About Dengue Fever. Dengue fever is spread by the female Aedes mosquito that has been infected with dengue fever virus, of which there are five strains. As many as 80% of people infected with dengue virus have no symptoms or mild fever whereas others develop more severe symptoms of dengue fever.
Supportive care is advised: Patients should be advised to stay well hydrated and to avoid aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), aspirin-containing drugs, and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as ibuprofen) because of their anticoagulant properties. Fever should be controlled with acetaminophen and tepid sponge baths.
- Preparing For Your Appointment
Diagnosing dengue fever can be difficult, because its signs and symptoms can be easily confused with those of other diseases — such as malaria, leptospirosis and typhoid fever.Your doctor will likely ask about your medical and travel history. Be sure to describe international trips in detail, including the countries you visited and the dates, as well as any contact you may have had with mosquitoes.Certain laboratory tests can detect evidence of the dengue viruses, but test results usually com...
No specific treatment for dengue fever exists. Your doctor may recommend that you drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration from vomiting and a high fever.While recovering from dengue fever, watch for signs and symptoms of dehydration. Call your doctor right away if you develop any of the following: 1. Decreased urination 2. Few or no tears 3. Dry mouth or lips 4. Lethargy or confusion 5. Cold or clammy extremitiesAcetaminophen (Tylenol, others) can alleviate pain and reduce fever. Avoid pa...
You'll likely start by seeing your primary care provider. But you might also be referred to a doctor who specializes in infectious diseases.Because appointments can be brief, and because there's often a lot of ground to cover, it's a good idea to be well-prepared for your appointment. Here's some information to help you get ready, and what to expect from your doctor.
Jul 13, 2020 · A multidisciplinary team from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston has uncovered a new mechanism for designing antiviral drugs for dengue virus.
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No specific antiviral medication is currently available to treat dengue. The treatment of dengue fever is symptomatic and supportive in nature. Bed rest and mild analgesic-antipyretic therapy are...
- History of Dengue Virus
- Epidemiology, Signs, and Symptoms of Dengue Fever
- Possibilities of Remedies Against The Dengue Virus
By Nicholas Vitale The dengue virus is a mosquito borne RNA positive virus of the Flavivirus genus that causes dengue fever (Figure 1). This illness affects about 100 million individuals a year across the globe, is extremely prevalent in many underdeveloped tropical areas, and there is no known antiviral treatment for the virus. Due to the lack of treatment, the affected areas are forced to try to control the populations of mosquitoes that transmit the virus, which can be challenging. Due to the vast amount of people that this potentially fatal virus affects there has been a large amount of research in recent years focusing on the mode of the viral action and the different ways to fight it. Some research groups have had some success in stopping the viral action of dengue. For example, the Talarico et al. group had success in fighting the dengue virus using the antiviral activity of sulfated polysaccharides, but the effectiveness of the treatment depends on the serotype of the virus...
The first isolation of the Dengue virus (DENV1) was found in 1943 in areas of the Southern Pacific region like the French Polynesian Islands and other land masses like Japan, but to date there have been four different isolates of the dengue virus found . After the discovery of DENV1 it was constantly rising in prevalence mainly in the Southern Asia region, which sparked the interest of researchers to learn more of the possibly fatal disease. With the increased interest in the virus three different types of isolates were found across the globe: in 1944 DENV2 was discovered in Indonesia, in 1953 DENV3 was discovered in Thailand, and DENV4 was also first discovered in Thailand . Much of the research into the newly prominent disease was sparked by the epidemics of dengue fever in the Philippines that occurred at various times throughout the 1950’s . Despite the rather quick discovery of all different versions of the virus, it seemed that there was a relative drop off in the rise of repo...
