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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › QuantumQuantum - Wikipedia

    In physics, a quantum (plural quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.The fundamental notion that a physical property can be "quantized" is referred to as "the hypothesis of quantization".

    • Quantization

      While quantization was first discovered in electromagnetic...

  2. Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory in physics that provides a description of the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles.: 1.1 It is the foundation of all quantum physics including quantum chemistry, quantum field theory, quantum technology, and quantum information science.

    • Waves and Photons
    • Quantization
    • History
    • Beyond Planck
    • Beyond Heisenberg
    • Further Mysteries
    • Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
    • Uses of Quantum Mechanics
    • Why Quantum Mechanics Is Hard to Learn
    • Reduced Planck's Constant

    Photons are particles that are point-sized, smaller than atoms. Photons are like "packets" or packages of energy. Light sources such as candles or lasers produce light in bits called photons. The more photons a lamp produces, the brighter the light. Light is a form of energy that behaves like the waves in water or radio waves. The distance between the top of one wave and the top of the next wave is called a 'wavelength'. Each photon carries a certain amount, or 'quantum', of energy depending on its wavelength. A light's color depends on its wavelength. The color violet (the bottom or innermost color of the rainbow) has a wavelength of about 400 nm ("nanometers") which is 0.00004 centimeters or 0.000016 inches. Photons with wavelengths of 10-400 nm are called ultraviolet (or UV) light. Such light cannot be seen by the human eye. On the other end of the spectrum, red light is about 700 nm. Infraredlight is about 700 nm to 300,000 nm. Human eyes are not sensitive to infrared light eith...

    Max Planck discovered the relationship between frequency and energy. Nobody before had ever guessed that frequency is directly proportional to energy (this means that as one of them doubles, the other does, too). Under what are called natural units, then the number representing the frequency of a photon would also represent its energy. The equationwould then be: 1. E = f {\\displaystyle E=f} meaning energy equals frequency. But the way physics grew, there was no natural connection between the units that were used to measure energy and the units commonly used to measure time (and therefore frequency). So the formula that Planck worked out to make the numbers all come out right was: 1. E = h × f {\\displaystyle E=h\\times f} or, energy equals h times frequency. This h is a number called Planck's constantafter its discoverer. Quantum mechanics is based on the knowledge that a photon of a certain frequency means a photon of a certain amount of energy. Besides that relationship, a specific...

    Isaac Newton thought that light was made of very small things that we would now call particles (he referred to them as "Corpuscles"). Christiaan Huygens thought that light was made of waves. Scientists thought that a thing cannot be a particle and a wave at the same time. Scientists did experiments to find out whether light was made of particles or waves. They found out that both ideas were right — light was somehow both waves and particles. The Double-slit experiment performed by Thomas Young showed that light must act like a wave. The Photoelectric effect discovered by Albert Einstein proved that light had to act like particles that carried specific amounts of energy, and that the energies were linked to their frequencies. This experimental result is called the "wave-particle duality" in quantum mechanics. Later, physicists found out that everything behaves both like a wave and like a particle, not just light. However, this effect is much smaller in large objects. Here are some of...

    Quantum mechanics formulae and ideas were made to explain the light that comes from glowing hydrogen. The quantum theory of the atom also had to explain why the electron stays in its orbit, which other ideas were not able to explain. It followed from the older ideas that the electron would have to fall in to the center of the atom because it starts out being kept in orbit by its own energy, but it would quickly lose its energy as it revolves in its orbit. (This is because electrons and other charged particles were known to emit light and lose energy when they changed speed or turned.) Hydrogen lamps work like neon lights, but neon lights have their own unique group of colors (and frequencies) of light. Scientists learned that they could identify all elements by the light colors they produce. They just could not figure out how the frequencies were determined. Then, a Swiss mathematician named Johann Balmer figured out an equation that told what λ (lambda, for wave length) would be: 1...

    The work of Werner Heisenberg seemed to break a log jam. Very soon, many different other ways of explaining things came from people such as Louis de Broglie, Max Born, Paul Dirac, Wolfgang Pauli, and Erwin Schrödinger. The work of each of these physicistsis its own story. The math used by Heisenberg and earlier people is not very hard to understand, but the equations quickly grew very complicated as physicists looked more deeply into the atomic world.

