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  1. see that the Earl of Pembroke's thirty thousand acres be very good. Introductory. 21 fisli-"To make discoveries along the coast and lind a ery between James River and Cape Cod. "As ought to raising to set staple commodities, the chief officers at the esiablishment examples and to aim of the colony.

    • Introduction
    • Computers in Genealogy
    • Problems with The in Format on Paper
    • Hypertext Indented Narrative ("Hin") Format
    • Features of The Hypertext Indented Narrative (HIN) Format
    • Discussion - You Can Draw Large Family Trees by Hand
    • Future Work
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • screen Shots

    "Family trees" are not trees

    Before computers, genealogists struggled for centuries with formats in which to present this dataon paper.Many formats (e.g. almost any kind of graphical chart)were suitable only for a once-offpresentation of the data,and could not cope as the family expanded in sizeand new connections were made.Many (perhaps even most) genealogists begin their researchby drawing graphical charts- only to learn the hard way how impossible to maintain they are,as what is known about the family expands and chan...

    The Indented Narrative ("IN", or "Burke's Peerage") format on paper

    In Burke's,pedigrees are written as a continuous narrative,with successive generations indented. Complexity is managed by following only one particular line(the "head of the family") downwards.Of each new head they will say "of whom presently",and then illustrate the complete descendants of his siblings,before moving on to illustrate the family entirely below the new head(this is a primitive form of hyperlink, as I shall argue below).This general type of format is known as "Indented Narrative...

    1 person per page

    For instance, in theGenealogy of the British Royal Family, presented by Brian Tompsett on the Web,the GEDCOM database presents its outputas 1 person per web page.See for example William IV.This is scalable to deal with the high complexity of the British Royal Family,as Tompsett demonstrates. However, there are some problems.[The non-technical reader may wish to skip at this point to the section"The need for variable resolution" below.]If each person needs an actual file in the computer's file...

    1 person per "virtual page"

    However, the drawback with the Penn State schemeis that the user is often distracted and confusedby the virtual pages above and below the virtual page he is tryingto concentrate on.See for example William IV.Better use may be made of bandwidth, but readabilityis clearly worse than in the Tompsett model.

    The need for variable resolution

    then we have to make at least 6 clicks before even findingout who left descendants at all.The thin lines of Edward and Andrew's descendantswould not be immediately obvious,but would require many clicks to bring out.And to make it worse, we would probably explore John firstbefore exploring Edward or Andrew,not realising the vast sub-tree that we would be entering by doing so. It seems perfectly flexible to have 1 person per page,but by forcing us to have 1 person per page, this pedigree is cle...

    It does not work so well, however, when the other siblingsleave enormous family trees in their own right.As an example, see the BLENNERHASSETT entry in Burke's Irish Family Records, 1976 .On p.136, John Blennerhassett and Martha Lynne leave issue: The entire pedigree of the family in Ireland is less than 13 columns,so the "diversion" of Robert's su...

    The problem however, is that, because it is designed for paper, the IN format only allows us separate off1 person per generation, no matter how large the tree undera second candidate becomes.This constraint cannot be broken on paper,since otherwise we would have great difficulties illustrating where each of the 2 hyperlinks leads to in the text bel...

    Defining Permanent URLs

    Now as the amount of information about the 3rd Earl increases, he may also be moved to his own sub-page.So we cannot actually guarantee that the URL Herbert/2nd.earl.html will alwayspoint directly to the 3rd Earl.However, we can say that at least it should not be hard to find himfrom this URL(he will be at most 1 click away). The 3rd Earl has now moved to a separate page (1 click away). A 1 person per pagescheme does, admittedly, lend itself more naturally to permanent URLs.There would be a u...

    Better use of bandwidth

    If you are interested in some individual,then you are probably interested in their surrounding family.In the Tompsett scheme of 1 person per page, you have to make a separatedownloadfor every individual in the family. It takes dedication,and many downloads (with all the associated Net delays),to visualise the surrounding family. With the Penn State scheme, the Web page downloadedreturns more than just 1 individual.Sometimesthe surrounding family is found somewhere elseon the same Web page,but...

