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  1. In the first half of the nineteenth century, Saxony became an increasingly popular destination for American travelers. After first examining the forces behind the travel trends in order to provide historical context, this study analyzes American

  2. Download full-text PDF Read full-text. Download full-text PDF ... Elector of Saxony. It was the musician's second published ... which have always been used in the analysis of form, whose meaning ...

    • Alex Went
  3. This book is an inclusive document of the European History during middle ages, the task was difficult of execution, but the author has succeeded where many have failed, his outline is not only clear and accurate, but eminently readable.

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    A settlement was first mentioned in 1180 as a small village founded by Flemish colonists under the rule of the House of Ascania. In 1260, it became the residence of the dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg, and in 1293 the settlement was granted a town charter. Wittenberg developed into an important trade centre during the following centuries, due to its location. When the Ascanians died out, Saxe-Wittenberg passed to the House of Wettin. The city became an important regional political and cultural centre at the end of the 15th century, when Frederick III "the Wise", Elector of Saxony, took up residence in Wittenberg. Several parts of the city were extended soon afterward: the second bridge over the Elbe was built from 1486 to 1490 and the castle church, the Schlosskirche, was built from 1496 to 1506. The palace was rebuilt the same time. In 1502, the University of Wittenberg was founded and gave a home to many important thinkers, among them Martin Luther (Professor of Theology from 1508) and P...

    Wittenberg is home to numerous important historical artifacts, as well as portraits and other paintings by Lucas Cranach the Elder and Younger. On the doors of All Saints' Church, the Schlosskirche ("castle church" built 1496–1506) Luther nailed his 95 theses in 1517. It was seriously damaged by fire in 1760 during a bombardment by the French during the Seven Years' War, was practically rebuilt, and was later (1885–1892) restored. The wooden doors, burnt in 1760, were replaced in 1858 by bronze doors, bearing the Latin text of the theses. Inside the church are the tombs of Luther and Philipp Melanchthon, and of the electors Frederick the Wise (by Peter Vischer the Younger, 1527) and John the Constant (by Hans Vischer), and portraits of the reformers by Lucas Cranach the Younger. St. Mary's Church, the parish church in which Luther often preached, was built in the 14th century, but has been much altered since Luther's time. It contains a magnificent painting by Lucas Cranach the Elde...

    Wittenberg's civic coat of armsconveys with its various heraldic elements something of the town's history. On 27 June 1293, Wittenberg was granted town rights by Duke Albrecht II. There then arose a mediaeval town whose highest governing body was its council. This council, known to have existed as early as 1317, was given the job of administering the town in its care through law and legislation, and of handling the town's revenue. For documentation, the administration used its own seal. One version of what is believed to be the town's oldest town seal, which the council used, and which dated from the first half of the 14th century, set the pattern with its elements for various civic coats of arms down to the present day. The coat of arms symbolizes, with its crenelated wall and the towers within and each side, a town that was already strongly fortified by 1409. The two shields in the centre form the coat of arms of the Electorate of Saxony with the Saxon arms on the right, whose gol...

    Wittenberg has a long tradition of cultural events. The City Theatre (Mitteldeutsches Landestheater) reached a great importance in GDR times. Since 1996, the City has staged open-air theatre shows based on the Lutheran history still alive in many historical places of the ancient town. As highlights, in 2001 and 2005, Fernando Scarpa became the artistic director of the "Bühne Wittenberg" (Stage Wittenberg), a project for theatre, art and culture in the whole of Germany which attracts to the city plenty of audience and whose success achieves European echo. On 2002 and 2003 Stefano Vagnini, Italian composer and organist created the music for Thesys and Luther Stories. Prince Hamlet is said to have studied in Wittenberg and it was the supposed home of Dr Faustus.

    Wittenberg is twinnedwith: 1. Göttingen, Germany, since 1988 2. Bretten, Germany, since 1990 3. Springfield, Ohio, United States, since 1995 4. Békéscsaba, Hungary, since 1999 5. Haderslev, Denmark, since 2004

    The Augusteum and Lutherhaus
    House of Philipp Melanchthon
  4. A History of Architectural Conservation. ... Full PDF Package Download Full PDF Package. This Paper. A short summary of this paper. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper.

  5. Pompeian houses had windows larger than slits in the wall, and Seneca, who died in 65 ad, claims that the introduc-tion of window-glass occurred only within his lifetime. The amount of wall space left for decoration was there-fore considerable, especially in rooms with only one small doorway, and the small size of the windows must have

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    Leipzig is derived from the Slavic word Lipsk, which means "settlement where the linden trees (British English: lime trees; U.S. English: basswood trees) stand".[4]An older spelling of the name in English is Leipsic.


