- A unitary system is a form of government in which authority is concentrated in the central government. Local governments, such as those of regions or cities, are under the control of that central authority.
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4 days ago · The International System of Units ( SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system. It is the only system of measurement with an official status in nearly every country in the world.
- Written and Unwritten Constitutions
- Presidential and Parliamentary Constitution
- Republican and Monarchical Constitution
- Democratic Constitution
- Unitary and Federal Constitutions
- Flexible and Rigid Constitution
An unwritten constitution is not contained in a single document and can exist partly in word and partly in writing. Such a constitution grows from years of experience and the political behaviour of people. The best example of this is the British constitution. It does not exist in one document but can be found in judicial decisions, conventions, and statutes. On the other hand, a written constitution is among the three main types of constitutions and is contained in a single document and can be easily consulted on pretty much every issue contained therein. Typically, this type of law is rigid but can still be amended when necessary.
A presidential constitution is one in which all the executive powers are vested in the country’s president, who serves as the head of government and the head of state. The president then has the liberty to exercise his powers directly or through his deputy president, cabinet secretaries, or other officers. A parliamentary constitution is one in which the executive powers are vested in a prime minister who is the head of government and the head of the majority party. However, he is not the head of state.
A republican constitution provides for the position of a head of state, typically elected by the people for a fixed term in office. In most cases, the head of state is known as the president. On the other hand, a monarchical one provides for a government led by an emperor, king, or queen. The head of government in a monarchy is usually succeeded by his or her child, and this goes on from generation to generation. There are different types of constitutions under the monarchical setup. 1. Absolute monarch: This is one in which the monarch has absolute powers of governance. Historical examples include Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, Czar Nicholas II of Russia, and the former Shah of Iran, Reza Palavi. 2. Constitutional monarch: The monarch is a somewhat ceremonial head of state and a symbol of the nation.
The word democracy is derived from two Greek words, ‘demos’ and ‘kratia.’ The former means people while the latter means government or rule. Democracy, therefore, loosely translates to the people’s rule. The democratic constitution provides for the people’s participation in government either directly or through elected representatives. Conventionally, a democratic government should reflect the people’s generality and must be created and installed by the people.
A unitary constitution provides for government power to be vested in a single central government. This central body does not share its power but can delegate it to subordinate bodies such as local and regional governments. On the other hand, a federal one provides for an association of states in which power is shared. Unlike the unitary system, the country’s power is shared among local, state, and federal bodies. Each body exercises its assigned functions and powers.
A flexible constitution is one that can be easily changed or amended without the need for a cumbersome process. The laws contained in it can be amended as simply as one would amend a statute, with a simple majority vote in parliament. On the other hand, a rigid constitution has elaborate, and at times cumbersome, procedures that govern any amendments. Such procedures often involve a two-thirds vote in parliament, popular vote by the people or ratification through a referendum.
- What Is A Unitary Thrift?
- Understanding Unitary Thrift
- Savings and Loan Ownership Structures
- Regulatory History of Unitary Thrifts
- Special Considerations
A unitary thrift is a chartered holding company that controls a single thriftentity. Historically unitary thrifts could engage in a broader range of activities than bank holding companies, however, they have come under increasing restrictions since the 2008 financial crisis.
Unitary thrifts, also known as savings and loan holding companies, or SLHCs, are a type of holding company that mainly holds assets in thrift investments. Thrift institutions, also known as savings and loan associations, offer a narrower range of products than other financial institutions. Unitary thrifts focus on customer and community service typically means they deal with traditional basic banking products, such as savings and checking accounts, home loans, personal loans, automobile loans, and credit cards.
Unitary thrifts represent one of the two ownership models for savings and loan companies. Under a mutual ownership structure, depositors and borrowers receive part ownership of the savings and loans when they engage in business with the company.
Because thrifts tended to serve customer needs rather than investor desires, they initially operated under less regulatory oversight, and prior regulatory regimes allowed unitary thrifts to open branchesanywhere in the United States. Unlike major banks, unitary thrifts could allocate up to 20% of their assets to commercial loansas long as they continued to hold at least 65% of their assets in qualified thrift investments, such as residential mortgages or mortgage-backed securities. In the 1980s the savings and loan industry underwent a crisis after thrifts engaged in risky financial activities in an attempt to cover losses caused by depositors who moved their cash from thrifts to money market funds as interest rates boomed in the late 1970s. By 1989, much of the industry had collapsed after failed thrifts caused the insolvency of the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation, or FSLIC, which insured deposits. The Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999, also known as the G...
The passage of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in 2010 eliminated the OTS, which suffered from implications of wrongdoing in the collapse of IndyMac and the failure of AIG during the 2008 financial crisis. Dodd-Frank passed supervision of legacy unitary thrifts to the Federal Reserve Board.
Sep 13, 2021 · A Type I Technician primarily works on small appliances such as domestic refrigerators, window air conditioners, PTACs and vending machines (a small appliance is defined by the EPA as a unitary system that contains less than five pounds of refrigerant charge). The passing score on this HVAC certification practice exams is 80%.
2 days ago · Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by the rejection of political plurality, the use of a strong central power to preserve the political status quo, and reductions in the rule of law, separation of powers, and democratic voting. Political scientists have created many typologies describing variations of authoritarian forms of ...