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  1. Dengue and severe dengue - World Health Organization › news-room › fact-sheets
    • Global Burden of Dengue
    • Transmission
    • Characteristics
    • Treatment
    • Prevention and Control
    • Who Response

    The incidence of dengue has grown dramatically around the world in recent decades. A vast majority of cases are asymptomatic and hence the actual numbers of dengue cases are underreported and many cases are misclassified. One estimate indicates 390 million dengue infections per year (95% credible interval 284–528 million), of which 96 million (67–136 million) manifest clinically (with any severity of disease).1 Another study, of the prevalence of dengue, estimates that 3.9 billion people, in...

    The Aedes aegypti mosquito is the primary vector of dengue. The virus is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female mosquitoes. After virus incubation for 4–10 days, an infected mosquito is capable of transmitting the virus for the rest of its life. Infected symptomatic or asymptomatic humans are the main carriers and multipliers of the virus, serving as a source of the virus for uninfected mosquitoes. Patients who are already infected with the dengue virus can transmit the in...

    Dengue fever is a severe, flu-like illness that affects infants, young children and adults, but seldom causes death.Dengue should be suspected when a high fever (40°C/104°F) is accompanied by 2 of the following symptoms: severe headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and joint pains, nausea, vomiting, swollen glands or rash. Symptoms usually last for 2–7 days, after an incubation period of 4–10 days after the bite from an infected mosquito.Severe dengue is a potentially deadly complication due...

    There is no specific treatment for dengue fever.For severe dengue, medical care by physicians and nurses experienced with the effects and progression of the disease can save lives – decreasing mortality rates from more than 20% to less than 1%. Maintenance of the patient's body fluid volume is critical to severe dengue care.

    At present, the main method to control or prevent the transmission of dengue virus is to combat vector mosquitoes through: 1. preventing mosquitoes from accessing egg-laying habitats by environmental management and modification; 2. disposing of solid waste properly and removing artificial man-made habitats; 3. covering, emptying and cleaning of domestic water storage containers on a weekly basis; 4. applying appropriate insecticides to water storage outdoor containers; 5. using of personal ho...

    WHO responds to dengue in the following ways: 1. supports countries in the confirmation of outbreaks through its collaborating network of laboratories; 2. provides technical support and guidance to countries for the effective management of dengue outbreaks; 3. supports countries to improve their reporting systems and capture the true burden of the disease; 4. provides training on clinical management, diagnosis and vector control at the regional level with some of its collaborating centres; 5....

  2. Characterization of the Mode of Action of a Potent Dengue ... › pmc › articles

    INTRODUCTION. Dengue virus (DV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus, a large group of emerging pathogens capable of causing severe human diseases.Among these, DV represents the most prevalent mosquito-borne human-pathogenic virus worldwide, comprising 4 serotypes that are transmitted mainly by infected Aedes mosquitoes during a blood meal.

    • Pietro Scaturro, Iuni Margaret Laura Trist, David Paul, Anil Kumar, Eliana G. Acosta, Chelsea M. Byr...
    • 89
    • 2014
  3. Dengue virus - Wikipedia › wiki › Dengue_virus

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the cause of dengue fever.It is a mosquito-borne, single positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus. Five serotypes of the virus have been found, all of which can cause the full spectrum of disease.

  4. Mechanism of Dengue Virus Entry into Cells › 2014/02/26 › mechanism-of

    Feb 26, 2014 · Mechanism of Dengue Virus Entry into Cells by Global Biodefense Staff February 26, 2014, 2:48 pm Dengue fever, an infectious tropical disease caused by a mosquito-borne virus, afflicts millions of people each year, causing fever, headache, muscle and joint pains and a characteristic skin rash.

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  6. Mechanism of dengue virus entry into cells revealed › news › 2014-02-mechanism-dengue-virus

    Dengue fever, an infectious tropical disease caused by a mosquito-borne virus, afflicts millions of people each year, causing fever, headache, muscle and joint pains and a characteristic skin rash.

  7. Mar 15, 2010 · Dengue is caused by a single-stranded RNA virus, the dengue virus (DENV), which exists as 4 closely related serotypes. During the past decades, DENV have evolved into one of the world's major arthropod-borne viruses, a fact that is revealed by the dramatically increasing number of dengue cases not only in areas where the virus is endemic but also among travelers who have visited tropical ...

  8. Dengue | CDC › dengue

    Dengue viruses are spread to people through the bite of an infected Aedes species (Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus) mosquito. Dengue is common in more than 100 countries around the world. Forty percent of the world’s population, about 3 billion people, live in areas with a risk of dengue. Dengue is often a leading cause of illness in areas with ...