    Easier to guess what lies behind a link

    In fact - as noted in the section "Annotation" above- because these are free-form,possibly hand-drawn trees,we may annotatethe hyperlinks with any amount of small notesto summarise what lies behind them.

    Hypertext provides a lot more than just the ability to link.It provides the ability to draw arbitrary n-dimensional data structureswith connecting links between arbitrary points.Whereas previously we could only draw simple 1 or 2 dimensional data structures.Some people (understandably) thought that 3-dimensions was the obvious next step,but Nielsen...

    Automatically-generated HIN output

    The main difficulty would be in learning when tobreak the tree and start a new page.Too much breaking and it is too much like 1 person per page.Too little breaking and it is too much like thepaper IN format.I currently have a Computer Science student, Andrew Martin,working on a "GEDCOM 2 narrative" programthat will automatically build well-balanced HIN narrative outputfrom a GEDCOM database. Defining reliable heuristics for breaking a new pageis proving to be a challenge.

    Hypertext version of Burke's Peerage itself

    Burke's Peeragehas now gone online, but has not used any hypertext format.Instead it is just the paper format published electronically,as shown bythis sample page.

    Linking to a label on a page

    Sometimes it can take a few moments to see where someoneappears on a multi-individual page, though.Possibly I should use a label tag on the page,and link to: Herbert/2nd.earl.html#3rd.earl I cannot decide if this aids usability (by jumping direct to the person)or hinders it (by obscuring the context that surrounds the person).Churchyarddiscusses the problem of how browsers display links to labels on a page. This is not a good example any moresince the 3rd Earl has now moved to his own page.Pr...

    Hypertext gives the Burke's IN format a new lease of life,and brings out one of its lost and forgotten strengths- variable resolution.A Hypertext Indented Narrativeallows us see at a glance what the major components of the pedigree are.And gives us, for the first time in history,the ability to draw these structures properly by hand- a welcome alter...

    Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edn, 1999. "Reader's Guide",Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 1999, pp. il-li. Review of Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 1999,The Baronage Press, Burke's Irish Family Records, 1976. "Guide to the Reader",Burke's Irish Family Records, 1976, pp. xxvii-xxix. Genealogy ...

    1. Illustrates that we can dispose of all died young, died unmarried, etc., and all short trees, on 1 page, and only need to branch off 2 sub pages for the 2 large sub-trees of William and Arthur. Also illustrates that because it is free-flow, hand-written,I can easily include portraits, modern photos,an entire Regency diary as a linked page,links to external sites (e.g. a map)and even a nice quote along the bottom.

    1. Illustrates a long biography and a short list of descendants.

    1. A long biography and a longer list of descendants.

  2. FROM HOUSE TO HOME: Family Matters in Early Modern English Drama and Culture (2004/2009) - Download: PhD version of 2004 (17.5 MB)

  3. › galleries-archiveKings Lynn Arts Centre

    Jointly promoted by the King’s Lynn Arts Centre & the King’s Lynn Festival Fermoy Gallery | 13 July – 9 August 2008 is the 50th anniversary of the death of the artist Walter Dexter (1876 – 1958), who lived and worked in King’s Lynn, latterly in Nelson Street and was tragically knocked over and killed by a motorbike in Saturday Market ...

  4. “These were full of orange and lemon trees—and contained likewise all the other fruits of France and Italy, with a variety of plants and shrubs of different countries,” Chappe wrote.15 The chief mistress of the household said that the letter Chappe carried put her under orders to treat the distinguished visitor’s every request as if it ...

  5. Ben Jonson's "sejanus: his fall" is based on events that happened a millenia and a half before he wrote it. Jonson added 247 scholarly footnotes to this play; all were in Latin. This is the 9th in our series by Ben Jonson.

  6. Download iTunes Apple Music Spotify. The Earth Charter is an international declaration of fundamental values and principles for building a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society. English translation of Magna Carta.

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