifications of compounds; acids and bases.
    • Free Hydrogen Ions do not Exist in Water. Owing to the overwhelming excess of \\(H_2O\\) molecules in aqueous solutions, a bare hydrogen ion has no chance of surviving in water.
    • The Brønsted-Lowry Definition. In 1923, chemists Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry independently developed definitions of acids and bases based on the compounds' abilties to either donate or accept protons (H ions).
    • The Brønsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases. A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a proton (hydrogen ion) donor. A Brønsted-Lowry base is a proton (hydrogen ion) acceptor.
  4. An Arrhenius base is any species that increases the concentration of OH −. ‍. in aqueous solution. In aqueous solution, H +. ‍. ions immediately react with water molecules to form hydronium ions, H 3 O +. ‍. . In an acid-base or neutralization reaction, an Arrhenius acid and base usually react to form water and a salt.

  5. acid, any substance that in water solution tastes sour, changes the colour of certain indicators (e.g., reddens blue litmus paper), reacts with some metals (e.g., iron) to liberate hydrogen, reacts with bases to form salts, and promotes certain chemical reactions (acid catalysis). Examples of acids include the inorganic substances known as the ...

  6. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › MetaphysicsMetaphysics - Wikipedia

    Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that examines the fundamental structure of reality. It is traditionally seen as the study of mind-independent features of reality but some modern theorists understand it as an inquiry into the conceptual schemes that underlie human thought and experience. Many general and abstract topics belong to the ...

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