  9. Receptors and routes of dengue virus entry into the host ... › femsre › article
    • Introduction
    • Structural Overview of Denv Particle and Its Components
    • Virus Binding to Cell Surface
    • Virus Internalization
    • Genome Access to The Cytoplasm
    • Concluding Remarks
    • Funding

    The increasing number of dengue cases and the changes in the geographic distribution of the disease over the last two decades stimulated the scientific community to research on dengue virus (DENV). The disease caused by this member of the Flaviviridae family is a major international health threat now spreading from tropical and subtropical areas to other regions worldwide (Gubler 2006; WHO 2014). There are four distinct DENV serotypes, DENV-1 to 4, which challenges the development of a vaccine for this pathogen. DENV infection cycle initiates with the virus attachment to the target cell through the interaction between viral surface proteins and attachment/receptors molecules on the cell surface. This interaction allows the internalization of the virus particle, generally involving receptor-mediated endocytosis. After virus internalization, the access of viral genome to the cytoplasm is mediated by the fusion between the viral envelope and the endosomal membrane. The viral genome is...

    DENV structure consists of a 50-nm-diameter particle with a lipid envelope to which two structural proteins are associated, the membrane (M) and the envelope (E) proteins (Mukhopadhyay et al., 2005; Perera and Kuhn 2008). The envelope houses a amorphous ribonucleoprotein complex formed by the capsid (C) protein bound to the positive single-strand RNA (ssRNA) genome (Fig. 1) (Kuhn et al., 2002; Zhang et al., 2003a; Freire et al., 2013a). At neutral pH and 28–30°C, the typical temperature range in the mosquito vector, the external glycoprotein shell is formed by 90 E protein head-to-tail homodimers tightly packed in an icosahedral manner (Kuhn et al., 2002; Modis et al., 2003, 2004). On the other hand, at 37°C, the physiological temperature in humans, DENV structure consists of a more heterogeneous expanded particle with loosen E protein intra- and interdimeric interactions that expose patches of the viral membrane (Fibriansah et al., 2013; Zhang et al., 2013a). The E protein is a 53...

    Virus recognition by target cells depends on the interaction between virus surface proteins and cellular plasma membrane components (Fig. 1). The susceptibility of the host tissues to the virus is intimately dependent on the abundance and distribution of cell receptors, rendering the receptors valuable targets for the development of antiviral drugs. In general, attachment factors placed on the surface of the cells are responsible for the first contact with the virus. This binding occurs in a non-specific manner, concentrating the virus on cell surface and facilitating attachment to its specific receptor, a particular molecule that will promote virus entry into the target cell (Grove and Marsh 2011). Despite the efforts to determine the molecule(s) responsible for DENV recognition by target cells, a specific receptor for DENV has not been definitely identified so far (Hidari and Suzuki 2011). However, a number of candidates of distinct nature in mammalian (Table 1) and mosquito (Tabl...

    After DENV recognition by cellular receptors, the particle is internalized through distinct routes, which include clathrin-mediated endocytosis or non-classical clathrin-independent endocytic pathways, depending on the cell host and virus serotype or strain (summarized in Table 3 and Fig. 2). Factors such as virus particle maturation and recognition of viral immunocomplexes by Fcγ receptors also interfere in virus entry.

    For all enveloped viruses, genome access to the cytoplasm depends on the fusion of viral envelope with a cellular membrane, a process triggered by a viral fusion protein anchored at the virion envelope. In the case of DENV, it is currently established in the literature that, despite the different entry routes of viral particle internalization, genome release into the cytoplasm occurs through E protein-mediated membrane fusion (Pierson and Kielian 2013). However, recent data from our group support the hypothesis that C protein also participates in the translocation of DENV RNA into the cytoplasm (Freire et al., 2013a,b, Freire et al., 2014).

    The use of a specific cell surface receptor that might be restricted to certain cells and tissues can limit the ability of a virus to broadly infect the host. In the case of DENV, a number of cell types are susceptible to infection, both in vertebrate and mosquitoes hosts. Thus, it is more likely that DENV do not use a unique, specific receptor for its internalization, but recognizes and binds to diverse molecules, possibly in a serotype- and/or strain-specific manner, potentiating viral dissemination and infection severity. For many viruses, one single infection route was initially proposed, but with continuous research in the field and the advent of high-resolution quantitative techniques, alternative routes of infection for these viruses were discovered and characterized. HIV is a well-documented example of such development. Initially restricted to CD4 and CXCR4/CCR5 receptor binding and class I membrane fusion, several lines of evidence suggest that HIV may also enter the cell t...

    This work was supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, Brazil, Projects 471239/2012-7 and 306669/2013-7), Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ, Brazil, Projects E-26/102.919/2011 and E-26/111.668/2013), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES, Brazil, Project 171/2012), Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia - Ministério da Educação e Ciência (FCT-MEC, Portugal, Project PTDC/QUI-BIQ/112929/2009). Conflict of interest statement.None declared.

  10. Abstract. The antiviral mechanism of action of iminosugars against many enveloped viruses, including dengue virus (DENV), HIV, influenza and hepatitis C virus, is believed to be mediated by inducing misfolding of viral N-linked glycoproteins through inhibition of host endoplasmic reticulum-resident α-glucosidase enzymes.

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