History of Germany. The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from Gaul (France), which he had conquered.
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Most modern knowledge of the medieval history of the Waldensians originates almost exclusively from the records and writings of the Roman Catholic Church, the same body that was condemning them as heretics. Because of "the documentary scarcity and unconnectedness from which we must draw the description of Waldensian beliefs," much of what is known about the early Waldensians comes from reports like the Profession of faith of Valdo of Lyon (1180); Durando d'Osca (c.1187–1200) Liber antiheresis; and the Rescriptum of Bergamo Conference (1218). Earlier documents that provide information about early Waldensian history include the Will of Stefano d'Anse (1187); the Manifestatio haeresis Albigensium et Lugdunensium (c.1206–1208); and the Anonymous chronicle of Lyon (c.1220). There are also the two reports written for the Inquisition by Reinerius Saccho (died 1259), a former Cathar who converted to Catholicism, published together in 1254 as Summa de Catharis et Pauperibus de Lugduno(On the...
Waldensians held and preached a number of truths as they read from the Bible. These included: 1. The atoning death and justifying righteousness of Christ; 2. The Godhead; 3. The fall of man; 4. The incarnation of the Son; 5. A denial of purgatoryas the "invention of the Antichrist;" 6. The value of voluntary poverty. They also rejected a number of concepts that were widely held in Christian Europe of the era. For example, the Waldensians held that temporal offices and dignities were not meant for preachers of the Gospel; that relics were no different from any other bones and should not be regarded as special or holy; that pilgrimage served only to spend one's money; that flesh might be eaten any day if one's appetite served one; that holy water was no more efficacious than rain water; and that prayer was just as effectual if offered in a church or a barn. They were accused, moreover, of having scoffed at the doctrine of transubstantiation, and of having spoken blasphemously of the C...
According to legend, Peter Waldo renounced his wealth as an encumbrance to preaching,which led other members of the Catholic clergy to follow his example. Because of this shunning of wealth, the movement was early known as The Poor of Lyon and The Poor of Lombardy. The Waldensian movement was characterized from the beginning by lay preaching, voluntary poverty, and strict adherence to the Bible. Between 1175 and 1185, Waldo either commissioned a cleric from Lyon to translate the New Testament...
The Catholic Church viewed the Waldensians as unorthodox, and in 1184 at the Synod of Verona, under the auspices of Pope Lucius III, they were excommunicated. Pope Innocent III went even further during the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215, officially denouncing the Waldensians as heretics.In 1211 more than 80 Waldensians were burned as heretics at Strasbourg; this action launched several centuries of persecution that nearly destroyed the movement. Waldensians briefly ruled Buda, the capital of...
When the news of the Reformationreached the Waldensian Valleys, the Tavola Valdese decided to seek fellowship with the nascent Protestantism. At a meeting held in 1526 in Laus, a town in the Chisone valley, it was decided to send envoys to examine the new movement. In 1532, they met with German and Swiss Protestants and ultimately adapted their beliefs to those of the Reformed Church. The Swiss and French Reformed churches sent William Farel and Anthony Saunier to attend the meeting of Chanfo...
Some early Protestants felt a spiritual kinship to the Waldensians and wrote positively about them. John Milton, for example, wrote in his sonnet "On the Late Massacre in Piedmont" of the 1655 massacre and persecution of the Waldensians. It was once held that the Waldenses were first taught by Paul the Apostle who visited Spain and then allegedly traveled on to the Piedmont. As the Catholic Church indulged in excesses in the time of Constantine(Roman Emperor from 306 to 337) - the account tells - the Waldenses held true to their apostolic faith of poverty and piety. These claims were discounted in the nineteenth century. There were also other claims that the Waldensians predated Peter Waldo's activities in the late 12th century. In his A History of the Vaudois Church (1859), Antoine Monastier quotes Bernard, abbot of Foncald, who wrote at the end of the 12th century that the Waldensians arose during the papacy of Lucius. Monastier takes Bernard to mean Lucius II, in office from 1144...
In 1848, after many centuries of harsh persecution, the Waldensians acquired legal freedom in the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia as a result of the liberalising reforms which followed Charles Albert of Sardinia's granting a constitution (the Statuto Albertino). Subsequently, the Waldensian Evangelical Church, as it became known, developed and spread through the Italian peninsula. The Waldensian church was able to gain converts by building schools in some of the poorer regions of Italy, includin...
The first Waldensian settlers from Italy arrived in South America in 1856. From that date there have been several migrations, especially to Argentina, such as the town of Jacinto Aráuz in the southern part of the province of LaPampa, where they arrived around 1901. As of 2016[update] the Waldensian Church of the Río de La Plata (which forms a united church with the Waldensian Evangelical Church) has approximately 40 congregations and 15,000 members shared between Uruguay and Argentina. The Ur...
