Dengue virus (DENV) is the cause of dengue fever.It is a mosquito-borne, single positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus. Five serotypes of the virus have been found, all of which can cause the full spectrum of disease.
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms typically begin three to fourteen days after infection. These may include a high fever, headache, vomiting, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash.
In May 2019, Dengvaxia was approved in the United States as the first vaccine approved for the prevention of dengue disease caused by all dengue virus serotypes (1, 2, 3 and 4) in people ages nine through 16 who have laboratory-confirmed previous dengue infection and who live in endemic areas.
The first recognized Dengue epidemics occurred almost simultaneously in Asia, Africa, and North America in the 1780s, shortly after the identification and naming of the disease in 1779. The first confirmed case report dates from 1789 and is by Benjamin Rush, who coined the term "breakbone fever" because of the symptoms of myalgia and arthralgia.
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2008 Brazil dengue epidemic 2008 Brazil: Dengue fever: 67 2008 Cambodia dengue epidemic 2008 Cambodia: Dengue fever: 407 2008 Chad cholera epidemic 2008 Chad: Cholera: 123 2008–2017 China hand, foot, and mouth disease epidemic 2008–2017 China: Hand, foot, and mouth disease: 3,322+ 2008 India cholera epidemic 2008 India: Cholera: 115
Dengue fever (DF) is a vectorborne disease caused by 4 closely related dengue viruses (DENV 1–4) [1, 2]. DF is distributed in most tropical and subtropical areas, where Aedes aegypti and/or A. albopictus are abundant . Infection with DENV can also cause dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), a syndrome characterized by increased vascular permeability, plasma leakage, hypovolemia, and shock [4, 5]. Although the pathogenesis of DHF is not fully understood, several risks have been reported: secondary infection with heterologous strains [6, 7], primary infection in infants born to dengueimmune mothers , differing virulence of the strain , and differing human susceptibility according to race or genetic factors [10, 11]. Because DENV infections are often clinically inapparent, it is difficult to clarify the epidemiology of DF and dengue pathophysiology without virological support [12, 13]. The natural history of DF involves the time from infection to onset and recovery from disease. How...
Brief historical background. Both dengue studies were performed in the Philippines and involved large numbers of human volunteers recruited from US Army personnel. The first study, conducted by Joseph Franklin Siler, MiltonWeston Hall, and Arthur Parker Hitchens took place in 1924–1925, whereas the latter was organized by James Stevens Simmons, Joseph Harold St. John, and Francois Hiie Kari Reynolds in 1929–1930 (the latter study is available at: http://plaza.umin.ac.ip/infepi/simmons1.pdf). Both studies were originally published in the Philippine Journal of Science [23, 24] and were reprinted with appendices by the Bureau of Printing, Manila [25, 26]. In 1971–1972, Halstead obtained blood samples from 4 and 5 volunteers involved in each study and demonstrated specific neutralizing antibodies to DENV-4 and DENV-1, respectively . Following these experimental studies of dengue, J. F. Siler (1875–1960) reported the efficacy of antityphoid vaccines , whereas J. S. Simmons (1890–...
Descriptive characteristics. Among those who developed clinically apparent DF, mean ± SD ages were 22.5 ± 4.0 and 22.0 ± 3.4 years in the DENV-4 and DENV-1 studies, respectively. Age was not significantly different between studies (P = .97). The mean ± SD durations of fever were 3.6 ± 1.2 and 4.8 ± 1.2 days, respectively. The febrile period of DENV-1 infection was significantly longer than that of DENV-4 (P < .01). In the DENV-1 study, the mean ± SD values for minimum WBC count and duration of leukopenia were 3.01 × 109 ± 0.78 × 109cells/L and 6.1 ± 2.0 days, respectively, and 37.5% (95% CI, 27.7%–48.5%) and 68.8% (95% CI, 57.9%–77.8%) of diseased individuals exhibited a primary or secondary rash, respectively. Distributions of the intrinsic incubation period are shown in figure 1. The mean ± SD values were 6.0 ± 1.4 days (95% CI, 5.6–6.4 days) and 5.7 ± 1.5 days (95% CI, 5.3–6.0 days) in the DENV-4 and DENV-1 studies, respectively, yielding maximum likelihood estimates of the scale...
