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  2. The Eastern Orthodox Church shared communion with the Roman Catholic Church as the state church of Rome until the East–West Schism in 1054, which was the culmination of mounting theological, political, and cultural disputes, particularly over the authority of the pope.

    • Eastern Orthodox Beliefs vs. Roman Catholic
    • Eastern Orthodoxy vs. Protestantism
    • Eastern Orthodox Beliefs vs. Western Christianity
    • Eastern Orthodox Church Beliefs
    • Sources

    The primary dispute that led to the split between Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicismcentered around Rome's deviation from the original conclusions of the seven ecumenical councils, such as the claim to a universal papal supremacy. Another particular conflict is known as the Filioque Controversy. The Latin word filioque means "and from the Son." It had been inserted into the Nicene Creed during the 6th century, thus changing the phrase pertaining to the origin of the Holy Spiritfrom "who proceeds from the Father" to "who proceeds from the Father and the Son." It had been added to emphasize Christ's divinity, but Eastern Christians not only objected to the altering of anything produced by the first ecumenical councils, but they also disagreed with its new meaning. Eastern Christians believe both the Spirit and the Son have their origin in the Father.

    A clear distinction between Eastern Orthodoxy and Protestantism is the concept of "Sola Scriptura." This "Scripture alone" doctrine held by Protestant faiths asserts that the Word of God can be clearly understood and interpreted by the individual believer and is sufficient on its own to be the final authority in Christian doctrine. Orthodoxy argues that the Holy Scriptures (as interpreted and defined by church teachings in the first seven ecumenical councils) along with Holy Tradition are of equal value and importance.

    A less apparent distinction between Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Christianity is their differing theological approaches, which is, perhaps, merely the result of cultural influences. The Eastern mindset is inclined toward philosophy, mysticism, and ideology, whereas the Western outlook is guided more by a practical and legal mentality. This can be seen in the subtly different ways that Eastern and Western Christians approach spiritual truth. Orthodox Christians believe that truth must be personally experienced and, as a result, they place less emphasis on its precise definition. Worship is the center of church life in Eastern Orthodoxy. It is highly liturgical, embracing seven sacraments and characterized by a priestly and mystical nature. Veneration of icons and a mystical form of meditative prayer are commonly incorporated into religious rituals.

    Authority of Scripture: The Holy Scriptures (as interpreted and defined by church teaching in the first seven ecumenical councils) along with Holy Tradition are of equal value and importance.
    Baptism: Baptismis the initiator of the salvation experience. Eastern Orthodox practice baptism by full immersion.
    Eucharist: The Eucharist is the center of worship. Eastern Orthodoxbelieve that during the Eucharist adherents partake mystically of Christ's body and blood and through it receive his life and stre...
    Holy Spirit: The Holy Spirit is one of the persons of the Trinity, who proceeds from the Father and is one in essence with the Father. The Holy Spirit is given by Christ as a gift to the church, to...
    The Orthodox Page in America
    Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America
  3. Jul 08, 2021 · Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Eastern Christianity Main BX 290 .E27 2006. Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity.Main BX 100.7 .B553 1999 Covers all main aspects of Eastern churches: doctrine, worship, history, art, music, hagiography, past and present.

    • Agnes Widder
    • 2010
    • Origin of Eastern Orthodoxy
    • The Widening Gap
    • The Formal Split
    • Founding Patriarch of Constantinople
    • Signs of Hope For Reconciliation Today
    • Sources

    All Christian denominations are rooted in the life and ministry of Jesus Christ and share the same origins. Early believers were part of one body, one church. However, during the ten centuries following the resurrection, the church experienced many disagreements and fractions. Eastern Orthodoxyand Roman Catholicism were the results of these early schisms.

    Disagreement between these two branches of Christendom had already long existed, but the gap between the Roman and Eastern churches increased throughout the first millennium with a progression of worsening disputes. On religious matters, the two branches disagreed over issues pertaining to the nature of the Holy Spirit, the use of icons in worship and the correct date for celebrating Easter. Cultural differences played a major role too, with the Eastern mindset more inclined toward philosophy, mysticism, and ideology, and the Western outlook guided more by a practical and legal mentality. This slow process of separation was encouraged in 330 AD when Emperor Constantine decided to move the capital of the Roman Empire to the city of Byzantium (Byzantine Empire, modern-day Turkey) and called it Constantinople. When he died, his two sons divided their rule, one taking the Eastern portion of the empire and ruling from Constantinople and the other taking the western portion, ruling from R...

    In 1054 AD a formal split occurred when Pope Leo IX (leader of the Roman branch) excommunicated the Patriarch of Constantinople, Michael Cerularius (leader of the Eastern branch), who in turn condemned the pope in mutual excommunication. Two primary disputes at the time were Rome's claim to a universal papal supremacy and the adding of the filioque to the Nicene Creed. This particular conflict is also known as the Filioque Controversy. The Latin word filioque means "and from the Son." It had been inserted into the Nicene Creed during the 6th century, thus changing the phrase about the origin of the Holy Spiritfrom "who proceeds from the Father" to "who proceeds from the Father and the Son." It had been added to emphasize Christ's divinity, but Eastern Christians not only objected to the altering of anything produced by the first ecumenical councils, they disagreed with its new meaning. Eastern Christians believe both the Spirit and the Son have their origin in the Father.

    Michael Cerularius was the Patriarch of Constantinople from 1043 -1058 AD, during Eastern Orthodoxy's formal separation from the Roman Catholic Church. He played a prominent role in the circumstances surrounding the Great East-West Schism. During the time of the Crusades (1095), Rome joined with the East to defend the Holy Land against the Turks, providing a ray of hope for a possible reconciliation between the two churches. But by the end of the Fourth Crusade (1204), and the Sack of Constantinople by the Romans, all hope ended as the degree of hostility been the two churches continued to worsen.

    To the present date, the Eastern and Western churches remain divided and separate. However, since 1964, an important process of dialogue and cooperation has begun. In 1965, Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras agreed to formally remove the mutual excommunication of 1054. More hope for reconciliation came when Pope John Paul II visited Greece in 2001, the first papal visit to Greece in a thousand years. And in 2004, the Roman Catholic Church returned the relics of St. John Chrysostom to Constantinople. These antiquities were originally pillaged in 1204 by Crusaders.

    ReligiousTolerance.org ReligionFacts.com Patheos.com Orthodox Christian Information Center WayofLife.org

  4. Apr 12, 2017 · Like Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy places great emphasis on the “sacraments.”. Like Catholicism, Orthodoxy sees baptism as bringing about the regeneration of the person receiving the sacrament. The Orthodox typically baptize infants, but, of course, adult converts to Orthodoxy are baptized as well.

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