- Wikipedia is a free, open content online encyclopedia created through the collaborative effort of a community of users known as Wikipedians. Anyone registered on the site can create an article for publication; registration is not required to edit articles.
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Wikipedia is a free, open content online encyclopedia created through the collaborative effort of a community of users known as Wikipedians . Anyone registered on the ...
A wiki (/ ˈ w ɪ k i / WIK-ee) is a hypertext publication collaboratively edited and managed by its own audience directly using a web browser.A typical wiki contains multiple pages for the subjects or scope of the project and could be either open to the public or limited to use within an organization for maintaining its internal knowledge base.
A definition is a statement of the meaning of a term (a word, phrase, or other set of symbols). Definitions can be classified into two large categories, intensional definitions (which try to give the sense of a term) and extensional definitions (which try to list the objects that a term describes).
Wikipedia, free Internet-based encyclopedia, started in 2001, that operates under an open-source management style. It is overseen by the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation and is one of the most-visited sites on the Internet. It uses a collaborative software known as wiki for editing articles.
jazzing up wikipedia: 'it sounds like this is the beginning of a wikipedia journey in kansas city' Incidentally, Wikipedia had earlier faced flak for removing the pages of Bakhtawar and Asifa Bhutto-Zardari, claiming that 'notability cannot be inherited'.
1. wikipedia(when used as a common noun)
Blend of wiki + encyclopedia, coined by Larry Sangerin 2001.
1. (UK) IPA(key): /ˌwɪkɪˈpiːdɪə/ 2. (US) enPR: wĭ'kēpēʹdēə, wĭ'kəpēʹdēə, IPA(key): /ˌwɪkiˈpiːdi.ə/, /ˌwɪkəˈpiːdi.ə/ 3. Rhymes: -iːdiə
Borrowed from English Wikipedia.
Wikipedia (genitive Wikipedias) 1. Wikipedia
Wikipedia c (singular definite Wikipediaen, plural indefinite Wikipediaer) 1. Wikipedia(a version of the encyclopedia project)
Borrowed from English Wikipedia, blend of Hawaiian wiki + English encyclopedia. Surface analysis: Hawaiian wiki (“speedy”) + Italian -pedia (“-pedia”).
1. (standard) IPA(key): /wi.kiˈpe.dia/ 2. (alternative pronunciations) IPA(key): /vi.kiˈpe.dia/, /wi.kiˈpi.dia/, /vi.kiˈpi.dia/ 3. Hyphenation: wi‧ki‧pé‧dia
Wikipedia f 1. Wikipedia 1.1. la Wikipedia in lingua italiana/inglese/spagnola ― the Wikipediain Italian/English/Spanish language
Wikipedia 1. Rōmaji transcription of ウィキペディア
From English Wikipedia.
1. IPA(key): /vʲi.kʲiˈpɛd.ja/
Wikipedia f 1. (Internet) Wikipedia
Various definitions of 'economics' have been proposed, including the definition of 'economics' as "what economists do".  The earlier term for ' economics ' was political 'economy '.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, as opposed to the natural intelligence displayed by humans or animals. Leading AI textbooks define the field as the study of " intelligent agents ": any system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of achieving its goals.
- Eumc Publication
- IHRA Publication
- Response to Criticism
- Competing Definitions of Antisemitism
- See Also
- Further Reading
- External Links
European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
The Commission on Racism and Xenophobia (CRX) (also known as the Kahn Commission) was established in 1994. The CRX was transformed into the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia(EUMC) by Council Regulation (EC) No 1035/97 of 2 June 1997 and commenced in June 1998. Its mandate was to monitor different forms of racism and xenophobia. In 2002, it published a large-scale monitoring report on Islamophobia since 9/11, including a total of 75 reports, 15 from each member state and a sy...
2004 Stern, Porat and Bauer version
Israeli scholar Dina Porat, then head of the Stephen Roth Institute at Tel Aviv University, proposed the idea for a common definition during an NGO conference organized by the American Jewish Committee (AJC). Kenneth S. Stern of the AJC, a human rights lawyer, was critical of the EUMC's original definition, as it was confusing about when attacks on Jews related to the Israel/Palestine conflict could be considered antisemitic, and required investigators to know the intentions of attackers.Mean...
At the suggestion of the AJC, the EUMC director organized a meeting of Jewish representatives to discuss the new definition of antisemitism which had been drafted by Stern; the consultation involved representatives of the AJC and European Jewish Congress, the EUMC director and head of research, and the ODIHR Tolerance and Non-Discrimination program director and antisemitism expert. The outcome was negotiated between Andrew Baker, Stern's colleague at the AJC, and Beate Winkler, director of th...
Use of the EUMC definition
In 2008, the European Forum on Antisemitism commissioned translations of the Working Definition into each of the 33 languages used by the OSCE states. In 2010, Stern wrote that "In the last five years, the definition has been increasingly used, because it is provides a workable, non-ideological approach to task of identifying antisemitism."The definition was used by monitoring agencies and law enforcement officials in some European countries. According to Stern, by 2010, the definition had Fo...