The four studied serotypes of the dengue virus are phylogenetically and antigenically different from one another, which adds even more difficulty in trying to understand this virus and its epidemiology . This phylogenetic difference between the four virus types makes it so that after a host is infected by one type and successfully fights it off, the host is now immune to that dengue virus type, but is still very susceptible to the three other virus types . This characteristic of the dengue viruses makes studying its epidemiology that much more challenging. Also, the sequential infection of different serotypes of Dengue can put people at higher risk of obtaining other diseases like dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) . DHF is a more severe version of dengue fever that involves bleeding that occurs underneath the patient’s skin . DSS is very similar to dengue fever but is a syndrome that causes a collapse of the circulatory system. The Dengue Virus is transm...
There is no known cure, anti-viral drug, or immunization for the dengue virus and all five of its serotypes . Earlier we classified the Dengue virus as an emerging pathogen and this has been one of the reasons for the extensive amount of research into creating a remedy that blocks the viral activity of all five serotypes of the Dengue virus . With the very recent discovery of the fifth serotype of Dengue virus some of the following research is outdated, but still valid for the DENV1, DENV2, DENV3, and DENV4. Much of the theoretical remedies look to stop the viral activity of Dengue that occurs in a host, but this is already after infection and most likely after the onset of some of the terrible signs and symptoms that come with the disease. Due to these facts, a lot of research has been focused on creating an immunization for all serotypes of the virus, which is particularly beneficial as all serotypes of the virus are prevalent across the world, and one type of drug may only end of...
Clearly there is a vast amount of great research going on to effectively create a remedy to this to the harmful dengue virus, but there is much more that can still be done. Many potential remedies and viral inhibitors have been proposed, but still no clinically approved drugs or cures have been created. As more research occurs and we start to understand how each serotype works to infect its host the challenge to find a “cure-all” becomes even more puzzling. Until a true remedy for the virus is created organizations must continue to educate and warn people of the dangers, signs, and potential outbreaks of dengue fever in their regions. Vector control practices must continue to increase their range and effectiveness in order keep this rapidly spreading disease at bay. Those who do get infected by the Dengue virus must also do their part and comply with any research groups that ask them to aid their studies by giving data and possibly partaking in clinical trials of potential vaccines...
Talarico, LB; Pujol, CA; Zibetti, RGM; Farea, PCS; Noseda, MD; Duarte, MER; Damonte, EB. The antiviral activity of sulfated polysaccharides against dengue virus is dependent on virus serotype and host cell. Antiviral Res 2005, 66, 103–110. Messina JP, Brady OJ, Scott TW, et al. Global spread of dengue virus types: mapping the 70 year history. Trends in Microbiology. 2014;22(3):138-146. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2013.12.011. Normile D. Surprising new dengue virus throws a spanner in disease control efforts. Science. 2013;342:415. “Dengue.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 9 June 2014, www.cdc.gov/dengue/epidemiology/index.html. Beatty PR, Puerta-Guardo H, Killingbeck SS, Glasner DR, Hopkins K, Harris E. 2015. Dengue virus NS1 triggers endothelial permeability and vascular leak that is prevented by NS1 vaccination. Sci Transl Med 7:304ra141.10.1126/scitranslmed.aaa3787. Baluna R, Vitetta ES. Vascular leak syndrome: a side effect of immuno...
- Risk Factors
- Preparing For An Appointment
Dengue (DENG-gey) fever is a mosquito-borne disease that occurs in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Mild dengue fever causes a high fever, rash, and muscle and joint pain. A severe form of dengue fever, also called dengue hemorrhagic fever, can cause severe bleeding, a sudden drop in blood pressure (shock) and death. Millions of cases of dengue infection occur worldwide each year. Dengue fever is most common in Southeast Asia and the western Pacific islands, but the disease has been increasing rapidly in Latin America and the Caribbean. Researchers are working on dengue fever vaccines. For now the best prevention is to reduce mosquito habitat in areas where dengue fever is common.
