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  1. 5 days ago · v. t. e. Phase Four of the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) is a group of American superhero films and television series produced by Marvel Studios based on characters that appear in publications by Marvel Comics. Phase Four features all of the Marvel Studios productions set to be released from 2021 through 2023.

  2. 5 days ago · Halifax is located within Miꞌkmaꞌki the traditional ancestral lands of the Miꞌkmaq peoples. The Mi'kmaq have resided in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island since prior to European landings in North America in the 1400s and 1500s to set up fisheries. The Mi'kmaq name for Halifax is K'jipuktuk, pronounced "che-book-took".

  3. › wiki › InfertilityInfertility - Wikipedia

    • Definition
    • Effects
    • Causes
    • Diagnosis
    • Treatment
    • Epidemiology
    • Society and Culture
    • See Also
    • References
    • Further Reading

    "Demographers tend to define infertility as childlessness in a population of women of reproductive age," whereas "the epidemiological definition refers to "trying for" or "time to" a pregnancy, generally in a population of women exposed to" a probability of conception. Currently, female fertility normally peaks at age 24 and diminishes after 30, with pregnancy occurring rarely after age 50. A female is most fertile within 24 hours of ovulation. Male fertility peaks usually at age 25 and declines after age 40. The time needed to pass (during which the couple tries to conceive) for that couple to be diagnosed with infertility differs between different jurisdictions. Existing definitions of infertility lack uniformity, rendering comparisons in prevalence between countries or over time problematic. Therefore, data estimating the prevalence of infertility cited by various sources differ significantly. A couple that tries unsuccessfully to have a child after a certain period of time (ofte...


    The consequences of infertility are manifold and can include societal repercussions and personal suffering. Advances in assisted reproductive technologies, such as IVF, can offer hope to many couples where treatment is available, although barriers exist in terms of medical coverage and affordability. The medicalization of infertility has unwittingly led to a disregard for the emotional responses that couples experience, which include distress, loss of control, stigmatization, and a disruption...


    In many cultures, inability to conceive bears a stigma. In closed social groups, a degree of rejection (or a sense of being rejected by the couple) may cause considerable anxiety and disappointment. Some respond by actively avoiding the issue altogether; middle-class men are the most likely to respond in this way. In the United States some treatments for infertility, including diagnostic tests, surgery and therapy for depression, can qualify one for Family and Medical Leave Actleave. It has b...

    Natural infertility

    Before puberty, humans are naturally infertile; their gonads have not yet developed the gametes required to reproduce: boys' testicles have not developed the sperm cells required to impregnate a female; girls have not begun the process of ovulation which activates the fertility of their egg cells (ovulation is confirmed by the first menstrual cycle, known as menarche, which signals the biological possibility of pregnancy). Infertility in children is commonly referred to as prepubescence (or b...

    Delayed puberty

    Delayed puberty, puberty absent past or occurring later than the average onset (between the ages of ten and fourteen), may be a cause of infertility. In the United States, girls are considered to have delayed puberty is if they have not started menstruating by age 16 (alongside lacking breast development by age 13). Boys are considered to have delayed puberty if they lack enlargement of the testicles by age 14.Delayed puberty affects about 2% of adolescents. Most commonly, puberty may be dela...

    Immune infertility

    Antisperm antibodies (ASA) have been considered as infertility cause in around 10–30% of infertile couples. In both men and women, ASA production are directed against surface antigens on sperm, which can interfere with sperm motility and transport through the female reproductive tract, inhibiting capacitation and acrosome reaction, impaired fertilization, influence on the implantation process, and impaired growth and development of the embryo. The antibodies are classified into different grou...

    If both partners are young and healthy and have been trying to conceive for one year without success, a visit to a physician or women's health nurse practitioner(WHNP) could help to highlight potential medical problems earlier rather than later. The doctor or WHNP may also be able to suggest lifestyle changes to increase the chances of conceiving. Women over the age of 35 should see their physician or WHNP after six months as fertility tests can take some time to complete, and age may affect the treatment options that are open in that case. A doctor or WHNP takes a medical history and gives a physical examination. They can also carry out some basic tests on both partners to see if there is an identifiable reason for not having achieved a pregnancy. If necessary, they refer patients to a fertility clinic or local hospital for more specialized tests. The results of these tests help determine the best fertility treatment.

    Treatment depends on the cause of infertility, but may include counselling, fertility treatments, which include in vitro fertilization. According to ESHRE recommendations, couples with an estimated live birth rate of 40% or higher per year are encouraged to continue aiming for a spontaneous pregnancy. Treatment methods for infertility may be grouped as medical or complementary and alternative treatments. Some methods may be used in concert with other methods. Drugs used for both women and men include clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, aromatase inhibitors, and metformin.

    Prevalence of infertility varies depending on the definition, i.e. on the time span involved in the failure to conceive. 1. Infertility rates have increased by 4% since the 1980s, mostly from problems with fecunditydue to an increase in age. 2. Fertility problems affect one in seven couples in the UK. Most couples (about 84%) who have regular sexual intercourse (that is, every two to three days) and who do not use contraception get pregnant within a year. About 92 out of 100 couples who are trying to get pregnant do so within two years.[citation needed] 3. Women become less fertile as they get older. For women aged 35, about 94% who have regular unprotected sexual intercourse get pregnant after three years of trying. For women aged 38, however, only about 77%. The effect of age upon men's fertility is less clear.[citation needed] 4. In people going forward for IVF in the UK, roughly half of fertility problems with a diagnosed cause are due to problems with the man, and about half du...