The EUMC never granted any official status to the definition. In 2007, the EU replaced the EUMC with the Fundamental Rights Agency(FRA), with a broader remit than racism and antisemitism. It has continued to deliver annual reports of antisemitic incidents in the EU countries, based on data from its national contact points. Richard Kuper reported that the FRA told him around 2011 that: "Since its development we are not aware of any public authority in the EU that applies it [and the] FRA has n...
On 26 May 2016, IHRA adopted a non-legally binding working definition of antisemitism. The IHRA adoption took place following the efforts of Mark Weitzman of the Simon Wiesenthal Center, at the Bucharestplenary meeting of the IHRA on 30 May 2016, where its 31 member countries voted to adopt it. Mark Weitzman later told a workshop that the definition was copied from the EUMC version as there was "not enough time to invent a new one".The decision to adopt the text was based on consensus among IHRA's 31 member countries. IHRA's 38-word basic "working definition"of antisemitism reads: In the press release announcing the adoption of the definition, along with the definition itself, were listed the same eleven examples that featured in the EUMC definition, which the IRHA stated would be used to guide it in its work. After the caveat, "taking into account the overall context", the examples of what could constitute antisemitims include "Accusing Jewish citizens of being more loyal to Israel...
Following its adoption by IHRA, the working definition has been adopted for internal use by a number of government and political institutions. By 2018, according to Lerman, the working definition had been formally adopted by six of the 31 governments whose countries are members of IHRA had formally endorsed or adopted the definition.The countries adopting the IHRA definition also appoint a national coordinator for the fight against antisemitism. In late 2016, adoption of the definition by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe was blocked by Russia. The United Kingdom was the first country to adopted the definition (12 December 2016), followed by Israel (22 January 2017), Austria (25 April 2017), Scotland (27 April 2017), Romania (25 May 2017), Canada (23 August 2017), and Germany (20 September 2017) In October 2017, Bulgariaadopted the IHRA definition of antisemitism and appointed Deputy Foreign Minister Georg Georgiev as national co-ordinator for the fight against...
In March 2005, Brian Klug argued that this definition proscribed legitimate criticism of the human rights record of the Israeli Government by attempting to bring criticism of Israel, and criticism of Israeli actions and criticism of Zionism as a political ideology into the category of antisemitism and racially based violence towards, discrimination against, or abuse of, Jews. In December 2016, David Feldman wrote: "I fear this definition is imprecise, and isolates antisemitism from other form...
In March 2017, human rights lawyer Hugh Tomlinson QC, who had been asked to give an opinion on the definition by Free Speech on Israel, Independent Jewish Voices, Jews for Justice for Palestinians and the Palestine Solidarity Campaign, criticised the IHRA definition as "unclear and confusing", saying it did not have "the clarity which would be required" from a legal definition of antisemitism."He addressed concerns that the definition conflates antisemitism with criticism of Israel and could...
In 2004, as the American Jewish Committee's antisemitism expert, Kenneth S. Stern was the lead drafter of the working definition and its examples. In 2015, he re-affirmed his belief in its efficacy: "No definition of something as complex as antisemitism can be perfect, but this one, ten years after its creation, remains a very good one." He stated that the definition was created "as a tool for data collectors in European countries to identify what to include and exclude from their reports abo...
In December 2017, the Board of Deputies of British Jewswrote that "there is a worrying resistance from universities to adopting it and free speech is given as the primary reason for their reluctance. It is said to be 'contentious' because some people argue that current concerns surrounding antisemitism are motivated by ulterior motives, namely defending the policies of the Israeli government. We would suggest that if a definition of prejudice against any other community referenced arguments that their concerns were even partially guided by ulterior motives then that community would infer that the definition did not take prejudice and discrimination against their group seriously. It is also not an assault on free speech to say that students or staff should not be indulging antisemitic tropes. Rather, it is part of what makes a healthy society."
Objections to the IHRA Definition of Antisemitism motivated the creation of the Jerusalem Declaration on Antisemitism, released in March 2021.This document, signed by some 200 international scholars, is intended to be used instead of the IHRA definition, or as a supplement to guide interpretation of the IHRA definition for groups that have already adopted it. In the same month, a group of scholars and leaders affiliated with the Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism at the University of Southern California called the "Nexus Task Force" published a definition undertaking to understand antisemitism "at its nexus with Israel and Zionism" and asserting that most criticism of Zionism and of Israel is not antisemitic. This definition was endorsed by "more than 100 prominent Jewish leaders in a September letter to President Joe Biden". In 2020, Independent Jewish Voices (Canada)published a definition of antisemitism which states that: "antisemitism is not an exceptional form of...Feldman, David. Sub-Report commissioned to assist the All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Antisemitism. Institute for Jewish Policy Research. 1 January 2015Iganski, Paul (2009). "Conceptualizing Anti-Jewish Hate Crime". In Barbara A. Perry (ed.). Hate Crimes. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-99569-0.Stern, Kenneth S. Written Testimony of Kenneth S. Stern. United States House of Representatives Committee on the Judiciary. 7 November 2017Tomlinson, Hugh. Counsel’s opinion on the IHRA definition. Free Speech on Israel. 8 March 2017