Many people, especially children and teens, may experience no signs or symptoms during a mild case of dengue fever. When symptoms do occur, they usually begin four to seven days after you are bitten by an infected mosquito. Dengue fever causes a high fever — 104 F degrees — and at least two of the following symptoms: 1. Headache 2. Muscle, bone and joint pain 3. Nausea 4. Vomiting 5. Pain behind the eyes 6. Swollen glands 7. Rash Most people recover within a week or so. In some cases, symptoms worsen and can become life-threatening. Blood vessels often become damaged and leaky. And the number of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your bloodstream drops. This can cause a severe form of dengue fever, called dengue hemorrhagic fever, severe dengue or dengue shock syndrome. Signs and symptoms of dengue hemorrhagic fever or severe dengue — a life-threatening emergency — include: 1. Severe abdominal pain 2. Persistent vomiting 3. Bleeding from your gums or nose 4. Blood in your urine, stoo...
Dengue fever is caused by any one of four types of dengue viruses spread by mosquitoes that thrive in and near human lodgings. When a mosquito bites a person infected with a dengue virus, the virus enters the mosquito. When the infected mosquito then bites another person, the virus enters that person's bloodstream. After you've recovered from dengue fever, you have immunity to the type of virus that infected you — but not to the other three dengue fever virus types. The risk of developing severe dengue fever, also known as dengue hemorrhagic fever, actually increases if you're infected a second, third or fourth time.
Factors that put you at greater risk of developing dengue fever or a more severe form of the disease include: 1. Living or traveling in tropical areas.Being in tropical and subtropical areas increases your risk of exposure to the virus that causes dengue fever. Especially high-risk areas are Southeast Asia, the western Pacific islands, Latin America and the Caribbean. 2. Prior infection with a dengue fever virus.Previous infection with a dengue fever virus increases your risk of having severe symptoms if you're infected again.
If severe, dengue fever can damage the lungs, liver or heart. Blood pressure can drop to dangerous levels, causing shock and, in some cases, death.
One dengue fever vaccine, Dengvaxia, is currently approved for use in those ages 9 to 45 who live in areas with a high incidence of dengue fever. The vaccine is given in three doses over the course of 12 months. Dengvaxia prevents dengue infections slightly more than half the time. The vaccine is approved only for older children because younger vaccinated children appear to be at increased risk of severe dengue fever and hospitalization two years after receiving the vaccine. The World Health Organization stresses that the vaccine is not an effective tool, on its own, to reduce dengue fever in areas where the illness is common. Controlling the mosquito population and human exposure is still the most critical part of prevention efforts. So for now, if you're living or traveling in an area where dengue fever is known to be, the best way to avoid dengue fever is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes that carry the disease. If you are living or traveling in tropical areas where dengue feve...
Diagnosing dengue fever can be difficult, because its signs and symptoms can be easily confused with those of other diseases — such as malaria, leptospirosis and typhoid fever. Your doctor will likely ask about your medical and travel history. Be sure to describe international trips in detail, including the countries you visited and the dates, as well as any contact you may have had with mosquitoes. Certain laboratory tests can detect evidence of the dengue viruses, but test results usually come back too late to help direct treatment decisions.
No specific treatment for dengue fever exists. Your doctor may recommend that you drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration from vomiting and a high fever. While recovering from dengue fever, watch for signs and symptoms of dehydration. Call your doctor right away if you develop any of the following: 1. Decreased urination 2. Few or no tears 3. Dry mouth or lips 4. Lethargy or confusion 5. Cold or clammy extremities Acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) can alleviate pain and reduce fever. Avoid pain relievers that can increase bleeding complications — such as aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and naproxen sodium (Aleve, others). If you have severe dengue fever, you may need: 1. Supportive care in a hospital 2. Intravenous (IV) fluid and electrolyte replacement 3. Blood pressure monitoring 4. Transfusion to replace blood loss
You'll likely start by seeing your primary care provider. But you might also be referred to a doctor who specializes in infectious diseases. Because appointments can be brief, and because there's often a lot of ground to cover, it's a good idea to be well-prepared for your appointment. Here's some information to help you get ready, and what to expect from your doctor.
Dengue viruses (DENVs) cause the most common arthropod-borne viral disease in man with 50-100 million infections per year. Because of the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drugs, the sole measure of control is limiting the Aedes mosquito vectors. DENV infection can be asymptomatic or a self-limited, acute febrile disease ranging in severity.