Escherichia coli (/ ˌ ɛ ʃ ə ˈ r ɪ k i ə ˈ k oʊ l aɪ /), also known as E. coli (/ ˌ iː ˈ k oʊ l aɪ /), is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Escherichia coli (Latin pronunciation: [eskeˈrikja ˈkoli] Anglicized to / ˌ ɛ ʃ ə ˈ r ɪ k i ə ˈ k oʊ l aɪ /; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
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From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Escherichia coli or E. coli is a bacterium that lives in the intestines of people and other warm-blooded animals. Scientists have studied E. coli a lot, and know more about how E. coli cells work than any other organism. E. coli is usually not harmful.
- Symptoms and Causes
EAEC is now recognized as an emerging enteric pathogen. In particular, EAEC are reported as the second most common cause of traveler's diarrhea, second only to Enterotoxigenic E. coli, and a common cause of diarrhea amongst pediatric populations. It has also been associated with chronic infections in the latter, as well as in immunocompromised hosts, such as HIV-infected individuals. Awareness of EAEC was increased by a serious outbreak in Germany during 2011, causing over 5000 cases and at leas
Diarrhea is still an important disease burden worldwide. It causes considerable childhood mortality in the developing world and is correlated with morbidity and substation health care costs in industrialized countries. The cause of infectious diarrhea is diarrheagenic Escheriachia coli group. Subgroups of diarrheagenic Escheriachia coli are the following: enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E.coli, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli and Enteroaggregative E. coli. E. coli
Enteroaggregative Escheichia coli is a type of strain from E.coli. E.coli causes intestinal infections, some intestinal infections include diarrhea, fever and abdominal pain. Most severe cases can lead to bloody diarrhea, dehydration or even kidney failure. People with weakened immune systems, young children, older adults and pregnant women are at increased risks for developing these complications. Symptoms of intestinal infection usually begin between 8 and 52 hours after you have been infected
Antibiotics is a type of medicine that is used to destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Studies have suggested that fluoroquinolone, especially ciprofloxacin, may be the most effective antibiotic when treating Enteroaggregative E.coli infections, patients treated with ciprofloxacin had significant reductions in duration of diarrhea. Unfortunately resistance toward ciprofloxacin in Enteroaggregative E.coli strains has been reported in several studies.
EAEC is transmitted through the fecal-oral route and primarily contaminated by food and water. EAEC has been associated with many symptoms such as diarrhea in some individuals and intestinal colonization in others. Because many strains of EAEC have been identified, it is difficult to identify the mechanism of its pathogenesis. Most candidate virulence genes are not always connected with disease. The model of EAEC pathogenesis comprises three stages: Stage 1 is the attachment of the intestinal mu
E. coli has been involved as agents of diarrheal disease since 1920. Enteroaggregative Escheichia coli was first found in 1987, in a child in Lima, Peru. Since 1987, Enteroaggregative Escheichia coli has been recognized as agents of diarrhea in industrialized and developing countries. Enteroaggregative Escheichia coli is most commonly found in developing countries due to less developed industrial base and low human development compared to other countries. India, Jamaica and Mexico are the most c
- Signs and symptoms
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a serotype of the bacterial species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga-like toxin–producing types of E. coli. It is a cause of disease, typically foodborne illness, through consumption of contaminated and raw food, including raw milk and undercooked ground beef. Infection with this type of pathogenic bacteria may lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea, and to kidney failure; these have been reported to cause the deaths of children younger than five years of age, of...
E. coli O157:H7 infection often causes severe, acute hemorrhagic diarrhea and abdominal cramps. Usually little or no fever is present, and the illness resolves in 5 to 10 days. It can also sometimes be asymptomatic. In some people, particularly children under five years of age, persons whose immunologies are otherwise compromised, and the elderly, the infection can cause hemolytic uremic syndrome, in which the red blood cells are destroyed and the kidneys fail. About 2–7% of infections ...