    Leipzig was first documented in 1015 in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg and endowed with city and market privileges in 1165 by Otto the Rich. Leipzig has fundamentally shaped the history of Saxony and of Germany and has always been known as a place of commerce. The Leipzig Trade Fair, started in the Middle Ages, became an event of international importance and is the oldest remaining trade fair in the world. There are records of commercial fishing operations on the river Pleisse...

    The 19th century

    The Leipzig region was the arena of the 1813 Battle of Leipzig between Napoleonic France and an allied coalition of Prussia, Russia, Austria and Sweden. It was the largest battle in Europe prior to World War I and ended Napoleon's presence in Germany and would ultimately lead to his first exile on Elba. In 1913, the Monument to the Battle of the Nationsmonument celebrating the centenary of this event was completed. A terminus of the first German long distance railway to Dresden (the capital o...

    Leipzig lies at the confluence of the rivers Weisse Elster, Pleisse and Parthe, in the Leipzig Lowland,[citation needed] on the most southerly part of the North German Plain, which is the part North European Plain in Germany. The site is characterised by swampy areas such as the Leipzig Riverside Forest, though there are also some limestone areas to the north of the city. The landscape is mostly flat though there is also some evidence of moraine and drumlins. Although there are some forest parks within the city limits, the area surrounding Leipzig is relatively unforested. During the 20th Century, there were a several open-cast mines in the region, many of which are being converted to use as lakes. Leipzig is also situated at the intersection of the ancient roads known as the Via Regia (King's highway), which traversed Germanic lands in an east-west direction, and Via Imperii(Imperial Highway), a north-south road. Leipzig was a walled city in the Middle Ages and the current "ring" r...

    Leipzig has many buildings representative of Gründerzeit architecture and also a lot of Plattenbau architecture from the time of the DDRregime. The building of the University Church which was destroyed by the Communists in 1968 is currently being rebuilt as a secular building. The city also has numerous parks and forested areas and a zoo containing the biggest house in the world for primates.

    Main sights

    1. St. Thomas Church (Thomaskirche): Most famous as the place where Johann Sebastian Bach worked as a cantor and home to the renowned boys choir Thomanerchor 2. Monument to Felix Mendelssohnin front of this church. Destroyed by the Nazis in 1936, it was rebuilt on October 18, 2008. 3. St. Nicholas Church (Nikolaikirche), for which Bach was also responsible. The weekly Montagsgebet (Monday prayer) held here became in the 1980s the starting point of peaceful Monday demonstrations against the DD...


    Johann Sebastian Bach worked in Leipzig from 1723 to 1750, conducting the St. Thomas Church Choir, at the St. Thomas Church, the St. Nicholas Church and the Paulinerkirche, the university church of Leipzig (destroyed in 1968). The composer Richard Wagner was born in Leipzig in 1813, in the Brühl. Robert Schumann was also active in Leipzig music, having been invited by Felix Mendelssohn when the latter established Germany's first musical conservatoire in the city in 1843. Gustav Mahler was sec...


    The city's contemporary arts highlight is the Neo Rauch retrospective opening in April 2010 at the Leipzig Museum of Fine Arts. This is a show devoted to the father of the New Leipzig School[22][23] of artists. According to The New York Times,[24] this scene "has been the toast of the contemporary art world" in the past decade. Further there are eleven galleries in the so-called Spinnerei,[25] a former cotton mill that attracts all kinds of independent artists. The New York Times features Lei...


    Leipzig University, founded 1409, is one of Europe's oldest universities. Nobel Prize laureate Werner Heisenberg worked here as a physics professor (from 1927 to 1942), as did Nobel Prize laureates Gustav Ludwig Hertz (physics), Wilhelm Ostwald (chemistry) and Theodor Mommsen (Nobel Prize in literature). Other former staff of faculty include mineralogist Georg Agricola, writer Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, philosopher Ernst Bloch, eccentric founder of psychophysics Gustav Theodor Fechner, and psy...

    Visual Arts and Theatre

    The "Academy of Visual Arts" (Hochschule für Grafik und Buchkunst) was established 1764. Its 530 students (as of 2006) are enrolled in courses in painting and graphics, book design/graphic design, photography and media art. The school also houses an Institute for Theory. The University of Music and Theatre offers a broad range of subjects ranging from training in orchestral instruments, voice, interpretation, coaching, piano chamber music, orchestral conducting, choir conducting and musical c...