    Perhaps except for infertility in science fiction, films and other fiction depicting emotional struggles of assisted reproductive technology have had an upswing first in the latter part of the 2000s decade, although the techniques have been available for decades.Yet, the number of people that can relate to it by personal experience in one way or another is ever-growing, and the variety of trials and struggles is huge. Pixar's Upcontains a depiction of infertility in an extended life montage that lasts the first few minutes of the film. Other individual examples are referred to individual subarticles of assisted reproductive technology

    Inhorn MC (2003). "Global infertility and the globalization of new reproductive technologies: illustrations from Egypt". Social Science & Medicine. 56 (9): 1837–1851. doi:10.1016/s0277-9536(02)0020...
    Lock, Margaret and Vinh-Kim Nguyen. 2011. An anthropology of biomedicine: Wiley-Blackwell.
    Gerrits T, Shaw M (2010). "Biomedical infertility care in sub-Saharan Africa: a social science review of current practices, experiences and view points". Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn. 2 (3): 194–...
    Fertility: Assessment and Treatment for People with Fertility Problems. London: RCOG Press. 2004. ISBN 978-1-900364-97-3.
    Anjani Chandra et al. (2013). Infertility and Impaired Fecundity in the United States, 1982-2010: Data from the National Survey of Family Growth. Hyattsville, Md.: U.S. Department of Health and Hum...
    Pamela Mahoney Tsigdinos (2009). Silent Sorority: A Barren Woman Gets Busy, Angry, Lost and Found. BookSurge Publishing. p. 218. ISBN 978-1-4392-3156-2.
    • Common in females: annouvulation, blocked fallopian tube, hormonal imbalance, Common in males: low sperm count, abnormal sperm morphology
    • Urology, gynecology
    • 113 million (2015)
    • History
    • Facilities
    • Airlines and Destinations
    • Other Events
    • External Links

    Early years

    Until the beginning of World War II, Moon Township was mostly a rural agricultural area. It was not considered a suburb of downtown Pittsburgh as it was too distant. It was served solely by Pittsburgh-based state and federal services and media. In the early 1920s, John A. Bell of Carnegie purchased a number of small farms in Moon and established a commercial dairy farm on his 1,900 acres (8 km2) of land. He was bought out by E.E. Rieck and his wife, and C.F. Nettrour, owners of the establishe...

    Growth and hub years

    The first five airlines of the Greater Pittsburgh Airport were TWA, Capital Airlines (later part of United), Northwest, All American (later Allegheny Airlines, then USAir, and finally US Airways), and Eastern Airlines. The April 1957 Airline Guide shows 58 weekday departures on Capital, 54 TWA, 18 Allegheny, 8 United, 7 Eastern, 4 Northwest, 3 American and 2 Lake Central. Eastern had nonstops to Miami, but westward nonstops did not reach beyond St Louis. TWA had an overnight Lockheed 1049G Su...

    Post-hub growth

    US Airways' diminished operations at Pittsburgh allowed for more airlines to enter the market, creating more choices for local passengers. The airport's operator, the Allegheny County Airport Authority, has worked to attract new airlines and new routes to the airport, particularly low-costand international carriers. AirTran Airways, which had trouble competing in Pittsburgh after beginning service in 2000, was able to expand Pittsburgh offerings after the US Airways cuts. In 2003, USA3000 Air...


    PIT has a wide, open layout and four runways: three east–west parallel runways and a fourth crosswind runway. The airport's two longest runways are 11,500 feet (3,510 m) and 10,775 feet (3,280 m), allowing PIT to accommodate the largest airliners. Because of the development of non-aviation related business on airport land, PIT can add only one more runway (this number was as high as four in the past). With three parallel runways, simultaneous landings and/or departures can be performed in nea...


    The airport complex consists of two main buildings, the "Landside Terminal" and the "Airside Terminal". The terminal consists of 75 gates on four concourses; however, only 56 gates are available for use. After passing through the security checkpoint, passengers board one of two underground people movers that travel to the Airside Terminal, where all departure gates are located. All international arrivals, except for cities with United States border preclearance, pass through Concourse C. Amer...

    Ground transportation

    PIT is located at Exit 53 of Interstate 376 and the Western Terminus Pennsylvania Route 576 (future I-576), and within 10 miles (20 km) of Interstate 79 and 15 miles (24 km) of Interstate 76, the Pennsylvania Turnpike. Interstate 70 to the south and Interstate 80 to the north are both less than an hour away. Just beyond Interstates 70 and 80, Interstate 77 to the west and Interstate 68to the south are within 90 minutes of the airport. PIT offers on-site parking operated by the Grant Oliver Co...


    Qatar Airways Cargobegan running direct flights to Pittsburgh in 2017, partially subsidized by the airport authority. Those flights ended in 2019. In 2020, Qatar Airways resumed cargo flights to Pittsburgh, this time without any subsidies from the airport. In September 2020, Cathay Pacific began 12 weeks of cargo service between Pittsburgh and Hong Kong. In 2021, Indian cargo airline SpiceXpressbegan twice-weekly cargo flights between Pittsburgh and Vietnam.

    Past destinations

    As recently as 2000, US Air flew from Pittsburgh to more than 110 destinations, including cross-country direct routes to cities on the west coast, and regional service to cities such as Albany, Allentown, and Buffalo, and international flights to cities like London, Frankfurt, and Paris. After US Air merged into American Airlines, American continued cutting direct routes, including service to Los Angeles, Hartford, and St. Louis.Some of the routes previously served by US Air and American are...

    The airport has been the venue for a number of miscellaneous events. The U.S. Air Force has held several air showsat the airport. In 1991, over 40,000 people packed the airport to greet the Pittsburgh Penguins when they landed at the airport after winning their first Stanley Cupchampionship.

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