Like the other strains of the species, O157:H7 is gram-negative and oxidase-negative. Unlike many other strains, it does not ferment sorbitol, which provides a basis for clinical laboratory differentiation of the strain. Strains of E. coli that express Shiga and Shiga-like toxins gained that ability via infection with a prophage containing the structural gene coding for the toxin, and nonproducing strains may become infected and produce shiga-like toxins after incubation with shiga toxin positiv
Infection with E. coli O157:H7 can come from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or oral contact with contaminated surfaces. Examples of this can be undercooked ground beef but also leafy vegetables and raw milk. Fields often get contaminated with the bacterium through irrigation processes or contaminated water naturally entering the soil. It is highly virulent, with a low infectious dose: an inoculation of fewer than 10 to 100 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 is sufficient to cause infection, compar
A stool culture can detect the bacterium, although it is not a routine test and so must be specifically requested. The sample is cultured on sorbitol-MacConkey agar, or the variant cefixime potassium tellurite sorbitol-MacConkey agar. On SMAC agar, O157:H7 colonies appear clear due to their inability to ferment sorbitol, while the colonies of the usual sorbitol-fermenting serotypes of E. coli appear red. Sorbitol nonfermenting colonies are tested for the somatic O157 antigen before being confirm
E. coli O157:H7 infection is nationally reportable disease in the US, Great Britain, and Germany, and most US states. It is also reportable in most states of Australia including Queensland.
- Town background
- Contamination background
- Controlling the outbreak
The Walkerton E. coli outbreak was the result of a contamination of the drinking water supply of Walkerton, Ontario, Canada, with E. coli and Campylobacter jejuni bacteria. The water supply was contaminated as a result of improper water treatment following heavy rainfall in late April and early May 2000, that had drawn bacteria from the manure of nearby cattle used to fertilize crops into the shallow aquifer of a nearby well. The first reported case was on May 17. The contamination caused gastro
Walkerton, Ontario is a small township in the municipality of Brockton, 180 kilometres northwest of Toronto. It serves as the administrative centre of Brockton, into which it was merged in 1999, and as the county seat of Bruce County. The population of Walkerton in 1996 was recorded as 5,036 individuals in an area of 6.4 square kilometres. At the time of the 2000 events, the town's drinking water was drawn from three chlorinated wells to the west and southwest of the town. The wells were owned a
In 2000, the Walkerton Public Utilities Commission was under the supervision of two men, brothers Stan and Frank Koebel. Both men had been working for the Walkerton Public Utilities Commission since the 1970s, when they were teenagers and their father worked at the PUC. Neither m
Using knowledge about typical incubation periods of E. coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter bacteria and working backwards from the first emergence of symptoms in the community, investigators determined that the majority of infected community members had been exposed to the bacteria be
To the immediate south and west of Well 5 lay farmland used as a cattle-breeding operation, occupying four lots. On April 22, 2000, following heavy rainfall on April 20–21, manure from the cattle was used to fertilize crops growing on lot 20 of the property, the nearest ...
Beginning May 17, 2000, absenteeism in the Walkerton school system took an upswing. That day, the Walkerton Hospital treated seven children suffering from gastrointestinal ailments involving cramping and diarrhea. The illnesses were not initially recognized as part of a pattern, and no report was made to the Bruce-Grey-Owen-Sound Health Unit, which was responsible for public health in Grey and Bruce counties. On May 18, twenty students were absent from the Mother Theresa School in Walkerton; the
Morning news reports on public radio on May 21 carried a statement by Dr. Murray McQuigge, Walkerton's Medical Officer of Health, reflecting medical investigators' then-current understanding that Walkerton's water system was presumed to be secure and not involved in the outbreak.
Despite increased awareness of the severity of the outbreak, as May 22 began, some links in the public safety chain were still uninformed as to either the existence of the outbreak or the fact that it presented a real and present danger to public health. Mayor David Thompson, him
The Bruce-Grey-Owen-Sound Health Unit (BGOSHU)'s May 22 presumptive conclusion about Walkerton's water was confirmed at 8:45 the following morning, when the London Regional Public Health Laboratory reported testing results on the water Schmidt had collected on May 21 and 22: both
While the community attempted to recover from the events of May 2000, anger and blame ran high. On May 25, Dr. Murray McQuigge had made a public statement saying that in his opinion, dissemination of information to the community had been hampered by lack of disclosure of adverse Walkerton Public Utilities Commission testing results, and patient deaths could have been prevented had disclosure been made earlier; by May 29, a $1 billion class-action lawsuit had been filed by community members simil
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Escherichia coli. Facets of a versatile pathogen, on the occasion of the 150th birthday of Theodor Escherich (1857 - 1911); Leopoldina Symposium, Bildungszentrum Kloster Banz, Bad Staffelstein, Germany, October 9 to 12, 2007.
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