This study examined several aspects of the natural history of DF based on 2 rigorous historical experiments. These studies are unique in that the experimental details for primary DENV infection were provided and because the etiology was known . These records are the most comprehensive of their kind with regard to the intrinsic and extrinsic incubation and infectious periods. Moreover, it was possible for us to compare signs and symptoms as well as other epidemiologic parameters between serotypes. Three findings were notable. First, this study is the first, to our knowledge, to characterize statistical details of the incubation period of DF. Usually, it is extremely difficult to identify the time of infection for vectorborne diseases. For this reason, the incubation period is conveniently extrapolated from experimental inoculation data, travel histories of cases, or incidence data during the point source outbreak, which offers the time of exposure . Similar data to ours (i.e....
- Hiroshi Nishiura, Hiroshi Nishiura, Scott B. Halstead, Scott B. Halstead
This is a timeline of the development of prophylactic human vaccines.Early vaccines may be listed by the first year of development or testing, but later entries usually show the year the vaccine finished trials and became available on the market.
The history of virology – the scientific study of viruses and the infections they cause – began in the closing years of the 19th century. Although Louis Pasteur and Edward Jenner developed the first vaccines to protect against viral infections, they did not know that viruses existed.
Mar 27, 2020 · Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease caused by any one of four dengue viruses. Around 400 million dengue infections occur across the globe each year. The viruses can be found in tropical regions.
- Risk Factors
Dengue (DENG-gey) fever is a mosquito-borne disease that occurs in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Mild dengue fever causes a high fever, rash, and muscle and joint pain. A severe form of dengue fever, also called dengue hemorrhagic fever, can cause severe bleeding, a sudden drop in blood pressure (shock) and death.Millions of cases of dengue infection occur worldwide each year. Dengue fever is most common in Southeast Asia and the western Pacific islands, but the disease has bee...
Many people, especially children and teens, may experience no signs or symptoms during a mild case of dengue fever. When symptoms do occur, they usually begin four to seven days after you are bitten by an infected mosquito.Dengue fever causes a high fever — 104 F degrees — and at least two of the following symptoms: 1. Headache 2. Muscle, bone and joint pain 3. Nausea 4. Vomiting 5. Pain behind the eyes 6. Swollen glands 7. RashMost people recover within a week or so. In some cases, symptoms...
Dengue fever is caused by any one of four types of dengue viruses spread by mosquitoes that thrive in and near human lodgings. When a mosquito bites a person infected with a dengue virus, the virus enters the mosquito. When the infected mosquito then bites another person, the virus enters that person's bloodstream.After you've recovered from dengue fever, you have immunity to the type of virus that infected you — but not to the other three dengue fever virus types. The risk of developing seve...
Factors that put you at greater risk of developing dengue fever or a more severe form of the disease include: 1. Living or traveling in tropical areas. Being in tropical and subtropical areas increases your risk of exposure to the virus that causes dengue fever. Especially high-risk areas are Southeast Asia, the western Pacific islands, Latin America and the Caribbean. 2. Prior infection with a dengue fever virus. Previous infection with a dengue fever virus increases your risk of having seve...
If severe, dengue fever can damage the lungs, liver or heart. Blood pressure can drop to dangerous levels, causing shock and, in some cases, death.
One dengue fever vaccine, Dengvaxia, is currently approved for use in those ages 9 to 45 who live in areas with a high incidence of dengue fever. The vaccine is given in three doses over the course of 12 months. Dengvaxia prevents dengue infections slightly more than half the time.The vaccine is approved only for older children because younger vaccinated children appear to be at increased risk of severe dengue fever and hospitalization two years after receiving the vaccine.The World Health Or...