    University of Applied Science

    The Leipzig University of Applied Sciences (HTWK)[39] has approximately 6200 students (as of 2007) and is (as of 2007) the second biggest institution of higher education in Leipzig. It was founded in 1992, merging several older schools. As a university of applied sciences (German: Fachhochschule) it status is slightly below that of a university, with more emphasis on the practical part of the education. The HTWK offers many engineering courses, as well as courses in computer science, mathemat...

    Companies in or around Leipzig include: 1. Amazon 2. Blüthner: piano-manufacturing 3. BMW 4. DHL 5. Porsche 6. Siemens 7. Future Electronics Many bars, restaurants and stores found in the city centre are patronised by German and foreign tourists. The Leipzig Central Station itself is the location of one of the largest shopping centres.[40] Some of the largest employers in the area (outside of manufacturing) include the various schools and universities in and around the Leipzig/Halle region. The University of Leipzig attracts millions of eurosof investment yearly and is in the middle of a massive construction and refurbishment to celebrate its 600th anniversary. DHL is in the process of transferring the bulk of its European air operations from Brussels Airport to Leipzig/Halle Airport. Amazon.comhas a major distribution center, also near the airport. The city also houses the European Energy Exchangewhich is the leading energy exchange in Central Europe. Kirow Ardelt AG, the world mar...

    Leipziger Volkszeitung (LVZ) is the city's only daily newspaper. Founded in 1894, it has published under several different forms of government. It was the first newspaper in the world to be publish...
    Once known for its large number of publishing houses, Leipzig had been called Buch-Stadt (book city).[41] Few are left after the years of the German Democratic Republic, during which time Frankfurt...


    Originally founded at the crossing of Via Regia and Via Imperii, Leipzig has been a major interchange of inter-European traffic and commerce since medieval times. After the Reunification of Germany, immense efforts to restore and expand the traffic network have been undertaken and left the city area with an excellent infrastructure. Since 1936, Leipzig has been connected to the A 9 and A 14 autobahns via the Schkeuditzer Kreuzinterchange and several exits. The A 38 completes the autobahn belt...


    Leipzig Central Station, opened in 1915, is at a junction of important north-to-south and west-to-east railway lines. The ICE train between Berlin and Munich stops in Leipzig and it takes approximately one hour from Berlin Central Station and five hours from Munich Central Station.[42] Leipzig also has an extensive local public transport network. The city's tram and bus network is operated by the Leipziger Verkehrsbetriebe. Leipzig's tram network, at a length of 209 km (about 140 miles), is o...


    Leipzig/Halle Airport is the main airport in the vicinity of the city. Leipzig/Halle Airport offers a number of seasonal vacation charter flights as well as regular scheduled services. The former military airport near Altenburg, Thuringia called Leipzig-Altenburg Airport about a half-hour drive from Leipzig was previously (until 2010) served by Ryanair.

    Mein Leipzig lob' ich mir! Es ist ein klein Paris und bildet seine Leute. (I praise my Leipzig! It is a small Paris and educates its people.) - Frosch, a university student in Goethe's Faust, Part One Ich komme nach Leipzig, an den Ort, wo man die ganze Welt im Kleinen sehen kann. (I'm coming to Leipzig, to the place where one can see the whole world in miniature.) – Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Extra Lipsiam vivere est miserrime vivere. (To live outside Leipzig is to live miserably.) - Benedikt Carpzov the Younger Das angenehme Pleis-Athen, Behält den Ruhm vor allen, Auch allen zu gefallen, Denn es ist wunderschön. (The pleasurable Pleiss-Athens, earns its fame above all, appealing to every one, too, for it is mightily beauteous.) - Johann Sigismund Scholze

    Leipzig is twinned with:[44] 1. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, since 2004 2. Birmingham, UK, since 1992[45] 3. Bologna, Italy, since 1962, renewed in 1997 4. Brno, Czech Republic, since 1973, renewed in 1999[46] 5. Frankfurt am Main, Germany, since 1990[47] 6. Hanover, Germany, since 1987[48] 7. Houston, United States, since 1993 8. Kiev, Ukraine, since 1961, renewed in 1992 9. Lyon, France, since 1981[49] 10. Nanjing, China, since 1988 11. Plovdiv, Bulgaria, since 1975, renewed in 2007 12. Thessaloniki, Greece, since 1984[50] 13. Travnik, Bosnia and Herzegovina, since 2003 14. Herzliya, Israel, since 2010