Since colonial times there have been Waldensians who sailed to America, as marked by the presence of them in New Jersey and Delaware. Many Waldensians, having escaped persecution in their homelands by making their way to the tolerant Dutch Republic, crossed the Atlantic to start anew in the New Netherland colony, establishing the first church in North America on Staten Islandin 1670. In the late 19th century many Italians, among them Waldensians, emigrated to the United States. They founded c...Czech reformers Petr Chelčický, Jan Hus, Jerome of Prague and HussitismDurand of Huesca, early Spanish follower of Peter Waldo(later re-converted to Catholicism)Sossi Andrea (2010), Medioevo Valdese 1173–1315. Povertà, Eucarestia e Predicazione: Tra identità minoritaria e rappresentazione cifrata del rapporto tra l'uomo e l'Assoluto, UNI Service Editrice,...Audisio, Gabriel (1999) The Waldensian Dissent: Persecution and Survival, c.1170–c.1570, Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-55984-7Cameron, Euan (2001) The Waldenses: Rejections of Holy Church in Medieval Europe ISBN 0-631-22497-1, ISBN 978-0-631-22497-6Comba, Emilio (1978) History of the Waldenses of Italy, from their origin to the Reformation ISBN 0-404-16119-7Waldensian Evangelical Church – Río de la Plata, South America
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The name of the knights and order varied over the centuries, including Milites Sancti Sepulcri and The Sacred and Military Order of the Holy Sepulchre. The current name was determined on 27 July 1931 as the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem (with of Jerusalem as honorary suffix) by decree of the Sacred Congregation of Ceremonies of the Holy See. The term equestrian in this context is consistent with its use for orders of knighthood of the Holy See, referring to the chivalric and knightly nature of order—by sovereign prerogative conferring knighthood on recipients—derived from the equestrians (Latin: equites), a social class in Ancient Rome.
The history of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem runs common and parallel to that of the religious Canons Regular of the Holy Sepulchre, the order continuing after the Canons Regular ceased to exist at the end of the 15th century (except for their female counterpart, the Canonesses Regular of the Holy Sepulchre).
The order today remains an order of chivalry and is an association of the faithful with a legal canonical and public personality, constituted by the Holy See under Canon Law 312, paragraph 1:1, represented by 60 lieutenancies in more than 40 countries around the world: 24 in Europe, 15 in the United States and Canada, 5 in Latin America and 6 in Australia and Asia.It is recognised internationally as a legitimate order of knighthood, headquartered in Vatican City State under papal sovereignty and having the protection of the Holy See.
By ancient tradition, the order uses the arms attributed to the Kingdom of Jerusalem – a gold Jerusalem Cross on a silver/white background – but enamelled with red, the colour of blood, to signify the five wounds of Christ. Prior use of the symbol is in the 1573 Constitution of the Order.Conrad Grünenberg already shows a red Jerusalem cross (with the central cross as cross crossletrather than cross potent) as the emblem of the order in his 1486 travelogue. Above the shield of the armorial bea...
The order has a predominantly white-coloured levée dress court uniform, and a more modern, military-style uniform, both of which are now only occasionally used in some jurisdictions. Pope Pius X ordained that usual modern choir (i.e. church) dress of knights be the order's cape or mantle: a "white cloak with the cross of Jerusalem in red", as worn by the original knights.Female members wear a black cape with a red Jerusalem cross bordered with gold. The choir vestments of Canons of the Holy S...
The order today is estimated to have some 30,000 knights and dames in 60 Lieutenancies around the world, including monarchs, crown princes and their consorts, and heads of state from countries such as Spain, Belgium, Monaco, Luxembourg and Liechtenstein. Membership of the order is by invitation only, to practicing Catholic men and women – laity and clergy – of good character, minimum 25 years of age, who have distinguished themselves by concern for the Christians of the Holy Land. Aspirant members must be recommended by their local bishop with the support of several members of the order, and are required to make a generous donation as a "passage fee", echoing the ancient practice of crusaders paying their passage to the Holy Land, as well as an annual financial offering for works undertaken in the Holy Land, particularly in the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem, throughout their life. There is a provision for the grand master to admit members by motu proprioin exceptional circumstance...
Reserved to members, the Palm of Jerusalem is the decoration of distinction, in three classes. Additionally, knights and Dames who made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land receive the Pilgrim Shell, a reference to the shells used as a cup by the pilgrims in the Middle Ages. Both of these distinctions were created in 1949.[b] They are generally awarded by the grand priorof the order, the Latin patriarch of Jerusalem. Since 1949, the Cross of Merit of the Order may also be conferred on meritorious non-members of the order, for example non-Catholics. The original five classes were reduced to three in 1977.Obtaining the Cross of Merit does not imply membership of the Order. Although it shares the same symbol, the Jerusalem Pilgrim's Cross is not a decoration of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre. Pope Leo XIIIcreated the award in 1901 but the Franciscan custodian of the Holy Land presents it to certain pilgrims in the name of the pope.Entrance of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.Flag of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre over the Palazzo della Rovere.The convent of Sant'Onofrio al Gianicolocontains the official church of the order.The Arab-Norman Chiesa di San Cataldo, local church to the order in Palermo, Sicily, since 1937.De perenni Cultu Terra Sancta (1555), Venice 1572, by Boniface of RagusaLiber De perenni Cultu Terrae Sanctae Et De Fructuosa eius Peregrinatione, Venice 1573, by Boniface of RagusaDiscours du voyage d'Outre Mer au Sainct Sépulcre de Iérusalem, et autres lieux de la terre Saincte, Lyon 1573, by Antoine RégnaultCsordás Eörs, editor, Miles Christi, Budapest: Szent István Társulat, 2001, 963361189X
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R1b-U106-Z305. Paternally founded by Queen Victoria’s husband, Prince Albert. Known for ‘The King’s Speech’, the abdication of Edward VIII for love as well as the long-serving Queen Elizabeth II. Hannover. King George I (1660-1727) Queen Victoria (1819-1901) George of Brunswick (1582-1641) Germany. TBD.
Tübingen (official name Universitätsstadt Tübingen) is a university town in the center of Baden-Württemberg. It is located on the Neckar around 30 kilometers south of Stuttgart . The city is the seat of the district Tübingen and the same administrative district and was 1947 to 1952 provincial capital of Württemberg-Hohenzollern .