    In the early days of quantum mechanics, Albert Einstein suggested that if it were right then quantum mechanics would mean that there would be "spooky action at a distance." It turned out that quantum mechanics was right, and that what Einstein had used as a reason to reject quantum mechanics actually happened. This kind of "spooky connection" between certain quantum events is now called "quantum entanglement". When an experiment brings two things (photons, electrons, etc.) together, they must then share a common description in quantum mechanics. When they are later separated, they keep the same quantum mechanical description or "state." In the diagram, one characteristic (e.g., "up" spin) is drawn in red, and its mate (e.g., "down" spin) is drawn in blue. The purple band means that when, e.g., two electrons are put together the pair shares both characteristics. So both electrons could show either up spin or down spin. When they are later separated, one remaining on Earth and one goi...

    In 1925, Werner Heisenberg described the Uncertainty principle, which says that the more we know about where a particle is, the less we can know about how fast it is going and in which direction. In other words, the more we know about the speed and direction of something small, the less we can know about its position. Physicists usually talk about the momentum in such discussions instead of talking about speed. Momentum is just the speed of something in a certain direction times its mass. The reason behind Heisenberg's uncertainty principlesays that we can never know both the location and the momentum of a particle. Because light is an abundant particle, it is used for measuring other particles. The only way to measure it is to bounce the light wave off of the particle and record the results. If a high energy, or high frequency, light beam is used, we can tell precisely where it is, but cannot tell how fast it was going. This is because the high energy photon transfers energy to the...

    Electrons surround every atom's nucleus. Chemical bonds link atoms to form molecules. A chemical bond links two atoms when electrons are shared between those atoms. Thus quantum mechanics is the physics of the chemical bond and of chemistry. Quantum mechanics helps us understand how moleculesare made, and what their properties are. quantum mechanics can also help us understand big things, such as stars and even the whole universe. Quantum mechanics is a very important part of the theory of how the universe began called the Big Bang. Everything made of matter is attracted to other matter because of a fundamental force called gravity. Einstein's theory that explains gravity is called the theory of general relativity. A problem in modern physics is that some conclusions of quantum mechanics do not seem to agreewith the theory of general relativity. quantum mechanics is the part of physics that can explain why all electronic technology works as it does. Thus quantum mechanics explains h...

    quantum mechanics is a challengingsubject for several reasons: 1. quantum mechanics explains things in very different ways from what we learn about the world when we are children. 2. Understanding quantum mechanics requires more mathematics than algebra and simple calculus. It also requires matrix algebra, complex numbers, probability theory, and partial differential equations. 3. Physicists are not sure what some of the equations of quantum mechanics tell us about the real world. 4. quantum mechanics suggests that atoms and subatomic particles behave in strange ways, completely unlike anything we see in our everyday lives. 5. quantum mechanics describes things that are extremely small, so we cannot see some of them without special equipment, and we cannot see many of them at all. quantum mechanics describes nature in a way that is different from how we usually think about science. It tells us how likelyto happen some things are, rather than telling us that they certainly will happe...

    People often use the symbol ℏ {\\displaystyle \\hbar } , which is called "h-bar." ℏ = h 2 π {\\displaystyle \\hbar ={\\frac {h}{2\\pi }}} . H-bar is a unit of angular momentum. When this new unit is used to describe the orbitsof electrons in atoms, the angular momentum of any electron in orbit is always a whole number.

  3. Quantum field theory, an area of quantum mechanics that includes: Quantum electrodynamics. Quantum chromodynamics. Electroweak interaction. Quantum gravity, a field of theoretical physics. Quantum optics. Quantum chemistry. Quantum information. Quantum Theory: Concepts and Methods, a 1993 book by Asher Peres.

  4. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › PhysicsPhysics - Wikipedia

    Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior through space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves.

  5. Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon that occurs when a group of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in a way such that the quantum state of each particle of the group cannot be described independently of the state of the others, including when the particles are separated by a large distance.

  6. Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics.It states that, much like waves in classical physics, any two (or more) quantum states can be added together ("superposed") and the result will be another valid quantum state; and conversely, that every quantum state can be represented as a sum of two or more other distinct states.

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