- Global Burden of Dengue
- Prevention and Control
- Who Response
The incidence of dengue has grown dramatically around the world in recent decades. A vast majority of cases are asymptomatic and hence the actual numbers of dengue cases are underreported and many cases are misclassified. One estimate indicates 390 million dengue infections per year (95% credible interval 284–528 million), of which 96 million (67–136 million) manifest clinically (with any severity of disease).1 Another study, of the prevalence of dengue, estimates that 3.9 billion people, in...
The Aedes aegypti mosquito is the primary vector of dengue. The virus is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female mosquitoes. After virus incubation for 4–10 days, an infected mosquito is capable of transmitting the virus for the rest of its life. Infected symptomatic or asymptomatic humans are the main carriers and multipliers of the virus, serving as a source of the virus for uninfected mosquitoes. Patients who are already infected with the dengue virus can transmit the in...
Dengue fever is a severe, flu-like illness that affects infants, young children and adults, but seldom causes death.Dengue should be suspected when a high fever (40°C/104°F) is accompanied by 2 of the following symptoms: severe headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and joint pains, nausea, vomiting, swollen glands or rash. Symptoms usually last for 2–7 days, after an incubation period of 4–10 days after the bite from an infected mosquito.Severe dengue is a potentially deadly complication due...
There is no specific treatment for dengue fever.For severe dengue, medical care by physicians and nurses experienced with the effects and progression of the disease can save lives – decreasing mortality rates from more than 20% to less than 1%. Maintenance of the patient's body fluid volume is critical to severe dengue care.
At present, the main method to control or prevent the transmission of dengue virus is to combat vector mosquitoes through: 1. preventing mosquitoes from accessing egg-laying habitats by environmental management and modification; 2. disposing of solid waste properly and removing artificial man-made habitats; 3. covering, emptying and cleaning of domestic water storage containers on a weekly basis; 4. applying appropriate insecticides to water storage outdoor containers; 5. using of personal ho...
WHO responds to dengue in the following ways: 1. supports countries in the confirmation of outbreaks through its collaborating network of laboratories; 2. provides technical support and guidance to countries for the effective management of dengue outbreaks; 3. supports countries to improve their reporting systems and capture the true burden of the disease; 4. provides training on clinical management, diagnosis and vector control at the regional level with some of its collaborating centres; 5....
Among the possible causes are cross-serotypic immune response, through a mechanism known as antibody-dependent enhancement, which happens when a person who has been previously infected with dengue gets infected for the second, third, or fourth time.
- Risk Factors
Dengue (DENG-gey) fever is a mosquito-borne disease that occurs in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Mild dengue fever causes a high fever, rash, and muscle and joint pain. A severe form of dengue fever, also called dengue hemorrhagic fever, can cause severe bleeding, a sudden drop in blood pressure (shock) and death.Millions of cases of dengue infection occur worldwide each year. Dengue fever is most common in Southeast Asia and the western Pacific islands, but the disease has bee...
Many people, especially children and teens, may experience no signs or symptoms during a mild case of dengue fever. When symptoms do occur, they usually begin four to seven days after you are bitten by an infected mosquito.Dengue fever causes a high fever — 104 F degrees — and at least two of the following symptoms: 1. Headache 2. Muscle, bone and joint pain 3. Nausea 4. Vomiting 5. Pain behind the eyes 6. Swollen glands 7. RashMost people recover within a week or so. In some cases, symptoms...
Dengue fever is caused by any one of four types of dengue viruses spread by mosquitoes that thrive in and near human lodgings. When a mosquito bites a person infected with a dengue virus, the virus enters the mosquito. When the infected mosquito then bites another person, the virus enters that person's bloodstream.After you've recovered from dengue fever, you have immunity to the type of virus that infected you — but not to the other three dengue fever virus types. The risk of developing seve...
Factors that put you at greater risk of developing dengue fever or a more severe form of the disease include: 1. Living or traveling in tropical areas. Being in tropical and subtropical areas increases your risk of exposure to the virus that causes dengue fever. Especially high-risk areas are Southeast Asia, the western Pacific islands, Latin America and the Caribbean. 2. Prior infection with a dengue fever virus. Previous infection with a dengue fever virus increases your risk of having seve...
If severe, dengue fever can damage the lungs, liver or heart. Blood pressure can drop to dangerous levels, causing shock and, in some cases, death.
