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- Early Years
- Elector of Saxony
- Final Days
- Marriage and Family
John Frederick was the eldest son of John, Elector of Saxony, by his first wife, Sofie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. His mother died fourteen days after his birth, on 12 July 1503. He received his education from George Spalatin, whom he highly esteemed during his whole life. Spalatin was Martin Luther's friend and advisor and thus, through Spalatin's schooling, John developed a devotion to the teachings of Martin Luther. His knowledge of history was comprehensive, and his library, which extended over all sciences, was one of the largest in Germany. He cultivated a personal relationship with Martin Luther, beginning to correspond with him in the days when the bull of excommunication was hurled against the Reformer, and showing himself a convinced adherent of Luther. With vivid interest he observed the development of the reformatory movement. He eagerly read Luther's writings, urged the printing of the first complete (Wittenberg) edition of his works, and in the latter years of his life pr...
In 1532, John Frederick succeeded his father as elector. In the beginning he reigned with his half-brother, John Ernest, but in 1542 became sole ruler. Chancellor Brück, who for years had guided the foreign relations of the country with ability and prudence, remained also his councilor, but his open and impulsive nature often led him to disregard the propositions of his more experienced adviser, so that the country was in frequent danger, especially as John Frederick was not a far-sighted politician. He consolidated the State Church by the institution of an electoral consistory (1542) and renewed the church visitation. He took a firmer and more decided stand than his father in favor of the Schmalkaldic League, but on account of his strictly Lutheran convictions was involved in difficulties with the Landgrave of Hesse, who favored a union with the Swiss and Strasburg Evangelicals. He was averse to all propositions of Popes Clement VII and Paul III to support calling a General Council...
Emperor Charles V condemned him to death as a convicted rebel; but, not to lose time in the siege of Wittenberg, which was defended by Sybille, the wife of the elector, he did not execute the sentence and entered into negotiations. To protect and save his wife and sons, and to prevent Wittenberg from being destroyed, John Frederick conceded the Capitulation of Wittenberg, and, after having been compelled to resign the government of his country in favor of Maurice of Saxony, his condemnation was changed into imprisonment for life. He was never greater and more magnanimous than in the days of his captivity, as is evident from the correspondence with his children, his wife, and his councilors. Friends and foes were compelled to acknowledge his calm behavior, his unwavering faith, and his greatness under misfortune. He steadfastly refused to renounce the Protestant faith or to acknowledge the Augsburg Interim, declaring that by its acceptance he would commit "a sin agai...
The sudden attack upon the emperor by Elector Maurice made an end of John Frederick's imprisonment, and he was released on 1 September 1552. He firmly refused to bind himself to comply in matters of religion with the decisions of a future council or diet, declaring that he was resolved to adhere until his grave to the doctrine contained in the Augsburg Confession. His homeward journey was a triumphal march. He removed the seat of government to Weimar and reformed the conditions of his country, but died within two years. A special object of his care was the University of Jena, which he planned in place of Wittenberg, which he had lost (1547). He died in Weimar, Germany.
In Torgau on 9 February 1527 John Frederick married Sybille of Cleves. They had four sons: 1. Johann Frederick II, Duke of Saxony(b. Torgau, 8 January 1529 – d. as imperial prisoner at Schloss Steyer, Upper Austria, 19 May 1595). 2. Johann Wilhelm, Duke of Saxe-Weimar(b. Torgau, 11 March 1530 – d. Weimar, 2 March 1573). 3. Johann Ernst (b. Weimar, 5 January 1535 – d. Weimar, 11 January 1535). 4. Johann Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha(1554–1565) (b. Torgau, 16 January 1538 – d. Jena, 31 October 1565). 1. Johann Frederick II, Duke of Saxony. 2. Johann Wilhelm, Duke of Saxe-Weimar. 3. Johann Frederick III at right.This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Jackson, Samuel Macauley, ed. (1914). "article name needed". New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge(third...A. Beck, Johann Friedrich der Mittlere, 2 vols., Weimar, 1858F. von Bezold, Geschichte der deutschen Reformation. Berlin, 1886
The last elector of Saxony became King Frederick Augustus I. Following the defeat of Saxony's ally Prussia at the Battle of Jena in 1806, Saxony joined the Confederation of the Rhine , and remained within the Confederation until its dissolution in 1813 with Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Leipzig .
Translations in context of "elector of saxony" in English-Portuguese from Reverso Context: He wrote to the elector of Saxony: We cannot on our conscience approve the proposed alliance.
Translations in context of "elector of saxony" in English-Italian from Reverso Context: The elector of Saxony was urged by his councilors not to appear at the Diet.
User Submitted Meanings. A submission from Georgia, U.S. says the name Saxony means "Fine soft woolen fabric" and is of German origin. Search for more names by meaning . Submit the origin and/or meaning of Saxony to us below. Origin of Saxony.
Elector E*lect"or (?), a. [Cf. F. électoral.] Pertaining to an election or to electors. In favor of the electoral and other princes. Burke. Electoral college, the body of princes formerly entitled to elect the Emperor of Germany; also, a name sometimes given, in the United States, to the body of electors chosen by the people to elect the President and Vice President.
Maurice in British English. (ˈmɒrɪs ) noun. 1. 1521–53, duke of Saxony (1541–53) and elector of Saxony (1547–53). He was instrumental in gaining recognition of Protestantism in Germany. 2.
called the Wise. 1463–1525, elector of Saxony (1486–1525). He protected Martin Luther in Wartburg Castle after the Diet of Worms (1521) Collins English Dictionary .
Kapellmeister (/ k ə ˈ p ɛ l ˌ m aɪ s t ər /, also US: / k ɑː ˈ-/, German: [kaˈpɛlˌmaɪstɐ]) is a German word designating a person in charge of music-making.The word is a compound, consisting of the roots Kapelle ("choir", "orchestra" or, originally, "chapel") and Meister ("master").