One dengue fever vaccine, Dengvaxia, is currently approved for use in those ages 9 to 45 who live in areas with a high incidence of dengue fever. The vaccine is given in three doses over the course of 12 months. Dengvaxia prevents dengue infections slightly more than half the time.The vaccine is approved only for older children because younger vaccinated children appear to be at increased risk of severe dengue fever and hospitalization two years after receiving the vaccine.The World Health Or...
Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide.
- G N Malavige, S Fernando, D J Fernando, S L Seneviratne
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The continued emergence of dengue virus infection and its severe disease manifestation, dengue hemorrhagic fever, is a growing public health problem. The majority of severe infections occur upon secondary encounters with heterologous dengue virus serotypes, suggesting an immune-mediated process.
Laboratory Criteria for Diagnosis. Confirmatory . Isolation of dengue virus from or demonstration of specific arboviral antigen or genomic sequences in tissue, blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or other body fluid by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, immunofluorescence or immunohistochemistry, OR
- Laboratory Criteria For Diagnosis
- Epidemiologic Linkage
- Criteria to Distinguish A New Case from An Existing Case
Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by infection with any of four dengue viruses (DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4). Dengue is a major public health problem worldwide, where an estimated 400 million DENV infections and 100 million clinically apparent dengue cases occurred in 2010. Although ~75% of individuals infected with a DENV will be asymptomatic, ~5% of individuals that develop dengue will progress to severe dengue, an illness characterized by plasma leakage leading to hypovolemic shock, hemorrhage, and potentially death. The case-fatality rate for individuals with severe dengue can be as high as 10% if untreated, or 0.1% with appropriate clinical management. DENVs are transmitted primarily through the bite of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Because these mosquitoes are endemic throughout the tropics and sub-tropics, an estimated 40% of the world’s population is at risk for DENV infection. These mosquitoes are also present in the United States. Ae. aeg...Confirmatory:Probable:Suspected:Travel to a dengue endemic country or presence at location with ongoing outbreak within previous two weeks of onset of an acute febrile illness or dengue, orAssociation in time and place (e.g., household member, family member, classmate, or neighbor) with a confirmed or probable dengue case.
DENV infection results in long-lasting immunity to symptomatic infection (dengue) with that DENV-type. However, cross-protective (heterotypic) immunity against dengue is short-lived with estimated durations of 1-3 years. In dengue endemic areas where infection pressure is high, individuals have been shown to infrequently have sequential episodes of dengue with two different infecting serotypes. Based on these data, a person with two clinical episodes of dengue occurring at least two weeks apart and shown to be due to different infecting DENV-types confirmed by molecular diagnostic testing would be classified as two different cases. However, for two clinical episodes of dengue in the same person diagnosed only by IgM anti-DENV on the second episode; to be considered separate cases, they would have to occur >90 days apart due to the persistence of detectable IgM anti-DENV for ~90 days.During the two weeks prior to onset of fever, travel to a dengue endemic country or presence in a location experiencing an ongoing dengue outbreak, ORAssociation in time and place with a confirmed or probable dengue case.
The largest burden of dengue in the United States is in the territories of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands where it is endemic. As such, the majority of reported dengue cases in the U.S. come from these two territories, where existing surveillance systems are in place to capture both the incidence and to some degree the spectrum of disease. Other areas of the US where dengue is or has been endemic include American Samoa, the Northern Marianas, and Guam. In addition, hundreds of travel-associated dengue cases occur each year, primarily in the 50 United States and the District of Columbia.
The 2009 CSTE Dengue Position Statement included the reporting of DENV-positive asymptomatic blood donors identified through pilot screening projects in dengue endemic areas. However, these screening projects have ended, no cases were reported, and the "Asymptomatic Blood or Tissue Donor" reporting category will be deleted, limiting reporting to persons with symptomatic DENV infection (i.e., dengue).
Jul 13, 2020 · Dengue virus is a very important mosquito-transmitted viral pathogen, causing 390 million human infections each year. Dengue is common in more than 100 countries and forty percent of the world's...
Sep 21, 2012 · B) ADE of dengue virus infection. This figure provides an overview of immuno‐suppressive factors induced by dengue virus – Antibody‐mediated Fc receptor‐ligation, as well as downregulated expression of several virus‐sensors, i.e. TLR, RIG‐I and MDA5. Taken together, these effects result in a suppressed antiviral state relative to ...